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Ashok K Singh, Vinit Raj, Sudipta Saha
The search for new lead compounds of simple structure, displaying highest quality anti-tumor potency with new mechanisms of action and least adverse effects is the major intention of cancer drug discovery now a days. For the time being, indole-fused azepines emerged as a simple class of compounds prolifically designed with strong pharmacological significances in particular of cancer protecting ability. In the recent years from the efforts of our research group, indole-fused heteroazepines, a simple structural class achieved by fusion of indole with oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen containing heteroazepine rings, have known for its superior outcomes in cancer treatment...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Chin-Hin Ng, Wee-Joo Chng
Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APML) is a subtype of leukaemia arising from a distinct reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 15 and 17, which results in the PML-RARA fusion gene. Over the past three decades, APML has been transformed from a highly fatal disease to a highly curable one. This drastic improvement is because of the introduction of a new treatment strategy with all-trans retinoic acid and, more recently, arsenic trioxide. The revolutionary treatment of APML has also paved the way for a new cancer treatment, which is genetically targeted therapy...
2017: F1000Research
Jérôme Fernandes, Bruno Bregman, Patrick Combemale, Camille Amaz, Lucie de Léotoing, Alexandre Vainchtock, Anne-Françoise Gaudin
BACKGROUND: Management of metastatic melanoma is changing rapidly following the introduction of innovative effective therapies, with consequences for the allocation of healthcare resources. The objective of this study was to assess hospitalisation costs of metastatic melanoma in France from 2011 to 2013 from the perspective of the government payer. METHODS: The population studied corresponded to all adults with metastatic melanoma hospitalised in France between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2013 who required chemotherapy, immunotherapy or radiotherapy due to tumour progression and unresectable Stage III or Stage IV melanoma...
August 8, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Olivier Henrotte, Thomas Bottein, Hugo Casademont, Kevin Jaouen, Tiphaine Bourgeteau, Stephane Campidelli, Vincent Derycke, Bruno Jousselme, Renaud Cornut
The amazing properties of 2D materials are envisioned to revolutionize several domains such as flexible electronics, electrocatalysis, or biosensing. Herein we introduce scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) as a tool to investigate molybdenum disulfide in a straightforward fashion, providing localized information regarding the electronic transport within chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown crystalline MoS2 single layers having micrometric sizes. Our investigations show that within flakes assemblies some flakes are well electrically interconnected, with no detectable contact resistance, whereas others are not electrically connected at all, independent of the size of the physical contact between them...
August 3, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Li Yin, Cuifang Chang, Cunshuan Xu
Liver has a very amazing ability to regenerate from the remnant liver after injury or partial hepatectomy (PH). Carbohydrate metabolism plays a critical role in regeneration. Many signaling pathways are involved in the metabolism process. We analyzed the changes of proteins at 0-36 h after PH in rats using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomics strategy. The results showed that 110 proteins and 5 signaling pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism in rat LR changed significantly...
2017: BioMed Research International
Gregory E Kaebnick
The emergence of de-extinction is a study in technological optimism. What has already been accomplished in recovering ancient genomes, recreating them, and reproducing animals with engineered genomes is amazing but also has a long ways to go to achieve "de-extinction" as most people would understand that term. Still, with some caveats in place, creating a functional replacement for an extinct species may sometimes be doable, and given the right goals, might sometimes make sense. The International Union for Conservation of Nature guidelines for de-extinction do a reasonable job of keeping the caveats in place and clarifying the goals...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
Antonio Setaro
Similarly to graphene, carbon nanotubes are materials made of pure carbon in its sp2 form. Their extended conjugated π-network provides them with amazing quantum optoelectronic properties. Frustratingly, it also brings drawbacks: The π-π stacking interaction makes as-produced tubes bundle together, blurring out all their quantum properties. Functionalization aims at modifying and protecting the tubes while hindering π-π stacking. Several functionalization strategies have been developed to circumvent this limitation and for nanotubes applications to thrive...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Atsushi Ikai, Rehana Afrin, Masakazu Saito, Takahiro Watanabe-Nakayama
The amazing capacity of atomic force microscope to let us touch the molecular and cellular level samples with a sharp probe stimulated its application to bio-medical field among others. In addition to topographical imaging of the sample surface, a direct mechanical manipulation has attracted innovative minds to develop new methodologies aiming at direct handling of proteins, DNA/RNA, and cells. Measurement of their mechanical properties brought about a vivid picture of their physical nature. Direct handling of individual molecules and cells prompted development of nano-medical applications...
July 21, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Samuel Cirés, María Cristina Casero, Antonio Quesada
Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria, of varied chemical nature and toxic effects. Although cyanobacteria thrive in all kinds of ecosystems on Earth even under very harsh conditions, current knowledge on cyanotoxin distribution is almost restricted to freshwaters from temperate latitudes. In this review, we bring to the forefront the presence of cyanotoxins in extreme environments. Cyanotoxins have been reported especially in polar deserts (both from the Arctic and Antarctica) and alkaline lakes, but also in hot deserts, hypersaline environments, and hot springs...
July 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
Sungchul Shin, Jinho Hyun
A cellulose nanofiber (CNF), one of the most attractive green bioresources, was adopted for construction of microfluidic devices using matrix-assisted three-dimensional (3D) printing. CNF hydrogels can support structures printed using CAD design in a 3D hydrogel environment with the appropriate combination of rheological properties between the CNF hydrogel and ink materials. Amazingly, the structure printed freely in the bulky CNF hydrogels was able to retain its highly resolved 3D features in an ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) paper using a simple drying process...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elizabeth Pennisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Science
Simon Yves, Romain Fleury, Thomas Berthelot, Mathias Fink, Fabrice Lemoult, Geoffroy Lerosey
The exciting discovery of topological condensed matter systems has lately triggered a search for their photonic analogues, motivated by the possibility of robust backscattering-immune light transport. However, topological photonic phases have so far only been observed in photonic crystals and waveguide arrays, which are inherently physically wavelength scaled, hindering their application in compact subwavelength systems. In this letter, we tackle this problem by patterning the deep subwavelength resonant elements of metamaterials onto specific lattices, and create crystalline metamaterials that can develop complex nonlocal properties due to multiple scattering, despite their very subwavelength spatial scale that usually implies to disregard their structure...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Ziqi Xu, Linli Liao, Yaqin Chai, Haijun Wang, Ruo Yuan
In this study, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) regenerated biosensor was reported to sensitively detect microRNA through 3D DNA walking machine and "on-off-super on" strategy. First, 3D DNA walking machine with higher efficiency of payload releasing and superior signal amplification than those of the traditional DNA walking machine was initially introduced in the ECL system for converting target microRNA to intermediate DNA and achieving significant signal amplification. Second, the distance between CdS:Mn quantum dots and Au nanoparticles was increased with the hybridization of intermediate DNA and Au nanoparticles modified S2, which weakened the energy transfer for ECL signal recovering and excited the surface plasma resonance for further enhancing the signal to construct the on-off-super on biosensor...
August 2, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Falco Krüger, Karin Schumacher
Plant architecture follows the need to collect CO2, solar energy, water and mineral nutrients via large surface areas. It is by the presence of a central vacuole that fills much of the cell volume that plants manage to grow at low metabolic cost. In addition vacuoles buffer the fluctuating supply of essential nutrients and help to detoxify the cytosol when plants are challenged by harmful molecules. Despite their large size and multiple important functions, our knowledge of vacuole biogenesis and the machinery underlying their amazing dynamics is still fragmentary...
July 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Mohammad Khaledi Sardashti, Mahmoud Zendehdel, Narges Yaghoobi Nia, Davud Karimian, Mohammad Sheikhi
In this work, we successfully used a pure layer of [SiW11O39]8- polyoxomethalate (POM) structure as a thin film scaffold layer of CH3NH3PbI3 based perovskite solar cells (PSCs). A smooth nanoporous surface of POM cause to amazing improvement of the photocurrent density, External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) and overall efficiency of the PSCs compare to mp-TiO2 as scaffold layer. Average PCE values of 15.5% with champion device as 16.3% could achieve by using POM and sequential deposition method of perovskite layer...
July 7, 2017: ChemSusChem
Peter G Gibson, Ian A Yang, John W Upham, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra Hodge, Alan L James, Christine Jenkins, Matthew J Peters, Guy B Marks, Melissa Baraket, Heather Powell, Steven L Taylor, Lex E X Leong, Geraint B Rogers, Jodie L Simpson
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of asthma cause a substantial global illness burden. Adults with uncontrolled persistent asthma despite maintenance treatment require additional therapy. Since macrolide antibiotics can be used to treat persistent asthma, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of oral azithromycin as add-on therapy in patients with uncontrolled persistent asthma on medium-to-high dose inhaled corticosteroids plus a long-acting bronchodilator. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial to determine whether oral azithromycin decreases the frequency of asthma exacerbations in adults (≥18 years) with symptomatic asthma despite current use of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting bronchodilator, and who had no hearing impairment or abnormal prolongation of the corrected QT interval...
July 4, 2017: Lancet
M Rizwan, M Hamdi, W J Basirun
Bioglass® 45S5 (BG) has an outstanding ability to bond with bones and soft tissues, but its application as a load-bearing scaffold material is restricted due to its inherent brittleness. BG-based composites combine the amazing biological and bioactive characteristics of BG with structural and functional features of other materials. This paper reviews the composites of Bioglass(®) in combination with metals, ceramics and polymers for a wide range of potential applications from bone scaffolds to nerve regeneration...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Kaikai Bai, Bihong Hong, Jianlin He, Zhuan Hong, Ran Tan
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), as a special form of selenium (Se) supplement, have attracted worldwide attention due to their favorable properties and unique bioactivities. Herein, an eco-friendly and economic way to prepare stable SeNPs is introduced. SeNPs were synthesized in aqueous chitosan (CTS) and then embedded into CTS microspheres by spray-drying, forming selenium nanoparticles-loaded chitosan microspheres (SeNPs-M). The physicochemical properties including morphology, elemental state, size distribution and surface potential were investigated...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Franca Schmid, Matthew J P Barrett, Patrick Jenny, Bruno Weber
An amazingly wide range of complex behavior emerges from the cerebral cortex. Much of the information processing that leads to these behaviors is performed in neocortical circuits that span throughout the six layers of the cortex. Maintaining this circuit activity requires substantial quantities of oxygen and energy substrates, which are delivered by the complex yet well-organized and tightly-regulated vascular system. In this review, we provide a detailed characterization of the most relevant anatomical and functional features of the cortical vasculature...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
Guozhu Xie, Di Gu, Lanfang Zhang, Shijun Chen, Dehua Wu
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of local tumor would induce an abscopal effect that has been observed in several kinds of human cancers; one important mechanism may involve the improved activation of the host immune system. The immune checkpoint inhibitor can overcome immune tolerance and enhance the activation of antitumor T cells. The combined treatment of SBRT and checkpoint inhibitor may represent a new promising therapeutic approach. Herein, we reported a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with concurrent SBRT and anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, by which the patient achieved an amazingly systemic complete response in only 2...
June 30, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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