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cardiovascular system

Gao-Wu Yan, Anup Bhetuwal, Guo-Qing Yang, Quan-Shui Fu, Na Hu, Lin-Wei Zhao, Hong Chen, Xiao-Ping Fan, Jing Yan, Hao Zeng, Qing Zhou
RATIONALE: Congenital absence of the right coronary artery (RCA) is a rare congenital malformation of the cardiovascular system which may have fatal consequences. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 63-year-old man with a 5-year history of chest pain after exertion which had aggravated for >1 month was advised for admission and computed tomography angiography (CTA) examination of the coronary artery to screen for coronary artery disease (CAD). DIAGNOSES: The coronary artery CTA showed absence of RCA arising form the aortic root after which a selective coronary angiography (SCA) examination was done that confirmed the diagnosis of congenital absence of RCA...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Panagiota Anyfanti, Areti Triantafyllou, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Nikolaos Koletsos, Spyros Aslanidis, Stella Douma
OBJECTIVES: Arterial stiffness has emerged as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the role of myocardial performance and hemodynamic parameters in arterial stiffness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is accompanied by excess cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: Arterial stiffness was evaluated with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in RA patients and controls. Cardiac and hemodynamic characterization was based on impedance cardiography...
March 21, 2018: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
Shih-Chieh Chen, Chao-Yuah Chang, Ming-Lu Lin
The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases induced by chronic exposure to arsenic remain unclarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether increased vascular leakage is induced by inflammatory mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to various doses of arsenic and whether an increased vascular leakage response is still present in arsenic-fed mice after arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. ICR mice were fed water or various doses of sodium arsenite (10, 15, or 20 mg/kg/day; 5 days/week) for 8 weeks...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Peyman Tavallali, Hana Koorehdavoudi, Joanna Krupa
Intrinsic Frequency (IF) has recently been introduced as an ample signal processing method for analyzing carotid and aortic pulse pressure tracings. The IF method has also been introduced as an effective approach for the analysis of cardiovascular system dynamics. The physiological significance, convergence and accuracy of the IF algorithm has been established in prior works. In this paper, we show that the IF method could be derived by appropriate mathematical approximations from the Navier-Stokes and elasticity equations...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ping Chen, Decai Qiao, Xiaoli Liu
BACKGROUND This study investigates the effects and mechanism of sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhalation and exercise on rat myocardial collagen fiber. MATERIAL AND METHODS The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group (RG), an exercise group (EG), an SO2 pollution group (SRG), and an SO2 pollution and exercise group (SEG). Body weight, cardiac index, and left ventricular index in each group were compared. The myocardial hydroxyproline (Hyp) concentration was determined by pepsin acid hydrolysis. The interstitial myocardial collagen expression was measured by Sirius Red F3B in saturated carbazotic acid...
March 21, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Alex B Addinsall, Craig R Wright, Sof Andrikopoulos, Chris van der Poel, Nicole Stupka
Chronic metabolic stress leads to cellular dysfunction, characterized by excessive reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The ER is gaining recognition as a key organelle in integrating cellular stress responses. ER homeostasis is tightly regulated by a complex antioxidant system, which includes the seven ER-resident selenoproteins - 15 kDa selenoprotein, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase and selenoproteins S, N, K, M and T...
March 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Byung-Soo Kim, Won-Ku Lee, Kyoungjune Pak, Junhee Han, Gun-Wook Kim, Hoon-Soo Kim, Hyun-Chang Ko, Moon-Bum Kim, Seong-Jang Kim
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that psoriasis may be associated with metabolic syndrome and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ustekinumab reduces systemic and vascular inflammation associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, measured using18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT). METHODS: Patients with psoriasis and healthy controls underwent baseline18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Cristhiaan D Ochoa, Ru Feng Wu, Lance S Terada
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces the vast majority of all proteins secreted into the extracellular space, including hormones and cytokines, as well as cell surface receptors and other proteins which interact with the environment. Accordingly, this organelle controls essentially all vital links to a cell's external milieu, responding to systemic metabolic, inflammatory, endocrine, and mechanical stimuli. The central role the ER plays in meeting protein synthetic and quality control requirements in the face of such demands is matched by an extensive and versatile ER stress response signaling network...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Muhyeddine Al-Taki, Hamdi G Sukkarieh, Jamal J Hoballah, Sarah F Jamali, Mohamad Habbal, Karim Z Masrouha, Racha Abi-Melhem, Hani Tamim
Full extent of gender differences on postoperative outcomes has never been studied on large scale, specifically postoperative complications. This study aims to assess the effect of gender on 30-day morbidity and mortality after major surgery. A retrospective cohort study was carried out using data of patients undergoing major surgeries from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between 2008 and 2011. Demographics, pre- and perioperative risk factors, as well as 30-day morbidities, both overall and specific, were reviewed...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Xiaowei Cong, Xijin Xu, Long Xu, Minghui Li, Cheng Xu, Qilin Qin, Xia Huo
Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cardiovascular regulatory changes in childhood contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular events at older ages. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air pollutant exposure on the child sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, which plays a vital role in regulating and controlling the cardiovascular system. Two plasma biomarkers (plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine) of SAM activity and heart rate were measured in preschool children (n = 228) living in Guiyu, and native (n = 104) and non-native children (n = 91) living in a reference area (Haojiang) for >1 year...
March 17, 2018: Environment International
Bożena Targońska-Stępniak
The available data indicate that seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops as a result of systemic, autoimmune reaction directed against a range of "self" peptides/proteins that have undergone specific forms of post-translational modification. The development and progress of autoimmunity may be triggered by non-specific, local inflammatory processes outside the joints, for example in the oral or respiratory mucous membrane. The disease occurs in genetically susceptible individuals under the influence of environmental risk factors that promote autoimmunity and consequently the inflammatory process...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Guoqing Chen, Yong Li, Wei Wang, Liping Deng
Introduction Mangosteen as a rare and precious fruit looks like a queen crown, known as "Queen of Fruit". α-Mangostin (α-MG) is the most representative xanthone isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen, possessing extensive biological activities and pharmacological properties, which can be considered as an antineoplastic agent, antioxidant, anti-proliferation and induces apoptosis in various types of human cancer cells, and has protective effect on induced apoptotic damage. Areas covered The bioactivity and pharmacological Properties of α-MG are being actively investigated by various industrial and academic institutions...
March 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Zbyszko Chowaniec, Anna Skoczyńska
Cardiovascular diseases are still the main cause of death in Poland and throughout the world. Independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease, in addition to elevated LDL cholesterol, are both low HDL levels and high levels of non-HDL cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid-transfer protein (PLTP) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) both play a major role in the metabolism of those lipoproteins. A lack of these proteins increases HDL and lowers LDL levels. In the light of current knowledge, it seems reasonable to search for compounds that may decrease the activity of CETP, and thus reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease...
March 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Olga Sjomina, Jelizaveta Pavlova, Ilva Daugule, Pavel Janovic, Ilze Kikuste, Aigars Vanags, Ivars Tolmanis, Dace Rudzite, Inese Polaka, Ilona Kojalo, Inta Liepniece-Karele, Sergejs Isajevs, Daiga Santare, Valdis Pirags, Jelena Pahomova, Vilnis Dzerve, Lilian Tzivian, Andrejs Erglis, Marcis Leja
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the rationale of blood pepsinogen (PG) testing in population based screening settings. METHODS: Participants from a cross-sectional population-based study of cardiovascular risk factors in Latvia were invited to participate in the current study. Pepsinogen I and II were measured in blood samples taken during the initial study and at follow-up; upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed. There were three groups of patients: with moderately decreased (PG I< 70 ng/ml and PG I/PG II ratio < 3), with strongly decreased (PG I< 30 ng/ml and PG I/PG II ratio < 2), and with normal PG level...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Yanhua Wu, Yuanhan Chen, Shaowen Li, Wei Dong, Huaban Liang, Miaoyi Deng, Yingnan Chen, Shixin Chen, Xinling Liang
PURPOSE: To investigate the application value of "electronic alerts" ("e-alerts") for acute kidney injury (AKI) among high-risk wards of hospitals. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted. We developed an e-alert system for AKI and ran the system in intensive care units and divisions focusing on cardiovascular disease. The e-alert system diagnosed AKI automatically based on serum creatinine levels. Patients were assigned randomly to an e-alert group (467 patients) or non-e-alert group (408 patients)...
March 19, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
W Gregory Hundley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to detect abnormalities of the cardiovascular system that may result from cancer or its treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: With CMR, one may assess cardiac anatomy, function, myocardial perfusion, tissue composition, and blood flow. For those with cancer, these capabilities allow one to differentiate myocardial masses that may relate to the presence of cancer and evaluate diseases of the pericardium...
March 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Alberto Avolio, Mi Ok Kim, Audrey Adji, Sumudu Gangoda, Bhargava Avadhanam, Isabella Tan, Mark Butlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concepts of pulsatile arterial haemodynamics, including relationships between oscillatory blood pressure and flow in systemic arteries, arterial stiffness and wave propagation phenomena have provided basic understanding of underlying haemodynamic mechanisms associated with elevated arterial blood pressure as a major factor of cardiovascular risk, particularly the deleterious effects of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. This topical review assesses the effects of pulsatility of blood pressure and flow in the systemic arteries on the brain...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In many instances, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the vasopressinergic system (VPS) are jointly activated by the same stimuli and engaged in the regulation of the same processes. RECENT FINDINGS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), which are the main active compounds of the RAS and the VPS, interact at several levels. Firstly, Ang II, acting on AT1 receptors (AT1R), plays a significant role in the release of AVP from vasopressinergic neurons and AVP, stimulating V1a receptors (V1aR), regulates the release of renin in the kidney...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Goro Katsuumi, Ippei Shimizu, Yohko Yoshida, Tohru Minamino
In mammals, aging is associated with accumulation of senescent cells. Stresses such as telomere shortening and reactive oxygen species induce "cellular senescence", which is characterized by growth arrest and alteration of the gene expression profile. Chronological aging is associated with development of age-related diseases, including heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerotic disease, and studies have shown that accumulation of senescent cells has a causative role in the pathology of these age-related disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Yao Xu, Jing Ye, Menglong Wang, Yuan Wang, Qingwei Ji, Ying Huang, Tao Zeng, Zhen Wang, Di Ye, Huimin Jiang, Jianfang Liu, Yingzhong Lin, Jun Wan
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL) 11 is closely related to tumor and hematological system diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that IL-11 also participates in cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion mediated heart injury and acute myocardial infarction. This study aimed to investigate whether IL-11 is involved in acute thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). METHODS: Aortic tissue samples from normal donors and acute TAD patients were collected, and the expression of IL-11 in all aortic tissue was analyzed...
March 16, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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