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Mark S Blumberg
How do migratory birds, herding dogs, and navigating sea turtles do the amazing things that they do? For hundreds of years, scientists and philosophers have struggled over possible explanations. In time, one word came to dominate the discussion: instinct. It became the catch-all explanation for those adaptive and complex abilities that do not obviously result from learning or experience. Today, various animals are said to possess a survival instinct, migratory instinct, herding instinct, maternal instinct, or language instinct...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Hongbo Cheng, Pin Ma, Yanan Wang, Guofei Hu, Shibi Fang, Yanyan Fang, Yuan Lin
In this work, a unique approach is developed to generate photoswitchable and watersoluble fluorescence nano-aggregates. Initially, a new light-controlled diarylethene-dansyl dyad DAEs 1 is formed by two dansyl fluorophores covalently linked to a symmetrical dithienylethene backbone, whose photophysical properties can be excellent reversibly switched by optical stimuli. Subsequently, the water-insolubility of molecular switch DAEs 1 is overcome by incorporating it into the bilayer of liposome DPPC (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) in water...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Fernanda Regina de Castro Almeida, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Md Torequl Islam
Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs...
November 29, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Nhuan P Nghiem, Wynse S Brooks, Carl A Griffey, Matthew J Toht
Winter barley has attracted strong interest as a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production in regions with mild winter climate such as the mid-Atlantic and northeastern USA. Ten recently developed and improved winter barley cultivars and breeding lines including five hulled and five hull-less lines were experimentally evaluated for potential ethanol production. The five hulled barley lines included three released cultivars (Thoroughbred, Atlantic, and Secretariat) and two breeding lines (VA09B-34 and VA11B-4)...
November 23, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xiangzhao Ai, Jing Mu, Bengang Xing
Currently, precision theranostics have been extensively demanded for the effective treatment of various human diseases. Currently, efficient therapy at the targeted disease areas still remains challenging since most available drug molecules lack of selectivity to the pathological sites. Among different approaches, light-mediated therapeutic strategy has recently emerged as a promising and powerful tool to precisely control the activation of therapeutic reagents and imaging probes in vitro and in vivo, mostly attributed to its unique properties including minimally invasive capability and highly spatiotemporal resolution...
2016: Theranostics
Chahrazed Meddah, Andrey Milchev, Sid Ahmed Sabeur, Alexander M Skvortsov
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study and compare the pressure, P, and the surface tension, γ, of linear chains and of ring polymers at the hard walls confining both melts into a slit. We examine the dependence of P and γ on the length (i.e., molecular weight) N of the macromolecules. For linear chains, we find that both pressure and surface tension are inversely proportional to the chain length, P(N)-P(N→∞)∝N(-1),γ(N)-γ(N→∞)∝N(-1), irrespective of whether the confining planes attract or repel the monomers...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Simone A French, Nancy E Sherwood, Nathan R Mitchell, Yingling Fan
INTRODUCTION: Parks are an important component of the neighborhood environment, and their presence is believed to support higher levels of physical activity among residents. The present study examined park use frequency among a sample of 534 low-income parents of preschool aged children. Associations with child and parent physical activity, neighborhood characteristics and physical characteristics of the block immediately surrounding the home were examined. METHODS: Data are from baseline measurements completed in 2012-2014 as part of larger study (NET-Works: Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthy Kids) targeting low-income preschool children and their parents (N = 534 parent-child dyads)...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Xian Deng, Xiaofeng Cao
Plants possess amazing plasticity of growth and development, allowing them to adjust continuously and rapidly to changes in the environment. Over the past two decades, numerous molecular studies have illuminated the role of transcriptional regulation in plant development and environmental responses. However, emerging studies in Arabidopsis have uncovered an unexpectedly widespread role for post-transcriptional regulation in development and responses to environmental changes. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries detailing the contribution of two post-transcriptional mechanisms, pre-mRNA splicing and polyadenylation, to the regulation of plant development, with an emphasis on the control of flowering time...
November 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Elise Fouquerel, Patricia Opresko
The fields of telomere biology and DNA repair have enjoyed a great deal of cross-fertilization and convergence in recent years. Telomeres function at chromosome ends to prevent them from being falsely recognized as chromosome breaks by the DNA damage response and repair machineries. Conversely, both canonical and non-conical functions of numerous DNA repair proteins have been found to be critical for preserving telomere structure and function. In 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider, and Jack Szostak were awarded the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of telomeres and telomerase...
November 18, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Erika Nakashima, Hisashi Yamamoto
This is the first report of a successful asymmetric aldol reaction of acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde catalyzed by only 0.01 mol % of proline tetrazole (5-pyrrolidin-2-yltetrazole). Amazingly, 3 mol % of water as an additive has significantly improved the efficiency of the aldol reaction in terms of yield and enantioselectivity, up to a 0.1-mol-scale production (up to 99 % isolated yield, 84 % ee).
November 14, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Addisu Mesfin, Xinning Li, Jonathan F Dickens, Bashar Alolabi, Anna N Miller
The North American Traveling Fellowship (NATF) is one of the flagship tours of the American Orthopaedic Association (AOA). NATF is geared toward advancing the careers of young orthopaedic surgeons through the promotion of clinical, scientific, and social exchange. The 2015 tour had a major emphasis on the development of leadership in the field of orthopaedics through close interactions and meetings with departmental chairs and administrators, as well as with hospital and medical school leaders. The 2015 NATF tour was in the Midwest corridor of Canada and the United States...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Toshiharu Shinoka, Hideki Miyachi
The development of surgically implantable heart valve prostheses has contributed to improved outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, there are drawbacks, such as risk of infection and lack of growth potential. Tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) holds great promise to address these drawbacks as the ideal TEHV is easily implanted, biocompatible, non-thrombogenic, durable, degradable, and ultimately remodels into native-like tissue. In general, three main components used in creating a tissue-engineered construct are (1) a scaffold material, (2) a cell type for seeding the scaffold, and (3) a subsequent remodeling process driven by cell accumulation and proliferation, and/or biochemical and mechanical signaling...
November 2016: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Gloria Rowland
I never wanted to be a head of midwifery. I found myself in that position by default after I took a secondment role at a London trust that had previously been placed in special measures. I enjoyed the challenge and found my passion, myself even, as a transformational leader.
October 5, 2016: Nursing Standard
Erica V Todd, Hui Liu, Simon Muncaster, Neil J Gemmell
Sexual fate is no longer seen as an irreversible deterministic switch set during early embryonic development but as an ongoing battle for primacy between male and female developmental trajectories. That sexual fate is not final and must be actively maintained via continuous suppression of the opposing sexual network creates the potential for flexibility into adulthood. In many fishes, sexuality is not only extremely plastic, but sex change is a usual and adaptive part of the life cycle. Sequential hermaphrodites begin life as one sex, changing sometime later to the other, and include species capable of protandrous (male-to-female), protogynous (female-to-male), or serial (bidirectional) sex change...
November 8, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
Gerrit J Gerwig, Evelien M Te Poele, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Johannis P Kamerling
Stevia glycosides, extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, display an amazing high degree of sweetness. As processed plant products, they are considered as excellent bio-alternatives for sucrose and artificial sweeteners. Being noncaloric and having beneficial properties for human health, they are the subject of an increasing number of studies for applications in food and pharmacy. However, one of the main obstacles for the successful commercialization of Stevia sweeteners, especially in food, is their slight bitter aftertaste and astringency...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
Rony Huys
Symbiosis is one of the most successful modes of life displayed by aquatic organisms, as measured by the number of times it evolved and how many symbiotic species are presently in existence. Among the Crustacea copepods utilize an extraordinary range of hosts, occurring on virtually every phylum of marine macroinvertebrates and, jointly with the monogeneans, are the most speciose group of metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes (Rhode 2005). Several species have a major impact on global finfish and shellfish aquaculture, causing significant effects on farm production, economic viability and sustainability (Shinn et al...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
S Xu, F Sun, W Xu, K Jiao, B Shi, X Xie, Y Wang, M Zhu, Q Ji
AIM: To investigate the percentage of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who achieved simultaneous control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and also to assess its determinants in Shaanxi province, North-Western China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and June 2012 in six tertiary hospitals across Shaanxi province. Subjects with known T2DM who had at least one antidiabetic medicine were invited...
November 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Lutz T Wasserthal, Anja S Fröhlich
The operation of the thoracic spiracular valves was analysed using anatomical and physiological techniques. Dense spiracular filter trichomes impede a diffusive gas exchange. However, the hinged posterior filter flap of the metathoracic spiracle (Sp2) opens passively during upstroke of the wings and closes by the suction of the sub-atmospheric tracheal pressure during the down stroke, which supports a unidirectional respiratory airflow. The action of the interior spiracular valve lids was recorded by photocell-sensors oriented above the enlarged spiracles and projected onto the screen of a video camera...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Claudio A Delira, Marília S Andrade, Mário H Campos, Rodrigo L Vancini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Mahnaz Shahrki Pour, Gholamreza Ghoreishinia, Sadegh Zare, Azizollah Arbabisarjou
INTRODUCTION: Every amazing human development in the modern world is resulted from learning; therefore, teaching and learning improvement are the bases of all activities. There is a wide-range of factors affecting learning and the identification of these factors is very important in fixing problems and deficiencies in educational systems. Among the factors contributing to academic achievement are the consideration of students' differences and identification of their learning styles. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to identify medical students' learning styles in terms of gender...
August 4, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
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