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Lorenzo Carlo Pescatori, Pierluca Torcia, Luca Nicosia, Giovanni Mauri, Umberto Geremia Rossi, Maurizio Cariati
Thyroid nodules are a common finding in general population, with a prevalence of 20% to 70% at ultrasound (US) examination. Many of them are benign but treatment can be necessary to relief compressive symptoms. In the last years, percutaneous ablations have achieved amazing development in the treatment of thyroid nodules as they provide a minimally invasive but effective approach. We aimed to summarize the main aspects related to treatment of thyroid nodules with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), focusing on the use of different types of needles...
April 2018: Gland Surgery
Eric Bender
The drugs often are more effective and have fewer side effects. The science-often just amazing. Medically, cancer treatment has never been in a better place. But are high prices making it unaffordable? Payers, providers, policymakers, and drugmakers themselves are wrestling with the issue. Meanwhile, many patients are being priced out of treatments that could save their lives.
May 2018: Managed Care
Asma Bourezg, Thomas Bochaton, Nathan Mewton, Olivier Morel, Guillaume Cayla, Gilles Rioufol, Eric Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Patrice Guerin, Meyer Elbaz, Inesse Boussaha, Camille Amaz, Denis Angoulvant, Michel Ovize
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of atrial fibrillation (AF), left ventricular thrombus (LVT), and other oral anticoagulant (OAC) indications on 1-year major adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and bleeding in acute anterior ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). METHODS: Our study population included 969 anterior STEMI patients referred for PPCI from the prospective multicenter CIRCUS trial...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Zhao Qin, Markus J Buehler
Naturally occurring biomaterials often have amazing functions, such as mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, biological, optical and acoustic. These superior performances are often due to their hierarchical organizations of natural materials, starting from the nanoscopic scale and extending all the way to the macroscopic level. This topical issue features articles dedicated to understanding, designing and characterizing complex de novo hierarchical materials for a variety of applications. This research area is quickly evolving, and we hope that future work will drive the rational designs of innovative functional materials and generate deep impacts to broad engineering fields that address major societal challenges and needs...
May 11, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jean-Luc Legras, Virginie Galeote, Frédéric Bigey, Carole Camarasa, Souhir Marsit, Thibault Nidelet, Isabelle Sanchez, Arnaud Couloux, Julie Guy, Ricardo Franco-Duarte, Marcet-Houben Marina, Toni Gabaldon, Dorit Schuller, José Paulo Sampaio, Sylvie Dequin
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be found in the wild and is also frequently associated with human activities. Despite recent insights into the phylogeny of this species, much is still unknown about how evolutionary processes related to anthropogenic niches have shaped the genomes and phenotypes of S. cerevisiae. To address this question, we performed population-level sequencing of 82 S. cerevisiae strains from wine, flor, rum, dairy products, bakeries and the natural environment (oak trees). These genomic data enabled us to delineate specific genetic groups corresponding to the different ecological niches and revealed high genome content variation across the groups...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Dijana Saftic, Zeljka Ban, Josipa Matic, Lidija-Marija Tumir, Ivo Piantanida
Among the most intensively studied classes of small molecules (molecular weight < 650) in biomedical research are small molecules that non-covalently bind to DNA/RNA, and another intensively studied class are nucleobase derivatives. Both classes have been intensively elaborated in many books and reviews. However, conjugates consisting of DNA/RNA binder covalently linked to nucleobase are much less studied and have not been reviewed in the last two decades. Therefore, this review summarized reports on the design of classical DNA/RNA binder - nucleobase conjugates, as well as data about their interactions with various DNA or RNA targets, and even in some cases protein targets involved...
May 7, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Tatiana Anatolievna Bogush, Boris Borisovich Polezhaev, Ivan Andreevich Mamichev, Elena Alexandrovna Bogush, Boris Evseevich Polotsky, Sergei Alexeevich Tjulandin, Andrey Borisovich Ryabov
Tamoxifen is a first targeted drug that continues to be the gold standard in treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer for almost 50 years. The current review is an update of the paper published in 2012. We provide the new data on the tamoxifen targets that are the key points of signaling cascades activating cellular proliferation, which determines aggressiveness of disease and chemotherapy resistance or sensitivity. Some inspiring clinical cases dealing with tamoxifen efficiency in treatment of different tumors are discussed...
May 4, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Jieliang Zhao, Fei Zhu, Shaoze Yan
Insects are well equipped in walking on complex three-dimensional terrain, allowing them to overcome obstacles or catch prey. However, the gait transition for insects steering on a wall remains unexplored. Here, we find that honeybees adopted a tetrapod gait to change direction when climbing a wall. On the contrary to the common tripod gait, honeybees propel their body forward by synchronously stepping with both middle legs and then both front legs. This process ensures the angle of the central axis of the honeybee to be consistent with the crawling direction...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Anne Ulfkjær, Frederik W Nielsen, Hana Al-Kerdi, Tamara Ruβ, Zaki K Nielsen, Jens Ulstrup, Lanlan Sun, Kasper Moth-Poulsen, Jingdong Zhang, Michael Pittelkow
The construction of molecular machines has captured the imagination of scientists for decades. Despite significant progress in the synthesis and studies of the properties of small-molecule components (smaller than 2-5 kilo Dalton), challenges regarding the incorporation of molecular components into real devices are still eminent. Nano-sized molecular machines operate the complex biological machinery of life, and the idea of mimicking the amazing functions using artificial nano-structures is intriguing. Both in small-molecule molecular machine components and in many naturally occurring molecular machines, mechanically interlocked molecules and structures are key functional components...
May 3, 2018: Nanoscale
Crystal D Rogers, Shuyi Nie
Neural crest (NC) cells are a stem-like multipotent population of progenitor cells that are present in vertebrate embryos, traveling to various regions in the developing organism. Known as the "fourth germ layer", these cells originate in the ectoderm between the neural plate (NP), which will become the brain and spinal cord, and nonneural tissues that will become the skin and the sensory organs. NC cells can differentiate into more than 30 different derivatives in response to the appropriate signals including, but not limited to, craniofacial bone and cartilage, sensory nerves and ganglia, pigment cells, and connective tissue...
May 3, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
One of the most amazing aspects of the human brain is its ability to learn information and use it to change behaviour. A key neurotrophin that influences memory function is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This review briefly discusses the mechanistic role that BDNF may play in facilitating learning and memory. We also describe the role of exercise on this relationship. As discussed herein, BDNF may influence memory via BDNF-induced alterations in membrane receptor expression and translocation, as well as activating several pathways (PLC-y, PI3K, ERK) that act together to facilitate cellular effects that influence synaptic plasticity...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Enrico Chiovetto, Cristóbal Curio, Dominik Endres, Martin Giese
According to a long-standing hypothesis in motor control, complex body motion is organized in terms of movement primitives, reducing massively the dimensionality of the underlying control problems. For body movements, this low-dimensional organization has been convincingly demonstrated by the learning of low-dimensional representations from kinematic and EMG data. In contrast, the effective dimensionality of dynamic facial expressions is unknown, and dominant analysis approaches have been based on heuristically defined facial "action units," which reflect contributions of individual face muscles...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Caitlyn Q Herr, Robert P Hausinger
Since their discovery in the 1960s, the family of Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases has undergone a tremendous expansion to include enzymes catalyzing a vast diversity of biologically important reactions. Recent examples highlight roles in controlling chromatin modification, transcription, mRNA demethylation, and mRNA splicing. Others generate modifications in tRNA, translation factors, ribosomes, and other proteins. Thus, oxygenases affect all components of molecular biology's central dogma, in which information flows from DNA to RNA to proteins...
April 27, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Alan K Davis, Joseph P Barsuglia, Rafael Lancelotta, Robert M Grant, Elise Renn
BACKGROUND/AIM: 5-Methoxy- N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a psychoactive compound found in several plants and in high concentrations in Bufo alvarius toad venom. Synthetic, toad, and plant-sourced 5-MeO-DMT are used for spiritual and recreational purposes and may have psychotherapeutic effects. However, the use of 5-MeO-DMT is not well understood. Therefore, we examined patterns of use, motivations for consumption, subjective effects, and potential benefits and consequences associated with 5-MeO-DMT use...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Linda Sharples, Colin Everett, Jeshika Singh, Christine Mills, Tom Spyt, Yasir Abu-Omar, Simon Fynn, Benjamin Thorpe, Victoria Stoneman, Hester Goddard, Julia Fox-Rushby, Samer Nashef
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) can be treated using a maze procedure during planned cardiac surgery, but the effect on clinical patient outcomes, and the cost-effectiveness compared with surgery alone, are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not the maze procedure is safe, improves clinical and patient outcomes and is cost-effective for the NHS in patients with AF. DESIGN: Multicentre, Phase III, pragmatic, double-blind, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial...
April 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Sebastian-Alexander Stamatis, Katrine Worsaae, Anders Garm
Cubozoans have the most intricate visual apparatus within Cnidaria. It comprises four identical sensory structures, the rhopalia, each of which holds six eyes of four morphological types. Two of these eyes are camera-type eyes that are, in many ways, similar to the vertebrate eye. The visual input is used to control complex behaviors, such as navigation and obstacle avoidance, and is processed by an elaborate rhopalial nervous system. Several studies have examined the rhopalial nervous system, which, despite a radial symmetric body plan, is bilaterally symmetrical, connecting the two sides of the rhopalium through commissures in an extensive neuropil...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
Michael F Smith, Rodney D Geisert, John J Parrish
The study of reproductive physiology in domestic ruminants has progressed from the whole animal to the molecular level in an amazingly short period of time. The volume of information on this subject is enormous; therefore, we have focused on domestic ruminants, with an emphasis on cattle. To date, artificial insemination (AI) is perhaps the most powerful technique that reproductive physiologists and geneticists have provided the livestock industry for genetic improvement. Early efforts to establish AI as a tool were initiated in Russia around 1899 and since that time major advances in methods of semen collection, evaluation of male fertility, cryopreservation of sperm, sex-sorted semen, and estrous cycle control have occurred...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Kang Zhou, Hari Krishna Bisoyi, Jian-Qiu Jin, Cong-Long Yuan, Zhen Liu, Dong Shen, Yan-Qing Lu, Zhi-Gang Zheng, Weian Zhang, Quan Li
Self-organized stimuli-responsive smart materials with adjustable attributes are highly desirable for a plethora of device applications. Simple cubic lattice is quite uncommon in soft condensed matter due to its lower packing factor. Achieving a stable simple cubic soft lattice and endowing such a lattice with dynamic reconstruction capability solely by a facile light irradiation are of paramount significance for both fundamental studies and engineering explorations. Herein, an elegant stable self-organized simple cubic soft lattice, i...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nadège Gouignard, Cyril Andrieu, Eric Theveneau
Neural crest (NC) cells were described for the first time in 1868 by Wilhelm His. Since then, this amazing population of migratory stem cells has been intensively studied. It took a century to fully unravel their incredible abilities to contribute to nearly every organ of the body. Yet, our understanding of the cell and molecular mechanisms controlling their migration is far from complete. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on epithelial-mesenchymal transition and collective behavior of NC cells and propose further stops at which the NC train might be calling in the near future...
April 20, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Samer A M Nashef, Simon Fynn, Yasir Abu-Omar, Tomasz J Spyt, Christine Mills, Colin C Everett, Julia Fox-Rushby, Jeshika Singh, Malcolm Dalrymple-Hay, Catherine Sudarshan, Massimiliano Codispoti, Peter Braidley, Francis C Wells, Linda D Sharples
OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) reduces survival and quality of life (QoL). It can be treated at the time of major cardiac surgery using ablation procedures ranging from simple pulmonary vein isolation to a full maze procedure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of adjunct AF surgery as currently performed on sinus rhythm (SR) restoration, survival, QoL and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: In a multicentre, Phase III, pragmatic, double-blinded, parallel-armed randomized controlled trial, 352 cardiac surgery patients with >3 months of documented AF were randomized to surgery with or without adjunct maze or similar AF ablation between 2009 and 2014...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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