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Fluoride toxicity

Visweshwar Regode, Sreeramulu Kuruba, Akbar S Mohammad, Hari C Sharma
Bacillus thuringiensis toxin proteins are deployed in transgenic plants for pest management. The present studies were aimed at characterization of gut bacterial proteases involved in activation of inactive Cry1Ac protoxin (pro-Cry1Ac) to active toxin in Helicoverpa armigera. Bacterial strains were isolated from H. armigera midgut and screened for their proteolytic activation toward pro-Cry1Ac. Among 12 gut bacterial isolates seven isolates showed proteolytic activity, and proteases from three isolates (IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3) were found to be involved in the proteolytic conversion of pro-Cry1Ac into active toxin...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jinyoung Chun, Changshin Jo, Sunhye Sahgong, Min Gyu Kim, Eunho Lim, Dong Hyeon Kim, Jongkook Hwang, Eunae Kang, Keun Ah Ryu, Yoon Seok Jung, Youngsik Kim, Jinwoo Lee
Metal fluorides (MFx) are one of the most attractive cathode candidates for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high conversion potentials with large capacities. However, only a limited number of synthetic method, generally involving highly toxic or inaccessible reagents, currently exist, which has made it difficult to produce well-designed nanostructures suitable for cathodes; consequently, harnessing their potential cathodic properties has been a challenge. Herein, we report a new bottom-up synthetic method utilizing ammonium fluoride (NH4F) for the preparation of anhydrous MFx(CuF2, FeF3, and CoF2)/mesoporous carbon(MSU-F-C) nanocomposites, whereby a series of metal precursor nanoparticles pre-confined in mesoporous carbon were readily converted to anhydrous MFx through simple heat treatment with NH4F under solventless conditions...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanqin Ma, Zhenhua Ma, Shuqin Yin, Xiaoyan Yan, Jundong Wang
Excessive amount of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F) coexist in drinking water in many regions, which is associated with high risk of vascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. The present study was to evaluate the effects of iAs and F individual or combined exposure on endothelial activation and apoptosis in vitro. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to 5 μM As2O3 and/or 1 mM NaF. Changes in endothelial cell apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) production were analyzed...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Moumita Dutta, Prem Rajak, Salma Khatun, Sumedha Roy
Sodium fluoride (NaF), one of the most frequently used fluoride compound is composed of Na(+) and F(-). Apart from its use in water fluoridation, NaF also acts as a major component for different dental products like toothpastes, gels and mouth rinses etc. The present study was carried out to explore the toxic impact of chronic NaF exposure on a non-target organism, Drosophila melanogaster. The larvae exposed to different concentrations of NaF through food showed a significant increase in HSP70 expression both qualitatively and quantitatively...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Yan Wei, Beibei Zeng, Hua Zhang, Cheng Chen, Yanli Wu, Nanlan Wang, Yanqiu Wu, Liming Shen
Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shweta Sharma, K P Sharma, Subhasini Sharma
Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Robert Biczak, Barbara Pawłowska, Arkadiusz Telesiński, Wojciech Ciesielski
Increasing amounts of two ILs: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6] and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMMIM][PF6], were introduced to soil in which spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common radish (Raphanus sativus L. subvar. radicula Pers.) seedlings were cultivated, in order to evaluate the phytotoxicity of ionic liquids with imidazolium cation with two or three alkyl substituents attached. The results of the study i.e. the inhibition of the length of plants and their roots, as well as the yield of fresh weight of plants, clearly showed that differences in the number of substituents did not affect the toxicity of these ILs...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Jianhai Zhang, Yufang Zhang, Chen Liang, Nasui Wang, Heping Zheng, Jundong Wang
Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Junlu Sheng, Min Zhang, Yue Xu, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
The demand of water-resistant and breathable materials applied to a separation medium and protective garments is steadily increasing. Typical approaches to obtain these functional materials are based on hydrophobic agents and porous substrates with small fiber diameter, tiny pore, and high porosity. However, a fluorinated hydrophobic finishing agent usually employed in providing effective waterproofness is limited with respect to their environmental persistence and toxic potential. Herein, with the aim to keep a balance between the water-resistance and breathability as well as mechanical properties, we fabricate a novel fluoride-free functional membrane by electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers modified with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Brooke W Kammrath, Pauline E Leary, John A Reffner
The infrared (IR) microspectroscopical analysis of samples within a sealed-cell containing barium fluoride is a critical need when identifying toxic agents or suspicious powders of unidentified composition. The dispersive nature of barium fluoride is well understood and experimental conditions can be easily adjusted during reflection-absorption measurements to account for differences in focus between the visible and IR regions of the spectrum. In most instances, the ability to collect a viable spectrum is possible when using the sealed cell regardless of whether visible or IR focus is optimized...
September 19, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Priscila L L Freire, Allan J R Albuquerque, Isabela A P Farias, Teresinha Gonçalves da Silva, Jaciana Santos Aguiar, André Galembeck, Miguel A P Flores, Fabio C Sampaio, Thayza Christina Montenegro Stamford, Aronita Rosenblatt
The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of colloidal chitosan - silver nanoparticle - fluoride nanocomposites (CChAgNpFNc), with different silver nanoparticle shapes and sizes. The syntheses of CChAgNpFNc were performed with silver nitrate added to a chitosan solution, addition of a sodium borohydride solution and solid sodium fluoride. Solution of ascorbic acid was added to synthesize larger silver nanoparticles. CChAgNpFNc obtained: S1- 100% spherical, 8.7±3.1nm; S2- 97% spherical, 15...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Waleed M Sweileh, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Naser Y Shraim
BACKGROUND: Water - related diseases are worldwide health concern. Microbial contamination and contaminant products in water are a source of disease outbreaks and development of cumulative toxic effects. Ensuring safe water is one of the goals to be achieved at the global level. The aim of this study was to assess publications on drinking and recreational water from a health point of view to understand current problems and future research trends in this field. METHODS: Scopus, the largest scientific electronic database, was used to retrieve related articles and present the results as bibliometric tables and maps...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Keith E Levine, Jennifer Hoponick Redmon, Myles F Elledge, Kamani P Wanigasuriya, Kristin Smith, Breda Munoz, Vajira A Waduge, Roshini J Periris-John, Nalini Sathiakumar, James M Harrington, Donna S Womack, Rajitha Wickremasinghe
The emergence of a new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka's North Central Province (NCP) has become a catastrophic health crisis. CKDu is characterized as slowly progressing, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages and, importantly, not attributed to diabetes, hypertension, or other known risk factors. It is postulated that the etiology of CKDu is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, nutritional and dehydration status, exposure to one or more environmental nephrotoxins, and lifestyle factors...
October 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Milica Kosic, Katarina Arsikin-Csordas, Verica Paunovic, Raymond A Firestone, Biljana Ristic, Aleksandar Mircic, Sasa Petricevic, Mihajlo Bosnjak, Nevena Zogovic, Milos Mandic, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Vladimir Trajkovic, Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic
We investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effect of combining lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP)-inducing agent N-dodecylimidazole (NDI) with glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG). NDI-triggered LMP and 2DG-mediated glycolysis block synergized in inducing rapid ATP depletion, mitochondrial damage, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, eventually leading to necrotic death of U251 glioma cells, but not primary astrocytes. NDI/2DG-induced death of glioma cells was partly prevented by lysosomal cathepsin inhibitor E64 and antioxidant α-tocopherol, suggesting the involvement of LMP and oxidative stress in the observed cytotoxicity...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Svetlana N Pleskova, Ekaterina N Gorshkova, Viktor V Novikov, Marc Solioz
Nanoparticles are increasingly being used for treatment and diagnostic purposes, but their effects on cells is not fully understood. Here, the interaction of fluorescent up-conversion nanoparticles (UpC-NPs) with neutrophils was investigated by imaging and measurement of membrane-cytosceletal elasticity by atomic force microscopy. It was found that UpC-NPs induce the death of neutrophils mainly by necrosis, and to a smaller extent by a novel process called 'mummification'. Necrosis occurs by gradual loss of intracellular contents and nuclei, 45-110min after exposure to UpC-NPs...
November 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Ligia S Antonio, Pia Jeggle, Lesley J MacVinish, James C Bartram, Henry Miller, Gavin E Jarvis, Flávia M Levy, Mariana R Santesso, Aline L Leite, Rodrigo C Oliveira, Marília A R Buzalaf, J Michael Edwardson
High concentrations of fluoride in the body may cause toxic effects. Here, we investigated the effects of fluoride on the structure, function, and proteome of a cortical collecting duct epithelium in vitro. Kidney tubule cells (M-1) were chosen because the concentration of fluoride in the kidney is 4-5-fold higher than that in plasma. Mouse M-1 cell monolayers were incubated in fluoride-containing media, and the amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current and transepithelial resistance were measured. The Young's modulus of the epithelium was determined using atomic force microscopy, and the effect of fluoride on epithelial structure was assessed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence...
August 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hongliang Liu, Changchun Hou, Qiang Zeng, Liang Zhao, Yushan Cui, Linyu Yu, Lingzhi Wang, Yang Zhao, Junyan Nie, Bin Zhang, Aiguo Wang
Excess fluoride and iodide coexist in drinking water in many regions, but few studies have investigated the single or interactive effects on thyroid in vivo. In our study, Wistar rats were exposed to excess fluoride and/or iodide through drinking water for 2 or 8 months. The structure and function of the thyroid, cells apoptosis and the expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related factors were analyzed. Results demonstrated that excess fluoride and/or iodide could change thyroid follicular morphology and alter thyroid hormone levels in rats...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Marcel José Palmieri, Larissa Fonseca Andrade-Vieira, José Marcello Salabert Campos, Leonardo Dos Santos Gedraite, Lisete Chamma Davide
Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a waste generated during the production of aluminum. It is comprised of a mixture of substances most of which, like cyanide, aluminum and fluoride, are toxic. Previous studies indicate the highly toxic nature of SPL. However studies using cells of the differentiation/elongation zone of the root meristem (referred as M2 cells in this study) after a proper recovery period in water were never considered. Using these cells could be useful to further understanding the toxicity mechanisms of SPL...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Naseer Baba, Rajinder Raina, Pawan Verma, Mudasir Sultana
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic renal disorder is becoming a major health problem worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate alterations in the renal antioxidant system in rats induced by repeated exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone and in conjunction with fluoride. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly allocated to seven groups, each consisting of six rats, and were subjected to different treatment regiments for 28 days. RESULTS: Significant increases (P < 0...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Ruijuan Qu, Jiaoqin Liu, Chenguang Li, Liansheng Wang, Zunyao Wang, Jichun Wu
Decomposition of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) is of great significance due to their global distribution, persistence and toxicity to organisms. In this study, the photodegradation of a series of PFCAs (∼C2C12) in water by a medium-pressure mercury lamp was experimentally and theoretically examined. We found that photolysis of PFCAs all follow pseudo-first-order kinetics with the rate constant (kapp) increasing with carbon chain lengths, except for trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) which cannot be degraded by the polychromatic irradiation...
November 1, 2016: Water Research
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