Read by QxMD icon Read

fashion mental disorder

Holly A Swartz, Jill M Cyranowski, Yu Cheng, Allan Zuckoff, David A Brent, John C Markowitz, Stacy Martin, Marlissa C Amole, Fiona Ritchey, Ellen Frank
OBJECTIVE: Two-generation studies demonstrate that treating maternal depression benefits school-age children. Although mothers prefer psychotherapy to medication, little is known about how psychotherapy for maternal depression affects offspring, especially in very high-risk families in which both mothers and children concurrently meet syndromal criteria for psychiatric disorders. This trial evaluated the effects of 2 brief psychotherapies for maternal depression on very high-risk families...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Raphael van Riel
It is common to note that social environment and cultural formation shape mental disorders. The details of this claim are, however, not well understood. The paper takes a look at the claim that culture has an impact on psychiatry from the perspective of metaphysics and the philosophy of science. Its aim is to offer, in a general fashion, partial explications of some significant versions of the thesis that culture and social environment shape mental disorders and to highlight some of the consequences social constructionism about psychiatry has for psychiatric explanation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Raymond P Najjar, Jamie M Zeitzer
BACKGROUND: Beyond image formation, the light that is detected by retinal photoreceptors influences subcortical functions, including circadian timing, sleep, and arousal. The physiology of nonimage-forming (NIF) photoresponses in humans is not well understood; therefore, the development of therapeutic interventions based on this physiology, such as bright light therapy to treat chronobiological disorders, remains challenging. METHODS: Thirty-nine participants were exposed to 60 minutes of either continuous light (n = 8) or sequences of 2-millisecond light flashes (n = 31) with different interstimulus intervals (ISIs; ranging from 2...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Vibeke Bliksted, Shiho Ubukata, Katja Koelkebeck
In recent years, theories of how humans form a "theory of mind" of others ("mentalizing") have increasingly been called upon to explain impairments in social interaction in mental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether tasks that assess impairments in mentalizing can also contribute to determining differential deficits across disorders, which may be important for early identification and treatment. Paradigms that challenge mentalizing abilities in an on-line, real-life fashion have been considered helpful in detecting disease-specific deficits...
March 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Sarah Ritter, Lois M Platt
Psychiatric unit inpatients often have serious mental illnesses with comorbid personality disorders. Mental illnesses usually respond favorably to medication and psychotherapy, but personality disorders do not. Two personality disorders are commonly seen on inpatient units: borderline and antisocial. These personality disorders may destabilize the milieu with disruptive behaviors and present a challenge to nurses. Difficult patient behaviors and therapeutic responses by nurses are examined. Dialectical behavior therapy techniques and good communication skills may be used by nurses to (a) interact therapeutically with patients with personality disorders and (b) protect other patients and the milieu...
January 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Swati Bhardwaj, Pranit Jadhav, Bhagyaraja Adapa, Amit Acharyya, Ganesh R Naik
Electroencephalograms (EEGs) are progressively emerging as a significant measure of brain activity and are very effective tool for the diagnosis and treatment of mental and brain diseases and disorders including sleep apnea, Alzheimer's disease and Neurodevelopmental disorders. However, EEG signal is mixed with other biological signals including Ocular and Muscular artefacts making it difficult to extract the diagnostic features. Therefore, the contaminated EEG channels are often discarded by the medical practitioners resulting less accurate diagnosis...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Lara A Ray, Spencer Bujarski, Daniel J O Roche
BACKGROUND: Individual differences in the subjective experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol have long been implicated in the likelihood that one will drink heavily and develop alcoholism. The theme of this conceptual review and perspective article is to synthesize the literature on subjective responses to alcohol and to set an agenda for the next generation of research in the area. Specifically, we contend that in order for subjective response to alcohol to play a prominent role in alcoholism research, it is critical that it be studied as a multimodal phenotype...
January 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Allan V Horwitz
Psychiatric diagnoses often reflect a matrix of sociological factors associated with professional prestige, economic forces, and cultural fashions. Diagnostic systems conceptualize the same underlying psychosocial problems in very different ways during various time periods. Since the publication of the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) in 1980, psychological distress resulting from social circumstances that previously was viewed as a general problem of nerves, neuroses, and anxiety was transformed into the specific diagnosis of major depressive disorder...
2015: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Marina Kukla, Frankie Whitesel, Paul H Lysaker
This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Jordi Fonollosa, Emre Neftci, Mikhail Rabinovich
We often learn and recall long sequences in smaller segments, such as a phone number 858 534 22 30 memorized as four segments. Behavioral experiments suggest that humans and some animals employ this strategy of breaking down cognitive or behavioral sequences into chunks in a wide variety of tasks, but the dynamical principles of how this is achieved remains unknown. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of chunking for learning cognitive sequences in a chunking representation using a dynamical model of competing modes arranged to evoke hierarchical Winnerless Competition (WLC) dynamics...
November 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Joshua A Suhl, Ravi S Muddashetty, Bart R Anderson, Marius F Ifrim, Jeannie Visootsak, Gary J Bassell, Stephen T Warren
Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. The gene underlying the disorder, fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), is silenced in most cases by a CGG-repeat expansion mutation in the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Recently, we identified a variant located in the 3'UTR of FMR1 enriched among developmentally delayed males with normal repeat lengths. A patient-derived cell line revealed reduced levels of endogenous fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and a reporter containing a patient 3'UTR caused a decrease in expression...
November 24, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bethany M Wootton
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental health condition that results in a significant societal burden. Remote treatments do not require the patient to attend traditional face-to-face treatment services and can be used as a way to overcome barriers to accessing face-to-face treatment. The aim of the current study was to synthesize the current literature on remote treatment for OCD using a meta-analytic approach. Relevant articles were identified through an electronic database search and the references of previously completed reviews on the topic of remote treatment for OCD were also reviewed...
February 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Alain Dervaux, Marie-Odile Krebs, Xavier Laqueille
Several studies have shown that Δ-9-THC the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, can impair cognitive functions, especially attention, episodic memory, working memory and executive functions. These impairments have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age at onset of cannabis use. Cognitive deficits may disappear with abstinence, but abnormalities may be long-lasting in subjects who began smoking cannabis before age 15. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use disorders is about 1% in the general population...
March 2014: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Rose Jones, Barnaby Major, Christopher Fear
In recent years, the focus of mental health care for people with schizophrenia has shifted from an expectation of lifelong disability to a 'recovery' approach in which patients and specialists anticipate discharge to management within primary care. Although the active symptoms of mental illness are generally well-managed with modern pharmacotherapy, primary care physicians often express concern about their lack of understanding and expertise in general management of schizophrenia. Moreover, the ability of patients to access care for their physical disorders in a timely fashion together with a higher prevalence of physical co-morbidities is likely to be responsible for the greater mortality and premature death of this already stigmatised and disadvantaged group...
October 2015: Current Psychiatry Reports
Qian Li, Yu-Tao Xiang, Yun-Ai Su, Liang Shu, Xin Yu, Christoph U Correll, Gabor S Ungvari, Helen F K Chiu, Cui Ma, Gao-Hua Wang, Pei-Shen Bai, Tao Li, Li-Zhong Sun, Jian-Guo Shi, Xian-Sheng Chen, Qi-Yi Mei, Ke-Qing Li, Tian-Mei Si, John M Kane
OBJECTIVE: We examined the time trends and correlates of clozapine use in schizophrenia patients in China. METHOD: A total of 14,013 patients with schizophrenia treated in 45 psychiatric hospitals/centers nationwide were interviewed in 2002, 2006 and 2012. Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including psychopathology, medication side effects, satisfaction with treatment and quality of life (QOL) were recorded in a standardized fashion. RESULTS: Clozapine was used in 32...
October 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Agnieszka Podfigurna-Stopa, Adam Czyzyk, Krzysztof Katulski, Roman Smolarczyk, Monika Grymowicz, Marzena Maciejewska-Jeske, Blazej Meczekalski
Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders...
October 2015: Maturitas
Gabriela Huepe, Marcelo Cárcamo, Julia Acuña, Alberto Botto, Juan Pablo Jiménez
BACKGROUND: There are suggestions that, despite training efforts for Primary Health Care physicians, difficulties in making accurate diagnoses and timely treatments persist. AIM: To evaluate the impact of a new training model in Depressive disorders integrated with Mindful Practice, on the diagnostic and therapeutic skills of primary care general physicians. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A voluntary sample of 56 general physicians was studied. The design of this study was experimental and randomized, with two groups attending theoretical sessions followed by differing workshops that were carried out in a parallel fashion...
June 2015: Revista Médica de Chile
Rick A Adams, Quentin J M Huys, Jonathan P Roiser
Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia...
January 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Lindsey Grubbs
The work of psychologist and author Lauren Slater has elicited strong reactions from both medical professionals and disability studies theorists, ranging from criticism to high praise. Attending to these responses, I argue that her work, in perhaps perverse fashion, can provide a narrative touch point for attempts from both fields to complicate the outdated binary division of the medical and social models. I illustrate the need for this collaboration through the example of malingering, suggesting that reading Slater's work through the lens of Tobin Siebers's theory of "masquerade" can open progressive conversations about "illness deception," which is an issue of central importance in disability rights, psychiatry, and political conversations...
2015: Literature and Medicine
Nicola R Swain, Carmen C W Lim, Daphna Levinson, Fabian Fiestas, Giovanni de Girolamo, Jacek Moskalewicz, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Jose Posada-Villa, Josep Maria Haro, María Elena Medina-Mora, Miguel Xavier, Noboru Iwata, Peter de Jonge, Ronny Bruffaerts, Siobhan O'Neill, Ron C Kessler, Kate M Scott
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between a wide range of mental disorders and subsequent onset of stroke. Lifecourse timing of stroke was examined using retrospectively reconstructed data from cross-sectional surveys. METHODS: Data from the World Mental Health Surveys were accessed. This data was collected from general population surveys over 17 countries of 87,250 adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV mental disorders...
August 2015: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"