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K A Motovilov, M Savinov, E S Zhukova, A A Pronin, Z V Gagkaeva, V Grinenko, K V Sidoruk, T A Voeikova, P Yu Barzilovich, A K Grebenko, S V Lisovskii, V I Torgashev, P Bednyakov, J Pokorný, M Dressel, B P Gorshunov
The electrodynamics of metals is well understood within the Drude conductivity model; properties of insulators and semiconductors are governed by a gap in the electronic states. But there is a great variety of disordered materials that do not fall in these categories and still respond to external field in an amazingly uniform manner. At radiofrequencies delocalized charges yield a frequency-independent conductivity σ 1(ν) whose magnitude exponentially decreases while cooling. With increasing frequency, dispersionless conductivity starts to reveal a power-law dependence σ 1(ν)∝ν (s) with s < 1 caused by hopping charge carriers...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lizhi Xu, Xueli Zhao, Chuanlai Xu, Nicholas A Kotov
Load-bearing soft tissues, e.g., cartilage, ligaments, and blood vessels, are made predominantly from water (65-90%) which is essential for nutrient transport to cells. Yet, they display amazing stiffness, toughness, strength, and deformability attributed to the reconfigurable 3D network from stiff collagen nanofibers and flexible proteoglycans. Existing hydrogels and composites partially achieve some of the mechanical properties of natural soft tissues, but at the expense of water content. Concurrently, water-rich biomedical polymers are elastic but weak...
November 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Xiaorui Sun, Rulong Zhou, B Zhang
In literature, two different kinds of cerium atoms, namely Ce atoms with a localized 4f-electron and an iterant 4f-electron, have been suggested to coexist in low-density liquid cerium (A. Cadien et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2013, 110, 125503). However, direct evidence of this phenomenon is hard to be detected in the laboratory or classical MD simulations. Thus, the amazing properties of liquid cerium cannot be revealed. Herein, we have shown an ab initio MD simulation evidence that both kinds of cerium atoms can be detected in low-density liquid cerium at 13 GPa and 1900 K...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Òscar Miró, Òscar Miró
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Emergencias
Haiqiang Wu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial and socioeconomically burdensome disease. In view of the failures of anti-AD candidates, we should try to rethink what we did before and what we should do next, in part at least. Research shows that the more neurotoxic factor, pyroglutamate-Aβs, and the more important inflammatory mediators, pyroglutamate-CCL2, both contribute to the initiation of AD specifically and the generation of N-terminal intramolecular cyclization catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclase quality control, the over-expression of which correlates positively with the severity of AD...
October 27, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
M T Bhatti, A K S Salama
The past two decades has been an amazing time in the advancement of cancer treatment. Molecularly targeted therapy is a concept in which specific cellular molecules (overexpressed, mutationally activated, or selectively expressed proteins) are manipulated in an advantageous manner to decrease the transformation, proliferation, and/or survival of cancer cells. In addition, increased knowledge of the role of the immune system in carcinogenesis has led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity...
October 20, 2017: Eye
Qiang Gao, Gao-Yi Tan, Xuekui Xia, Lixin Zhang
Microbial strains are amazingly clever by homeostasis of their own survival and optimization for the overproduction of a desired phenotype, for example drugable secondary metabolites through coordination of key genes overexpression and media optimizations. Besides their pesticide activities, avermectins (AVMs) are identified as potent antibiotic agents for a wide range of drug-resistant pathogens by a high-throughput synergy screening strategy. To rewire the genetic circuitry controlling low yields, we summarized the work on balancing the biological chassis with functional parts, and optimized their dynamical process, as well as predicted favorable effective overproduction of AVMs by 5Ms strategy...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Robert E Lanford, Christopher M Walker, Stanley M Lemon
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations...
October 17, 2017: ILAR Journal
Kin Chan
Mutations are permanent alterations to the coding content of DNA. They are starting material for the Darwinian evolution of species by natural selection, which has yielded an amazing diversity of life on Earth. Mutations can also be the fundamental basis of serious human maladies, most notably cancers. In this chapter, I describe a highly sensitive reporter system for the molecular genetic analysis of mutagenesis, featuring controlled generation of long stretches of single-stranded DNA in budding yeast cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Petra El Khoury, Sandy Elbitar, Youmna Ghaleb, Yara Abou Khalil, Mathilde Varret, Catherine Boileau, Marianne Abifadel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2003, Abifadel et al. (Nat. Genet. 34:154-156, 2003) identified PCSK9, encoding proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as the third causal gene for autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia. This review focuses on the main steps from this major breakthrough in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) to the latest clinical trials with the anti-PCSK9 antibodies. RECENT FINDINGS: The year 2015 was remarkable in cardiovascular disease through the field of cholesterol...
October 17, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Jizong Yao, Jiawen Wang, Nianrong Sun, Chunhui Deng
A very simple and amazing approach was proposed to synthesize MPBA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles via the interaction between Fe and SH, and the as-prepared nanoparticles were successfully applied for the efficient analysis of glycopeptides in complex bio-samples with sensitivity and selectivity.
October 26, 2017: Nanoscale
Dawei Deng, Changlong Hao, Soumyo Sen, Chuanlai Xu, Petr Král, Nicholas A Kotov
The ability of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) to self-assemble has been known for several decades. However, the limits of the geometrical and functional complexity for the self-assembled nanostructures made from simple often polydispersed NPs are still continuing to amaze researchers. We report here the self-assembly of primary ∼2-4 nm FeSe2 NPs with puck-like shapes into either (a) monocrystalline nanosheets ∼5.5 nm thick and ∼1000 nm in lateral dimensions or (b) mesoscale hedgehogs ∼550 nm in diameter with spikes of ∼250 nm in length, and ∼10-15 nm in diameter, the path of the assembly is determined by the concentration of dodecanethiol (DT) in the reaction media...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Cassia Fernanda Yano, Alexandr Sember, Luiz Antônio Carlos Bertollo
Abstract: Fishes exhibit the greatest diversity of species among vertebrates, offering a number of relevant models for genetic and evolutionary studies. The investigation of sex chromosome differentiation is a very active and striking research area of fish cytogenetics, as fishes represent one of the most vital model groups. Neotropical fish species show an amazing variety of sex chromosome systems, where different stages of differentiation can be found, ranging from homomorphic to highly differentiated sex chromosomes...
October 5, 2017: Genes
Nasir Akbar Mir, Aasima Rafiq, Faneshwar Kumar, Vijay Singh, Vivek Shukla
Broiler production at mass level has already been achieved and now emphasis is being laid on increasing meat quality by altering various characteristics of broiler meat. Appearance, texture, juiciness, wateriness, firmness, tenderness, odor and flavor are the most important and perceptible meat features that influence the initial and final quality judgment by consumers before and after purchasing a meat product. The quantifiable properties of meat such as water holding capacity, shear force, drip loss, cook loss, pH, shelf life, collagen content, protein solubility, cohesiveness, and fat binding capacity are indispensable for processors involved in the manufacture of value added meat products...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yuichi J Shimada, Shepard D Weiner, Hiroo Takayama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Angela Cornelius, Brian G Cornelius, Mary Ann Edens
Background Because of their arduous schedules, residents are susceptible to burnout, fatigue, and depression. In 2015, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) launched a campaign to foster physician wellness, in response to the suicides of three residents during the previous year. The campaign calls for strategies to developing resiliency, identify problems, and promote well-being. One of the suggested methods to promote well-being was a residency retreat. Objective To implement a novel retreat curriculum that emphasizes team building between residents and faculty, with which residents expressed high satisfaction...
July 28, 2017: Curēus
Neha Sharma, Ashok Kumar, P R Sharma, Arem Qayum, Shashank K Singh, Prabhu Dutt, Satya Paul, Vivek Gupta, M K Verma, N K Satti, R Vishwakarma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tinospora cordifolia is a miraculous ayurvedic herb used in the treatment of innumerable diseases such as diabetes, gonorrhea, secondary syphilis, anaemia, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological diseases, cancer, gout, jaundice, asthma, leprosy, in the treatment of bone fractures, liver & intestinal disorders, purifies the blood, gives new life to the whole body; (rejuvenating herb) and many more. Recent studies have revealed the anticancer potential of this plant but not much work has been done on the anticancer chemical constituents actually responsible for its amazing anticancer effects...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Alex J McDonald, Bei Wu, David A Harris
The normal function of PrP(C), the cellular prion protein, has remained mysterious since its first description over 30 years ago. Amazingly, although complete deletion of the gene encoding PrP(C) has little phenotypic consequence, expression in transgenic mice of PrP molecules carrying certain internal deletions produces dramatic neurodegenerative phenotypes. In our recent paper, (1) we have demonstrated that the flexible, N-terminal domain of PrP(C) possesses toxic effector functions, which are regulated by a docking interaction with the structured, C-terminal domain...
September 29, 2017: Prion
Sandeep Kondisetty, Pallavi Vijay Borkar, Appu Thomas
Squamous cell carcinoma of kidney is a rare tumour of the many tumours seen in the kidney. It is usually associated with chronic irritation by a foreign body, which is mostly a stag horn calculus. Diagnosis of carcinoma in the presence of stag horn calculus is bizarre as it is seen in only <1% of patients. After imaging in this patient, the lymph nodes were enlarged and showed necrosis, which favoured the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a country where it is endemic. The pathological examination after surgery has amazed us by the presence of squamous cell carcinoma with lymph nodes positive with metastasis to vertebrae as the patient has presented to us with all symptoms of infection like pain and fever, which never made us think about malignancy preoperatively...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Gérard Audran, Raphael Bikanga, Paul Brémond, Mariya Edeleva, Jean-Patrick Joly, Sylvain R A Marque, Paulin Nkolo, Valérie Roubaud
Recent amazing results (Nkolo et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2017, 6167) on the effect of solvents and polarity on the C-ON bond homolysis rate constants kd of alkoxyamine R1R2NOR3 led us to re-investigate the antagonistic effect of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding (IHB) on kd. Here, IHB is investigated both in the nitroxyl fragment R1R2NO and in the alkyl fragment R3, as well as between fragments, that is, the donating group on the alkyl fragment and the accepting group on the nitroxyl fragment, and conversely...
October 11, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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