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Weitong Cai, Yuanzheng Yang, Pingjun Tao, Liuzhang Ouyang, Hui Wang
Nanosized metal borides MBx (M = Mg, Ti, Fe, Si) are found to play an important role in enhancing the hydrogen storage performance of LiBH4 in this work. The hydrogen storage behavior and mechanism of these modified systems are investigated through TPD-MS, XRD, FTIR and SEM characterization methods. By introducing these metal borides into LiBH4 through ball milling, the systems display three dehydrogenation stages disclosing their similarity and distinction. The 1st stage starts at 190 °C, the 2nd stage ranges from 280 °C to 400 °C and the 3rd stage ends at 550 °C with a peak at round 440 °C similar to that of pristine LiBH4...
March 20, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jason M Rohde, Kyle R Brimacombe, Li Liu, Michael E Pacold, Adam Yasgar, Dorian M Cheff, Tobie D Lee, Ganesha Rai, Bolormaa Baljinnyam, Zhuyin Li, Anton Simeonov, Matthew D Hall, Min Shen, David M Sabatini, Matthew B Boxer
Proliferating cells, including cancer cells, obtain serine both exogenously and via the metabolism of glucose. By catalyzing the first, rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serine from glucose, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) controls flux through the biosynthetic pathway for this important amino acid and represents a putative target in oncology. To discover inhibitors of PHGDH, a coupled biochemical assay was developed and optimized to enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of human PHGDH...
February 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Luisa Flohr, Shaylene Beaudry, K Taneille Johnson, Nicholas West, Catherine M Burns, J Mark Ansermino, Guy A Dumont, David Wensley, Peter Skippen, Matthias Gorges
The pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex environment, in which a multidisciplinary team of clinicians (registered nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians) continually observe and evaluate patient information. Data are provided by multiple, and often physically separated sources, cognitive workload is high, and team communication can be challenging. Our aim is to combine information from multiple monitoring and therapeutic devices in a mobile application, the VitalPAD , to improve the efficiency of clinical decision-making, communication, and thereby patient safety...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Ningcheng Jiang, Minghai You, Yuhua Wang, Yide Huang, Shusen Xie, Yao Lin, Hongqin Yang
Mitosis is an important physiological event accompanying with dramatic changes of cellar biophysical properties. Failure of mitosis results in cell death or chromosome aneuploidy. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy to probe and compare the biophysical properties of tumor cells at different stages during mitosis. The rounding forces of MCF-7 cells oscillated during mitosis. At anaphase, the average elasticity of cells was higher than that at other phases. Cholesterol depletion with M[Formula: see text]CD led to an increase in the average elasticity, whereas the average roughness of membrane surface decreased at the absence of cholesterol...
March 17, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Christopher Sampson, Marc Borenstein
Background The impact of resident work hours on resident well-being and patient safety has long been a controversial issue. Objectives What has not been considered in resident work hour limitations is whether resident commuting time has any impact on a resident's total work hours or well-being. Methods A self-administered electronic survey was distributed to emergency medicine residents in 2016. Results The survey response was 8% (569/6828). Commuter time was 30 minutes or less in 70%. Two residents reported a commuter time of 76 to 90 minutes and one resident had a commuter time of 91 to 105 minutes...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Chaowen Zhang, Feifan Chen, Ziyao Zhao, Liangliang Hu, Hanqiang Liu, Zhihui Cheng, Yiqun Weng, Peng Chen, Yuhong Li
Two round-leaf mutants, rl-1 and rl-2, were identified from EMS-induced mutagenesis. High throughput sequencing and map-based cloning suggested CsPID encoding a Ser/Thr protein kinase as the most possible candidate for rl-1. Rl-2 was allelic to Rl-1. Leaf shape is an important plant architecture trait that is affected by plant hormones, especially auxin. In Arabidopsis, PINOID (PID), a regulator for the auxin polar transporter PIN (PIN-FORMED) affects leaf shape formation, but this function of PID in crop plants has not been well studied...
March 14, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Sarah Sims, Mary Leamy, Nigel Davies, Katy Schnitzler, Ros Levenson, Felicity Mayer, Robert Grant, Sally Brearley, Stephen Gourlay, Fiona Ross, Ruth Harris
BACKGROUND: Intentional rounding (IR) is a structured process whereby nurses conduct one to two hourly checks with every patient using a standardised protocol. OBJECTIVE: A realist synthesis of the evidence on IR was undertaken to develop IR programme theories of what works, for whom, in what circumstances and why. METHODS: A three-stage literature search and a stakeholder consultation event was completed. A variety of sources were searched, including AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, HMIC, Google and Google Scholar, for published and unpublished literature...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Stephen Poyer, Anne Musuva, Nancy Njoki, Robi Okara, Andrea Cutherell, Dana Sievers, Cristina Lussiana, Dorothy Memusi, Rebecca Kiptui, Waqo Ejersa, Stephanie Dolan, Nicole Charman
BACKGROUND: Private sector availability and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) lags behind the public sector in Kenya. Increasing channels through which quality malaria diagnostic services are available can improve access to testing and help meet the target of universal diagnostic testing. Registered pharmacies are currently not permitted to perform blood tests, and evidence of whether malaria RDTs can be used by non-laboratory private providers in line with the national malaria control guidelines is required to inform ongoing policy discussions in Kenya...
March 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Eny Kusrini, Fatimah Hashim, Cindy Gunawan, Riti Mann, Wan Nor Nadhirah Wan Noor Azmi, Nakisah Mat Amin
This work investigated the anti-amoebic activity of two samarium (Sm) complexes, the acyclic complex [bis(picrato)(pentaethylene glycol)samarium(III)] picrate-referred to as [Sm(Pic)2 (EO5)](Pic)-and the cyclic complex [bis(picrato)(18-crown-6)samarium(III)] picrate-referred to as [Sm(Pic)2 (18C6)](Pic). Both Sm complexes caused morphological transformation of the protozoa Acanthamoeba from its native trophozoite form carrying a spine-like structure called acanthopodia, to round-shaped cells with loss of the acanthopodia structure, a trademark response to environmental stress...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
Fuqiang Ma, Meng Ting Chung, Yuan Yao, Robert Nidetz, Lap Man Lee, Allen P Liu, Yan Feng, Katsuo Kurabayashi, Guang-Yu Yang
Directed evolution has long been a key strategy to generate enzymes with desired properties like high selectivity, but experimental barriers and analytical costs of screening enormous mutant libraries have limited such efforts. Here, we describe an ultrahigh-throughput dual-channel microfluidic droplet screening system that can be used to screen up to ~107 enzyme variants per day. As an example case, we use the system to engineer the enantioselectivity of an esterase to preferentially produce desired enantiomers of profens, an important class of anti-inflammatory drugs...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Marcos Assis Nascimento, Lydia Sorokin, Tatiana Coelho-Sampaio
Fractones are extracellular matrix structures in the neural stem cell niche of the subventricular zone (SVZ), where they appear as round deposits named bulbs or thin branching lines called stems. Their cellular origin and what determines their localization at this site is poorly studied and it remains unclear whether they influence neural stem and progenitor cells formation, proliferation and/or maintenance. To address these questions, we analyzed whole mount preparations of the lateral ventricle of male and female mice by confocal microscopy using different extracellular matrix and cell markers...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Agnes Norbury, Ben Seymour
Response rates to available treatments for psychological and chronic pain disorders are poor, and there is a considerable burden of suffering and disability for patients, who often cycle through several rounds of ineffective treatment. As individuals presenting to the clinic with symptoms of these disorders are likely to be heterogeneous, there is considerable interest in the possibility that different constellations of signs could be used to identify subgroups of patients that might preferentially benefit from particular kinds of treatment...
2018: F1000Research
Rosa de Hoz, Ana I Ramírez, Rosa González-Martín, Daniel Ajoy, Blanca Rojas, Elena Salobrar-Garcia, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros, Maria P Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez, Juan J Salazar
The immune system plays an important role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Retinal microglial reactivation associated with ganglion cell loss could reportedly contribute to the glaucoma progression. Recently we have described signs of microglia activation both in contralateral and ocular hypertension (OHT) eyes involving all retinal layers 15 days after OHT laser induction in mice. However, no works available have analyzed the microglial activation at earliest time points after OHT induction (24 h) in this experimental model...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Jonathan S Wald, Saira N Haque, Stephanie Rizk, Jennifer R Webb, Stephen Brown, Shellery Ebron, Christoph U Lehmann, Mark Frisse, Vanessa A Shorte, Edwin A Lomotan, Barbara A Dailey, Kevin B Johnson
Electronic health record (EHR) use throughout the United States has advanced considerably, but functionality to support the optimal care of children has been slower to develop and deploy. A previous team of experts systematically identified gaps in EHR functionality during collaborative work from 2010 to 2013 that produced the Children's EHR Format (Format), funded under the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009, Public Law 111-3. After that, a team of practitioners, software developers, health policy leaders, and other stakeholders examined the Format's exhaustive list of 547 EHR functional requirements in 26 topic areas and found them to be valuable but in need of further refinement and prioritization...
March 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Alexander Alamri, Aswin Chari, Gráinne McKenna, Ian Kamaly-Asl, Peter C Whitfield
Selection of junior doctors into the British neurosurgical training program and subsequent speciality training have undergone several key changes over the past decade. Shift patterns in the era of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) have had a major impact on surgical training. We discuss the national selection process, formalization of surgical simulation training and the need to encompass generic professional capabilities within the neurosurgical curriculum in order to create the "well-rounded surgeon"...
March 8, 2018: Medical Teacher
R Mizuta, J M Devos, J Webster, W L Ling, T Narayanan, A Round, D Munnur, E Mossou, A A Farahat, D W Boykin, W D Wilson, S Neidle, R Schweins, P Rannou, M Haertlein, V T Forsyth, E P Mitchell
We describe a novel self-assembling supramolecular nanotube system formed by a heterocyclic cationic molecule which was originally designed for its potential as an antiparasitic and DNA sequence recognition agent. Our structural characterisation work indicates that the nanotubes form via a hierarchical assembly mechanism that can be triggered and tuned by well-defined concentrations of simple alkali halide salts in water. The nanotubes assembled in NaCl have inner and outer diameters of ca. 22 nm and 26 nm respectively, with lengths that reach into several microns...
March 8, 2018: Nanoscale
Palwasha Anwari, Najibullah Safi, Daniel C Payne, Mary Carol Jennings, Shugufa Rasikh, Abdul Shakoor Waciqi, Sardar M Parwiz
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is estimated to cause approximately five thousand deaths annually among Afghan children under 5 years old. Because laboratory confirmation of rotavirus is not routinely performed in clinical settings, assessing the precise burden of disease attributable to severe rotavirus gastroenteritis typically requires active surveillance efforts. This study describes the current burden of pediatric hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus gastroenteritis among Afghan children using surveillance data collected from 2013 to 2015...
March 3, 2018: Vaccine
Wanwan Wang, Nien-Chu Lai, Zhuojian Liang, Yu Wang, Yi-Chun Lu
Rechargeable potassium-oxygen (K-O2) batteries promise to provide higher round-trip efficiency and cycle life than other alkali-oxygen batteries with satisfactory gravimetric energy density (935 Wh kg-1). Here, we demonstrate that exploiting a strong electron-donating-solvent, e.g. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which strongly stabilizes the discharge product (KO2), results in significant improvement in electrode kinetics and chemical/electrochemical reversibility. We report the first DMSO-based K-O2 battery, demonstrating a much higher energy efficiency and stability than the glyme-based electrolyte...
March 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Yi Lu, Phillip W L Tai, Jianzhong Ai, Dominic J Gessler, Qin Su, Xieyi Yao, Qiang Zheng, Phillip D Zamore, Xun Xu, Guangping Gao
Corneal neovascularization (NV) is the major sight-threatening pathology caused by angiogenic stimuli. Current drugs that directly target pro-angiogenic factors to inhibit or reverse the disease require multiple rounds of administration and have limited efficacies. Here, we identify potential anti-angiogenic corneal microRNAs (miRNAs) and demonstrate a framework that employs discovered miRNAs as biotherapies deliverable by recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs). By querying differentially expressed miRNAs in neovascularized mouse corneas induced by alkali burn, we have revealed 39 miRNAs that are predicted to target more than 5,500 differentially expressed corneal mRNAs...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Stina Holmgren Rondahl, Fabien Pointurier, Linnea Ahlinder, Henrik Ramebäck, Olivier Marie, Brice Ravat, François Delaunay, Emma Young, Ned Blagojevic, James R Hester, Gordon Thorogood, Aubrey N Nelwamondo, Tshepo P Ntsoane, Sarah K Roberts, Kiel S Holliday
This work presents the results for identification of chemical phases obtained by several laboratories as a part of an international nuclear forensic round-robin exercise. In this work powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) is regarded as the reference technique. Neutron diffraction produced a superior high-angle diffraction pattern relative to p-XRD. Requiring only small amounts of sample, µ-Raman spectroscopy was used for the first time in this context as a potentially complementary technique to p-XRD. The chemical phases were identified as pure UO2 in two materials, and as a mixture of UO2 , U3 O8 and an intermediate species U3 O7 in the third material...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
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