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Liver steatosis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045719/hepatic-histology-and-morphometric-measurements-in-idiopathic-extrahepatic-portal-vein-thrombosis-in-children-correlated-to-clinical-outcome-of-meso-rex-bypass
#1
Niramol Tantemsapya, Riccardo Superina, Deli Wang, Grace Kronauer, Peter F Whitington, Hector Melin-Aldana
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate clinical, histologic, and morphometric features of the liver in children with extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EHPVT), with surgical outcome after Meso-Rex bypass (MRB). BACKGROUND: Idiopathic EHPVT, a significant cause of portal hypertension, is surgically corrected by MRB. Correlation of histologic and morphometric features of the liver with outcome has not been reported in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and intraoperative data of 45 children with idiopathic EHPVT...
December 30, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041819/circulating-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-metabolite-levels-in-citrin-deficient-children-with-metabolic-adaptation-with-and-without-sodium-pyruvate-treatment
#2
Hironori Nagasaka, Haruki Komatsu, Ayano Inui, Mariko Nakacho, Ichiro Morioka, Hirokazu Tsukahara, Shunsaku Kaji, Satoshi Hirayama, Takashi Miida, Hiroki Kondou, Kenji Ihara, Mariko Yagi, Zenro Kizaki, Kazuhiko Bessho, Takahiro Kodama, Kazumoto Iijima, Takeyori Saheki, Tohru Yorifuji, Akira Honda
Citrin deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN-2), which later manifests as severe liver steatosis and life-threatening encephalopathy. Long-standing energy deficit of the liver and brain may predispose ones to CTLN-2. Here, we compared the energy-driving tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and fatty acid β-oxidation cycle between 22 citrin-deficient children (age, 3-13years) with normal liver functions and 37 healthy controls (age, 5-13years). TCA cycle analysis showed that basal plasma citrate and α-ketoglutarate levels were significantly higher in the affected than the control group (p<0...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040302/omega-3-fatty-acids-as-a-treatment-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Lian-Hui Chen, Yong-Fen Wang, Qing-Hong Xu, Shan-Shan Chen
BACKGROUND: The most typical chronic liver disease in children and adolescents is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The dietary addition of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) provides a promising therapy for children with NAFLD due to its convenience and safety; however, several studies suggested contradictory results for PUFA supplementation in children. Hence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of PUFA supplementation in children with NAFLD...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007783/early-pqq-supplementation-has-persistent-long-term-protective-effects-on-developmental-programming-of-hepatic-lipotoxicity-and-inflammation-in-obese-mice
#4
Karen R Jonscher, Michael S Stewart, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Brian C DeFelice, Xiaoxin X Wang, Yuhuan Luo, Moshe Levi, Margaret J R Heerwagen, Rachel C Janssen, Becky A de la Houssaye, Ellen Wiitala, Garrett Florey, Raleigh L Jonscher, Eric O Potma, Oliver Fiehn, Jacob E Friedman
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is widespread in adults and children. Early exposure to maternal obesity or Western-style diet (WD) increases steatosis and oxidative stress in fetal liver and is associated with lifetime disease risk in the offspring. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a natural antioxidant found in soil, enriched in human breast milk, and essential for development in mammals. We investigated whether a supplemental dose of PQQ, provided prenatally in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity during pregnancy, could protect obese offspring from progression of NAFLD...
December 22, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920819/co-administration-of-metformin-and-n-acetylcysteine-with-dietary-control-improves-the-biochemical-and-histological-manifestations-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#5
Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Sayed Hassan Seif El-Din, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Olfat Ali Hammam, Fatma Abdel-Latif Ebeid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem that affects 1/3 of the adult population and an increasing number of children in developed countries. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. This study was conceived in a NAFLD rat model to evaluate the efficacy of both metformin (MTF) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with dietary control on biochemical and histologic liver manifestations. Rats were classified into nine groups; normal (I), NAFLD-induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD; II) for 12 weeks, NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or -RD treated with MTF in a dose of 150 mg/kg (IV, V), NAC in a dose of 500 mg/kg (VI, VII) or MTF+NAC (VIII, IX) respectively for 8 weeks...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905898/physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-can-modulate-the-effect-of-the-pnpla3-variant-on-childhood-nafld-a-case-control-study-in-a-chinese-population
#6
Shuo Wang, Jieyun Song, Xiaorui Shang, Nitesh Chawla, Yide Yang, Xiangrui Meng, Haijun Wang, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: The patatin like phospholipase containing domain 3 gene (PNPLA3) rs738409 C > G polymorphism, one of the most important gene polymorphisms involved in hepatic steatosis, has been reported to interact with different nutrients and dietary patterns on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), but no studies have focused on its interaction with physical activity or sedentary behavior. Therefore, this study aims at determining whether physical activity or sedentary behavior could modulate the effect of the PNPLA3 variant on childhood NAFLD...
December 1, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869416/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-new-epidemic-in-children
#7
Mirta Ciocca, Margarita Ramonet, Fernando Álvarez
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered one of the most common causes of liver disease in adults and children, consistent with the increased prevalence of obesity in both populations worldwide. It is a multifactorial condition involving a broad spectrum of liver diseases than range from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, and characterized by histological findings of inflammation and fibrosis. Its pathogenesis and progression are not fully understood yet, and a more complete understanding of liver disease may aid in developing new therapies and noninvasive diagnostic tools...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866088/is-ketogenic-diet-treatment-hepatotoxic-for-children-with-intractable-epilepsy
#8
Nur Arslan, Orkide Guzel, Engin Kose, Unsal Yılmaz, Pınar Kuyum, Betül Aksoy, Tansel Çalık
PURPOSE: Long-term ketogenic diet (KD) treatment has been shown to induce liver steatosis and gallstone formation in some in vivo and clinical studies. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the hepatic side effects of KD in epileptic children. METHOD: A total of 141 patients (mean age: 7.1±4.1years [2-18 years], 45.4% girls), receiving KD at least one year for intractable epilepsy due to different diagnoses (congenital brain defects, GLUT-1 deficiency, West syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, hypoxic brain injury, etc...
December 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822476/pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-interactions-between-liver-parenchymal-and-nonparenchymal-cells
#9
REVIEW
Nancy Magee, An Zou, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning), inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818597/comparison-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-proton-density-fat-fraction-and-histological-analysis-in-the-quantification-of-liver-steatosis-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
Michele Di Martino, Lucia Pacifico, Mario Bezzi, Rossella Di Miscio, Beatrice Sacconi, Claudio Chiesa, Carlo Catalano
AIM: To establish a threshold value for liver fat content between healthy children and those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with liver biopsy serving as a reference standard. METHODS: The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their legal guardians before the study began. Twenty-seven children with NAFLD underwent liver biopsy to assess the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764892/association-between-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-severity-of-liver-injury-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
R Jin, A Krasinskas, N-A Le, J V Konomi, J Holzberg, R Romero, M B Vos
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of the endogenous fibrinolytic system and is known to be increased in obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously demonstrated that PAI-1 levels were closely related to the amount of hepatic steatosis in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize plasma PAI-1 in relationship to severity of inflammation and fibrosis, as well as to plasma lipids in children with NAFLD...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707653/the-impact-of-morbid-obesity-on-solid-organ-injury-in-children-using-the-atomac-protocol-at-a-pediatric-level-i-trauma-center
#12
Nathan Vaughan, Jeff Tweed, Cynthia Greenwell, David M Notrica, Crystal S Langlais, Shawn D St Peter, Charles M Leys, Daniel J Ostlie, R Todd Maxson, Todd Ponsky, David W Tuggle, James W Eubanks, Amina Bhatia, Cynthia Greenwell, Nilda M Garcia, Karla A Lawson, Prasenjeet Motghare, Robert W Letton, Adam C Alder
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an epidemic in the pediatric population. Childhood obesity in trauma has been associated with increased incidence of long-bone fractures, longer ICU stays, and decreased closed head injuries. We investigated for differences in the likelihood of failure of non-operative management (NOM), and injury grade using a subset of a multi-institutional, prospective database of pediatric patients with solid organ injury (SOI). METHODS: We prospectively collected data on all pediatric patients (<18years) admitted for liver or splenic injury from September 2013 to January 2016...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624512/lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-unmasked-in-two-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Ryan W Himes, Sarah E Barlow, Kevin Bove, Norma M Quintanilla, Rachel Sheridan, Rohit Kohli
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a classic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride. Although it is associated with progressive liver injury, fibrosis, and end-stage liver disease in children and adolescents, LAL-D frequently presents with nonspecific signs that overlap substantially with other, more common, chronic conditions like nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), metabolic syndrome, and certain inherited dyslipidemias. We present 2 children with NAFLD who achieved clinically significant weight reduction through healthy eating and exercise, but who failed to have the anticipated improvements in aminotransferases and γ-glutamyl transferase...
October 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581063/nonobese-fatty-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Donghee Kim, W Ray Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a group of conditions characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is seen commonly in patients with metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, such as type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Evidently, however, not all obese subjects develop NAFLD and, more importantly, NAFLD can be found in nonobese individuals. Although NAFLD occurring in nonobese subjects has been reported in children and adults of all ethnicities, it appears to be recognized more frequently in Asians, even when strict ethnicity-specific body mass index criteria are used to define obesity...
August 28, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565159/beverage-consumption-and-paediatric-nafld
#15
REVIEW
Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Francesca Ferretti, Francesco Nicita, Andrea Vania, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
December 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547235/assessment-of-vitamin-d-status-in-a-group-of-egyptian-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-multicenter-study
#16
Amal Mohamed Ahmed, Maha Abdel Ghany, Gehan Lotfy Abdel Hakeem, Aya Kamal, Rania Khattab, Asmaa Abdalla, Laila El Morsi Abou El Fotoh, Abdel Azeem El Mazary, Madiha Abdalla Sayed, Ashraf Mohamed Abdel Fadil
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the health problems with great burden on the liver that may end with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to assess serum vitamin D level in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease children. METHODS: This cross sectional case control study involved 47 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease selected while recruiting the pediatric hepatology clinics. Their ages ranged from 5-15 years and were compared with 23 healthy age and sex matched children...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504851/steroid-metabolomic-disease-signature-of-non-syndromic-childhood-obesity
#17
Aneta Gawlik, Michael Shmoish, Michaela F Hartmann, Ewa Malecka-Tendera, Stefan A Wudy, Ze'ev Hochberg
CONTEXT: The profile of urinary steroids as measured by GS-MS defines a subject's 'steroidal fingerprint'. OBJECTIVE: Here, we clustered steroidal fingerprints to characterize patients with non-syndromic childhood obesity by 'steroid metabolomic signatures'. HYPOTHESIS: Non-syndromic obesity is a symptom of different diseases and conditions, some of them will have their own signature. DESIGN: 31 steroid metabolites were quantified by GC-MS and their excretion rates were Z-transformed...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442361/dietary-fructose-intake-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-relation-to-procollagen-type-iii-n-terminal-peptide-p3np-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Rasha Tarif Hamza, Alaa Youssef Ahmed, Doaa Gamal Rezk, Amira Ibrahim Hamed
BACKGROUND: Excessive use of fructose has been incriminated as a risk factor for hepatic steatosis. Procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (P3NP) is a marker for steatohepatitis. Thus, we aimed to assess fructose intake in obese children and its relation to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and P3NP. METHODS: Fifty-five obese children were compared to 30 controls. All were subjected to dietary fructose and anthropometric assessment, fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin (FI) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), P3NP and abdominal ultrasound...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350543/multiple-gut-liver-axis-abnormalities-in-children-with-obesity-with-and-without-hepatic-involvement
#19
S Guercio Nuzio, M Di Stasi, L Pierri, J Troisi, M Poeta, A Bisogno, F Belmonte, M Tripodi, D Di Salvio, G Massa, R Savastano, P Cavallo, M Boffardi, D Ziegenhardt, I Bergheim, C Mandato, P Vajro
BACKGROUND: Gut-liver axis (GLA) dysfunction appears to play a role in obesity and obesity-related hepatic complications. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to concurrently explore several GLA components in a paediatric obese population with/without liver disease. METHODS: Thirty-two children (mean age 11.2 years) were enrolled: nine controls with normal weight and 23 patients with obesity (OB+). Of the 23 patients OB(+), 12 had not steatosis (ST-), and 11 had steatosis (ST+) (associated [n = 8] or not [n = 3] with hypertransaminasaemia [ALT +/-])...
June 28, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312946/malnutrition-associated-liver-steatosis-and-atp-depletion-is-caused-by-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#20
Tim van Zutphen, Jolita Ciapaite, Vincent W Bloks, Cameron Ackereley, Albert Gerding, Angelika Jurdzinski, Roberta Allgayer de Moraes, Ling Zhang, Justina C Wolters, Rainer Bischoff, Ronald J Wanders, Sander M Houten, Dana Bronte-Tinkew, Tatiana Shatseva, Gary F Lewis, Albert K Groen, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Barbara M Bakker, Johan W Jonker, Peter K Kim, Robert H J Bandsma
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Severe malnutrition in young children is associated with signs of hepatic dysfunction such as steatosis and hypoalbuminemia, but its etiology is unknown. Peroxisomes and mitochondria play key roles in various hepatic metabolic functions including lipid metabolism and energy production. To investigate the involvement of these organelles in the mechanisms underlying malnutrition-induced hepatic dysfunction we developed a rat model of malnutrition. METHODS: Weanling rats were placed on a low protein or control diet (5% or 20% of calories from protein, respectively) for four weeks...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
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