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Liver steatosis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130075/association-between-cytokines-and-liver-histology-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Emily R Perito, Veeral Ajmera, Nathan M Bass, Philip Rosenthal, Joel E Lavine, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Katherine P Yates, Anna Mae Diehl, Jean P Molleston, Karen F Murray, Ann Scheimann, Ryan Gill, David Glidden, Bradley Aouizerat
Background: Reliable non-invasive markers to characterize inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are lacking. We investigated the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and features of NAFLD histology to gain insight into cellular pathways driving NASH and to identify potential non-invasive discriminators of NAFLD severity and pattern. Methods: Cytokines were measured from plasma obtained at enrollment in pediatric participants in NASH Clinical Research Network studies with liver biopsy-proven NAFLD...
September 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122442/serum-fetuin-a-levels-in-obese-children-with-biopsy-proven-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
V Pampanini, E Inzaghi, D Germani, A Alterio, A Puglianiello, A Alisi, V Nobili, S Cianfarani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fetuin-A has been proposed as a marker of liver damage in adults with obesity-related NAFLD. The aim of this study was to test serum fetuin-A concentrations in obese children with NAFLD diagnosed either by ultrasonography or by liver biopsy and to determine its applicability as predictive tool in pediatric NAFLD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Metabolic parameters and fetuin-A levels were investigated in 81 obese children with NAFLD diagnosed by biopsy, 79 obese children with NAFLD defined by liver ultrasonography and 23 lean subjects...
October 3, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095942/serum-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-levels-are-not-associated-with-either-histological-severity-or-treatment-response-in-children-and-adults-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
Katherine P Yates, Ross Deppe, Megan Comerford, Howard Masuoka, Oscar W Cummings, James Tonascia, Naga Chalasani, Raj Vuppalanchi
AIM: Serum high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory molecule that could potentially serve as a biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) due to its correlation with degree of liver fibrosis. The aim of the current study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between serum HMGB1 levels and liver histology in adults and children with NAFLD participating in two large randomized controlled trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045180/quantitative-liver-mri-biopsy-correlation-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-can-one-be-used-to-predict-the-other
#4
Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout, Emma N Costello, Suraj D Serai, Kristin S Bramlage, Rohit Kohli, Stavra A Xanthakos
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between quantitative liver MRI measurements and liver biopsy findings in pediatric and young adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a registry that prospectively enrolls pediatric and young adult patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD at our tertiary medical center with parent or guardian and subject informed consent, as appropriate...
October 18, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028128/diagnostic-accuracy-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-hepatic-proton-density-fat-fraction-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Michael S Middleton, Mark L Van Natta, Elhamy R Heba, Adina Alazraki, Andrew T Trout, Prakash Masand, Elizabeth M Brunt, David E Kleiner, Edward Doo, James Tonascia, Joel E Lavine, Wei Shen, Gavin Hamilton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
We assessed the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in children to stratify hepatic steatosis grade before and after treatment in the Cysteamine Bitartrate Delayed-Release for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children (CyNCh) trial, using centrally-scored histology as reference. Participants had multi-echo 1.5T or 3T MRI on scanners from three manufacturers. Of 169 enrolled children, 110 (65%) and 83 (49%) had MRI and liver biopsy at baseline and at end-of-treatment (EOT; 52-weeks), respectively...
October 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991837/serum-osteocalcin-levels-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Saleh Amin, Doaa El Amrousy, Shaymaa Elrifaey, Rasha Gamal, Hossam Hodeib
OBJECTIVES: to investigate the relationship between osteocalcin and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. METHOD: 60 obese children with NAFLD were taken as patient group and 60 non - NAFLD children with matches age, sex and BMI were taken as control group. Anthropometric measurements, abdominal ultrasonography for diagnosis and grading of NAFLD, and laboratory investigations in the form of liver function tests, lipid profile, fasting serum glucose and insulin, and serum osteocalcin levels were done for all children...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948754/histopathology-grading-and-staging-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
David Kleiner
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the liver disease associated with obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome . Although steatosis is a key histological feature, liver biopsies of patients with NAFLD can show a wide range of other findings, including portal and lobular inflammation, ballooning and apoptotic hepatocellular injury, Mallory-Denk bodies, megamitochondria and fibrosis. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive subtype of NAFLD first defined by analogy to alcoholic hepatitis...
September 25, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880885/markers-of-intestinal-permeability-are-already-altered-in-early-stages-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-studies-in-children
#8
Anika Nier, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Barbara Maier, Ina Bergheim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have shown that patients with manifest non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), e.g. steatosis grade 3 or steatohepatitis with or without beginning fibrosis frequently show altered fecal microbiota composition and elevated bacterial endotoxin levels. However, if these alterations are signs of a progressing disease or are already found in initial disease stages has not yet been clarified. METHODS: Twenty children with simple steatosis (grade 1) diagnosed by ultrasound and 29 normal weight healthy control children (age <10 years) were included in the study (mean age 7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803504/the-pharmacological-management-of-nafld-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
REVIEW
Savinda Liyanagedera, Robert Patrick Williams, Silvio Veraldi, Valerio Nobili, Jake P Mann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum, including 'simple' steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD has followed the international rise in obesity and lifestyle modification is the mainstay therapy for children. To date, pharmacological trials have had varying efficacy but a large number of new agents are in early phase trials for adults. Areas covered: This review explores the effect of current and potential future paediatric NAFLD treatments in terms of histological and biochemical endpoints...
November 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800087/imaging-features-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
REVIEW
Michele Di Martino, Kameliya Koryukova, Mario Bezzi, Carlo Catalano
Non-invasive diagnosis and quantification of liver steatosis is important to overcome limits of liver biopsy, in order to follow up patients during their therapy and to establish a reference standard that can be used in clinical trials and longitudinal studies. Imaging offers several methods in this setting: ultrasound, which is the cheapest technique and easy to perform; magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), which reflects the real content of triglycerides in a specific volume; and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) magnetic resonance, which is a simple method that reflects the distribution of the fat in the whole liver...
August 11, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799513/ketogenic-diets-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#11
Maurizio Elia, Joerg Klepper, Baerbel Leiendecker, Hans Hartmann
BACKGROUND: Although a larger number of antiepileptic drugs became available in the last decades, epilepsy remains drug-resistant in approximately a third of patients. Ketogenic diet (KD), first proposed at the beginning of the last century, is complex and has anticonvulsant effects, yet not completely understood. Over the last decades, different types of ketogenic diets (KDs) have been developed, namely classical KD and modified Atkins diet (MAD). They offer an effective alternative for children and adults with drug-resistant epilepsies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759573/alternation-of-plasma-fatty-acids-composition-and-desaturase-activities-in-children-with-liver-steatosis
#13
Man-Chin Hua, Hui-Min Su, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Ming-Ling Kuo, Ming-Wei Lai, Ming-Han Tsai, Jing-Long Huang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in plasma fatty acids proportions and estimated desaturase activities for variable grading of liver steatosis in children. METHODS: In total, 111 schoolchildren (aged 8-18 years) were included in the analysis from March 2015 to August 2016. Anthropometric evaluation, liver ultrasound examination and scoring for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD score = 0-6), and biochemical and plasma fatty acids analysis were performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737569/elevated-hemoglobin-level-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Valentina Giorgio, Antonella Mosca, Arianna Alterio, Anna Alisi, Antonio Grieco, Valerio Nobili, Luca Miele
OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been reported to be a risk marker of metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). No study exists on pediatric populations. We aimed to determine the association between hematological parameters, and the severity of disease in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 117 children (85 boys, mean age 12 years) with ultrasound evidence of NAFLD undergoing liver biopsy for diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), were prospectively enrolled between January 2011 and May 2013 in the setting of a tertiary care center...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735109/design-and-rationale-for-a-real-world-observational-cohort-of-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-target-nash-study
#15
A S Barritt, Norman Gitlin, Samuel Klein, Anna S Lok, Rohit Loomba, Laura Malahias, Margaret Powell, Miriam B Vos, L Michael Weiss, Kenneth Cusi, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Arun Sanyal
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver disease. NAFLD comprises the spectrum from simple steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver, NAFL), to steatosis with inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH). Current primary therapy recommended for NAFLD is weight loss induced by lifestyle modification. The difficulty in achieving this has led to robust pharmacological therapy development. While new drugs may show efficacy in selected phase II/III clinical trial populations, their real-world effectiveness is unknown...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733781/bitc-and-s-carvone-restrain-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-ameliorate-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#16
Sary Alsanea, Dexi Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the preventative activity of benzyl isothiocyante and S-carvone against high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic complications. METHODS: Ten-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a high-fat diet and injected intraperitoneally twice per week with benzyl isothiocyante, S-carvone, or vehicle for 8 weeks. The body weight, food intake, and body composition were monitored, and glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed at the end of the experiment...
November 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702213/monitoring-the-efficacy-of-omega-3-supplementation-on-liver-steatosis-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-a-pilot-study
#17
M-C Lacasse, A Tang, J Dubois, F Alvarez, S Spahis, M Chagnon, S Deschênes, E Levy
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of omega-3 supplementation on liver fat and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and to assess accuracy of ultrasound (US) for grading liver steatosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this one-way crossover pilot study, we assigned children with obesity and liver steatosis to receive 1.2 g daily of omega-3 supplementation vs. inactive sunflower oil for 24 or 12 weeks. Liver fat content was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and US, and common carotid IMT by US...
June 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689548/-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
Jessica Björklund, Tea Lund Laursen, Konstantin Kazankov, Karen Louise Thomsen, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Elisabeth Stenbøg, Henning Grønbæk
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by liver fat accumulation and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with inflammation and fibrosis, which may lead to cirrhosis also in childhood. NAFLD/NASH in children are related to obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and incidence and prevalence are expected to increase. Children having liver steatosis and elevated liver enzymes are most often asymptomatic, and a liver biopsy is necessary for correct diagnosis and staging. The treatment should focus on lifestyle changes, as pharmacological therapy needs further evaluation...
July 3, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644356/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587303/the-role-of-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Francesco Massimo Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a "multiple-hit process" where the first "hit" is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity...
June 6, 2017: Children
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