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Liver steatosis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786674/choline-supplementation-prevents-a-hallmark-disturbance-of-kwashiorkor-in-weanling-mice-fed-a-maize-vegetable-diet-hepatic-steatosis-of-undernutrition
#1
Thaddaeus May, Kevin C Klatt, Jacob Smith, Eumenia Castro, Mark Manary, Marie A Caudill, Farook Jahoor, Marta L Fiorotto
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed to weanling mice ( n = 9) for 6 or 13 days...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761652/vitamin-d-status-and-associated-genetic-polymorphisms-in-a-cohort-of-uk-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
P S Gibson, A Quaglia, A Dhawan, H Wu, S Lanham-New, K H Hart, E Fitzpatrick, J B Moore
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of polymorphisms determining vitamin D status remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine in UK children with biopsy-proven NAFLD (i) their vitamin D status throughout a 12-month period and (ii) interactions between key vitamin D-related genetic variants (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthase-1/dehydrocholesterol reductase-7, vitamin D receptor, group-specific component, CYP2R1) and disease severity...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749699/histological-findings-in-protocol-biopsies-following-pediatric-liver-transplant-low-incidence-of-abnormalities-at-5-years
#3
Amin Sheikh, Kai Y Chau, Helen M Evans
Histological abnormalities, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, and steatosis, are increasingly reported in liver biopsies of children after LT. These changes may be progressive and represent a form of rejection. Liver biochemistry is often initially normal. Our LT program began in 2002, utilizing tacrolimus and low-dose steroids for the first year post-LT. Patients undergo a protocol biopsy at 1 year post-LT prior to stopping steroids, then at 5 years and every 5 years thereafter. Target tacrolimus levels are 5-8 μg/L and 3-5 μg/L after 3 and 12 months, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740791/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-not-a-small-matter
#4
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased substantially in the past two decades and NAFLD has now become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. NAFLD is a broad clinicopathologic spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of necroinflammation called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and subsequently to cirrhosis. Despite the increasing prevalence and progressive nature of NAFLD even among children, therapy for NAFLD in both adults and children are limited...
May 9, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735796/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-lifestyle-change-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Melina Utz-Melere, Cristina Targa-Ferreira, Bernardo Lessa-Horta, Matias Epifanio, Marialena Mouzaki, Angelo A Mattos
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: This manuscript seeks to analyze the impact of lifestyle changes on body mass index (BMI), aminotransferases and steatosis in children and adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of PubMed, BIREME, Scopus, EMBASE, Medline and Web of Science databases 2015 was performed seeking studies addressing the impact of lifestyle interventions on children and/or adolescents with NAFLD. Inclusion were manuscripts written in Portuguese, English and Spanish, as well as age less than 18 years...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735782/an-overview-of-liver-transplant-pathology-data-from-a-tertiary-referral-centre-in-western-india
#6
Fiona Fonseca, Bijal Kulkarni, Meenal Hastak, Vinay Kumaran, Vibha Varma, Sorabh Kapoor
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: 1. Study of liver explants - Etiologic types of end-stage chronic liver disease (ESCLD) and acute liver failure (ALF) in adults and children. 2. Assessment of donor steatosis and incidental granulomas. 3. Post-transplant liver biopsies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens of 180 explant hepatectomies, 173 donor wedge and 30 core liver biopsies, and 58 post transplant liver biopsies received in our department from April 2013 to March 2017. RESULTS: 1...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728744/free-breathing-quantification-of-hepatic-fat-in-healthy-children-and-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-a-multi-echo-3-d-stack-of-radial-mri-technique
#7
Tess Armstrong, Karrie V Ly, Smruthi Murthy, Shahnaz Ghahremani, Grace Hyun J Kim, Kara L Calkins, Holden H Wu
BACKGROUND: In adults, noninvasive chemical shift encoded Cartesian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy (SVS) accurately quantify hepatic steatosis but require breath-holding. In children, especially young and sick children, breath-holding is often limited or not feasible. Sedation can facilitate breath-holding but is highly undesirable. For these reasons, there is a need to develop free-breathing MRI technology that accurately quantifies steatosis in all children...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713773/feasibility-of-balanced-steady-state-free-precession-sequence-at-1-5t-for-the-evaluation-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#8
Hong-Xi Zhang, Jun-Fen Fu, Can Lai, Feng-Yu Tian, Xiao-Li Su, Ke Huang
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) imaging for measuring hepatic steatosis in obese children and adolescents, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) as reference standard. METHODS: 182 obese Chinese paediatric patients underwent conventional T1-weighted dual echo MRI, 1 H MRS and b-SSFP imaging for non-invasive assessment of hepatic steatosis. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between liver fat fraction (FF) on T1-weighted dual echo MRI and 1 H MRS-determined liver fat content (LFC) (r = 0...
April 30, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601441/the-membrane-bound-o-acyltransferase7-rs641738-variant-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Grazia Cirillo, Angela Del Prete, Roberta Iacomino, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice
BACKGROUND: The rs641738 polymorphism in the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain containing protein 7 (MBOAT7) gene has been associated with increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between the MBOAT7 rs641738 polymorphism and both hepatic steatosis and biochemical markers of liver damage and to evaluate the potential additive effect of this variant and the I148M patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) and the rs58542926 transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) polymorphisms...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594475/individual-fatty-acids-in-erythrocyte-membranes-are-associated-with-several-features-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-children
#10
Sara Bonafini, Angela Tagetti, Rossella Gaudino, Paolo Cavarzere, Martina Montagnana, Elisa Danese, Marco Benati, Diego Alberto Ramaroli, Sara Raimondi, Alice Giontella, Anna Mantovani, Angela Donato, Andrea Dalbeni, Pietro Minuz, Franco Antoniazzi, Claudio Maffeis, Cristiano Fava
PURPOSE: Obesity leads to the clustering of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) also in children and is often accompanied by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Quality of dietary fat, beyond the quantity, can influence CV risk profile and, in particular, omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have been proposed as beneficial in this setting. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations of individual CV risk factors, characterizing the MetS, with erythrocyte membrane FA, markers of average intake, in a group of 70 overweight/obese children...
March 28, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575029/a-practical-approach-to-quantitative-grayscale-ultrasound-analysis-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-pediatric-patients-using-a-picture-archiving-and-communication-system-based-tool
#11
Iclal Erdem Toslak, Jennifer E Lim-Dunham, Cara Joyce, Marko E Marbella
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-based ultrasound (US) quantification technique for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in a pediatric population. METHODS: Abdominal US images of 49 pediatric patients (≤18 years) with histopathologically proven diagnoses of hepatic steatosis (n = 17), nonsteatotic liver disease (n = 19), and a normal liver (n = 13) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, the fibrosis stage, and the steatosis grade were obtained from the database...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565153/inflammatory-cytokines-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#12
Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Ney Christian Amaral Boa Sorte, Crésio De Aragão Dantas Alves, Patrícia S Almeida Mendes, Carlos Roberto Brites Alves, Luciana Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by the intrahepatic deposition of fat. It is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, affecting obese children and adolescents. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood, although it is often related to insulin resistance. This in turn would be due to an inflammatory condition common to obesity. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the behavior of proinflammatory cytokines in obese children and adolescents, with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 16, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485130/the-rs626283-variant-in-the-mboat7-gene-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-and-fatty-liver-in-caucasian-obese-youth
#13
Giuseppina R Umano, Sonia Caprio, Anna Di Sessa, Naga Chalasani, Daniel J Dykas, Bridget Pierpont, Allen E Bale, Nicola Santoro
OBJECTIVES: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of liver damage in childhood, its occurrence is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene has been found to be associated with alcoholic liver disease and NAFLD in adults. METHODS: In a multiethnic cohort of obese children and adolescents we genotyped the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene, evaluated insulin sensitivity by an oral glucose tolerance test, and measured the intra-hepatic fat content (HFF%) by magnetic resonance imaging...
March 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471012/paediatric-fatty-liver-disease-pefld-all-is-not-nafld-pathophysiological-insights-and-approach-to-management
#14
REVIEW
Robert Hegarty, Maesha Deheragoda, Emer Fitzpatrick, Anil Dhawan
The recognition of a pattern of steatotic liver injury where histology mimicked alcoholic liver disease, but alcohol consumption was denied, led to the identification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has since become the most common chronic liver disease in adults owing to the global epidemic of obesity. However, in paediatrics, the term NAFLD seems incongruous: alcohol consumption is largely not a factor and inherited metabolic disorders can mimic or co-exist with a diagnosis of NAFLD...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470938/diagnostic-performance-of-mr-elastography-for-liver-fibrosis-in-children-and-young-adults-with-a-spectrum-of-liver-diseases
#15
Andrew T Trout, Rachel M Sheridan, Suraj D Serai, Stavra A Xanthakos, Weizhe Su, Bin Zhang, Daniel B Wallihan
Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography-derived liver stiffness to detect liver fibrosis in a pediatric and young adult population with a spectrum of liver diseases. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included patients younger than 21 years of age who underwent MR elastography and liver biopsy within 3 months of one another between January 2012 and September 2016 for indications other than liver transplantation or Fontan palliation of congenital heart disease...
February 22, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452135/evidence-based-exercise-recommendations-to-reduce-hepatic-fat-content-in-youth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
María Medrano, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega, Idoia Labayen
The main purposes of this study were to elucidate the effects of supervised-exercise training (ET) interventions on hepatic fat content and on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence in children and adolescents and to provide information about the optimal ET prescription (type, intensity, volume, and frequency) needed to reduce hepatic fat content in youths. Supervised-ET interventions performed in children and adolescents (6-19 years) that provided results of exercise effects on hepatic fat content or NAFLD prevalence were included...
February 13, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423877/nhlrc2-variants-identified-in-patients-with-fibrosis-neurodegeneration-and-cerebral-angiomatosis-finca-characterisation-of-a-novel-cerebropulmonary-disease
#17
Johanna Uusimaa, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Teija Paakkola, Hannu Tuominen, Minna K Karjalainen, Javad Nadaf, Teppo Varilo, Meri Uusi-Mäkelä, Maria Suo-Palosaari, Ilkka Pietilä, Anniina E Hiltunen, Lloyd Ruddock, Heli Alanen, Ekaterina Biterova, Ilkka Miinalainen, Annamari Salminen, Raija Soininen, Aki Manninen, Raija Sormunen, Mika Kaakinen, Reetta Vuolteenaho, Riitta Herva, Päivi Vieira, Teija Dunder, Hannaleena Kokkonen, Jukka S Moilanen, Heikki Rantala, Lawrence M Nogee, Jacek Majewski, Mika Rämet, Mikko Hallman, Reetta Hinttala
A novel multi-organ disease that is fatal in early childhood was identified in three patients from two non-consanguineous families. These children were born asymptomatic but at the age of 2 months they manifested progressive multi-organ symptoms resembling no previously known disease. The main clinical features included progressive cerebropulmonary symptoms, malabsorption, progressive growth failure, recurrent infections, chronic haemolytic anaemia and transient liver dysfunction. In the affected children, neuropathology revealed increased angiomatosis-like leptomeningeal, cortical and superficial white matter vascularisation and congestion, vacuolar degeneration and myelin loss in white matter, as well as neuronal degeneration...
May 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314568/genetic-determinants-of-hepatic-steatosis-and-serum-cytokeratin-18-fragment-levels-in-taiwanese-children
#18
Yu-Cheng Lin, Pi-Feng Chang, Mei-Hwei Chang, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are substantial genetic components contributing to the susceptibility of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has recently been reported that the rs641738 C>T variant in the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing protein 7 (MBOAT7) gene increased severity of NAFLD in adults of European descent. We aimed to test the hypothesis that MBOAT7 rs641738 variant would increase hepatic steatosis and hepatocellular injury in obese children. METHODS: A total of 831 obese children aged 7-15 years were recruited...
January 4, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284239/the-potential-impact-of-the-hypovitaminosis-d-on-metabolic-complications-in-obese-adolescents-preliminary-results
#19
Malgorzata Wojcik, Dominika Janus, Anna Kalicka-Kasperczyk, Krystyna Sztefko, Jerzy B Starzyk
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in obesity; however, its contribution in the development of metabolic complications remains uncertain. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between vitamin D status and metabolic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The results of blood pressure measurements, biochemical tests and ultrasound of the liver were compared in both groups. The study was conducted at the Children's University Hospital in Krakow, Poland...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222961/liver-zonation-in-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-associations-with-dietary-fructose-and-uric-acid-concentrations
#20
Valerio Nobili, Antonella Mosca, Rita De Vito, Massimiliano Raponi, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND & AIMS: As dietary components are delivered directly to the periportal zone of the liver lobule, there is the potential for greater injury in this zone (zone 1) compared to the perivenous zone (zone 3). We investigated the associations between dietary fructose consumption and uric acid concentrations and differential zonal injury in periportal and perivenous zones. METHODS: A total of 271 children's histological images were scored in 5 periportal and 5 perivenous zones for steatosis, ballooning, inflammation and fibrosis severity...
December 9, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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