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Liver steatosis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644356/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587303/the-role-of-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Massimo Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a "multiple-hit process" where the first "hit" is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity...
June 6, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556786/elevated-hemoglobin-level-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
Valentina Giorgio, Antonella Mosca, Arianna Alterio, Anna Alisi, Antonio Grieco, Valerio Nobili, Luca Miele
OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been reported to be a risk marker of metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). No study exists on pediatric populations. We aimed to determine the association between hematological parameters, and the severity of disease in children with biopsy proven NAFLD. METHODS: 117 children (85 males, mean age 12 years) with ultrasound (US) evidence of NAFLD undergoing liver biopsy for diagnosis of non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), were prospectively enrolled between January 2011 and May 2013 in the setting of a tertiary care centre...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555633/low-birthweight-increases-the-likelihood-of-severe-steatosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Elisabetta Bugianesi, Carla Bizzarri, Chiara Rosso, Antonella Mosca, Nadia Panera, Silvio Veraldi, Andrea Dotta, Germana Giannone, Massimiliano Raponi, Marco Cappa, Anna Alisi, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVES: Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate the correlation of birthweight with the severity of liver damage in a large cohort of children with NAFLD. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-eight consecutive Caucasian Italian overweight/obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in the study. We examined the relative association of each histological feature of NAFLD with metabolic alterations, insulin-resistance, I148M polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene, and birthweight relative to gestational age...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543915/cross-sectional-correlation-between-hepatic-r2-and-proton-density-fat-fraction-pdff-in-children-with-hepatic-steatosis
#5
Adrija Mamidipalli, Gavin Hamilton, Paul Manning, Cheng William Hong, Charlie C Park, Tanya Wolfson, Jonathan Hooker, Elhamy Heba, Alexandra Schlein, Anthony Gamst, Janis Durelle, Melissa Paiz, Michael S Middleton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and R2* in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant, Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, cross-sectional study, we conducted a secondary analysis of 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed as part of prospective research studies in children in whom conditions associated with iron overload were excluded clinically...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540988/pathologic-impact-of-insulin-resistance-and-sensitivity-on-the-severity-of-liver-histopathology-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#6
Byung Han Park, Jung Min Yoon, Ja Hye Kim, Jin Hwa Moon, Young Ho Lee, Se Min Jang, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Insulin resistance (IR) has an important role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to analyze the association between liver histopathology and IR in pediatric patients with NASH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated whether the hepatic pathologic characteristics have relations with following three biochemical indices; IR index including homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and insulin sensitivity indices-free fatty acid (ISI-FFA)...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535787/novel-serum-biomarkers-modified-by-the-body-mass-index-z-score-for-the-detection-of-liver-fibrosis-and-steatosis-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#7
Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Barbara Kowalik-Mikołajewska, Małgorzata Aniszewska, Magdalena Pluta, Magdalena Marczyńska
BACKGROUND: There is a need for validation of noninvasive alternatives to liver biopsy for the evaluation of fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum biomarkers modified by the body mass index z-score (BMI z-score) for the detection of fibrosis and steatosis in children with CHC. METHODS: Thirty children aged 9.4 ± 3.7 years (14 males, 16 females) with CHC underwent liver biopsy...
May 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511023/efficacy-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-choline-vitamin-e-dha-cho-ve-in-paediatric-nash-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Evelyn Zöhrer, Alisi Anna, Jörg Jahnel, Antonella Moscla, Claudia Della Corte, Annalisa Crudele, Günter Fauler, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial on children with biopsy-proven NASH based on a combinatorial nutritional approach compared to placebo. Participants were assigned to lifestyle modification plus placebo, or lifestyle modification plus a mix containing docosahexaenoic acid, choline and vitamin E (DHA-CHO-VE). Forty children and adolescents concluded the trial...
May 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502505/lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-a-hidden-disease-among-cohorts-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#9
Joana Rita Chora, Ana Catarina Alves, Ana Margarida Medeiros, Cibelle Mariano, Goreti Lobarinhas, António Guerra, Helena Mansilha, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Mafalda Bourbon
BACKGROUND: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LALD) is an autosomal recessive disorder and an unrecognized cause of dyslipidemia. Patients usually present with dyslipidemia and altered liver function and mutations in LIPA gene are the underlying cause of LALD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate LALD in individuals with severe dyslipidemia and/or liver steatosis. METHODS: Coding, splice regions, and promoter region of LIPA were sequenced by Sanger sequencing in a cohort of mutation-negative familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients (n = 492) and in a population sample comprising individuals with several types of dyslipidemia and/or liver steatosis (n = 258)...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502444/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-hepatic-and-extrahepatic-complications
#10
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Valerio Nobili, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and has become the most common form of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The histologic spectrum of NAFLD is broad ranging, from the relatively benign form of simple steatosis to the aggressive form of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, eventually leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD has also been recognized as an independent risk factor for extrahepatic complications, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep disorders, and osteoporosis...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475023/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-for-detection-of-liver-fibrosis-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#11
Juan D Berná-Serna, Regina Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca Velázquez-Marín, Pilar Sainz de Baranda, Florentina Guzmán-Aroca, Carmen Fernández-Hernández, Ernesto Doménech-Abellán, Dolores Abellán-Rivero, Guadalupe Ruiz-Merino, Juan Madrid-Conesa, Manuel Canteras-Jordana
Background Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is a non-invasive alternative to a liver biopsy for the evaluation of liver fibrosis (LF). Purpose To investigate the potential usefulness of acoustic radiation force impulse ARFI for detecting LF in overweight and obese children Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 148 schoolchildren. A diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and LF was based on ultrasound (US) and ARFI shear wave velocity (SWV). Results The laboratory parameters were normal in all the children...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472948/noninvasive-assessment-of-liver-steatosis-in-children-the-clinical-value-of-controlled-attenuation-parameter
#12
Giovanna Ferraioli, Valeria Calcaterra, Raffaella Lissandrin, Marinella Guazzotti, Laura Maiocchi, Carmine Tinelli, Annalisa De Silvestri, Corrado Regalbuto, Gloria Pelizzo, Daniela Larizza, Carlo Filice
BACKGROUND: To assess the clinical validity of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in a series of overweight or obese children by using the imperfect gold standard methodology. METHODS: Consecutive children referred to our institution for auxological evaluation or obesity or minor elective surgery were prospectively enrolled. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were recorded. Ultrasound (US) assessment of steatosis was carried out using ultrasound systems...
May 4, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462823/-1-h-mrs-assessment-of-hepatic-fat-content-comparison-between-normal-and-excess-weight-children-and-adolescents
#13
Elizaveta Chabanova, Cilius Esmann Fonvig, Christine Bøjsøe, Jens-Christian Holm, Henrik S Thomsen
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to obtain a cutoff value of liver fat content for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy results in children and adolescents with normal and excess weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 420 children and adolescents (91 normal-weight, 99 overweight, and 230 obese) 8-18 years of age. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed with a 3T MR system using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series echo times...
April 24, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426902/hepatic-steatosis-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#14
Emily R Perito, Tabitha Vase, Rageshree Ramachandran, Andrew Phelps, Kuang-Yu Jen, Robert H Lustig, Vickie A Feldstein, Philip Rosenthal
Hepatic steatosis develops after liver transplantation (LT) in 30% of adults, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in nontransplanted children. However, posttransplant steatosis has been minimally studied in pediatric LT recipients. We explored the prevalence, persistence, and association with chronic liver damage of hepatic steatosis in these children. In this single-center study of pediatric patients transplanted 1988-2015 (n = 318), 31% of those with any posttransplant biopsy (n = 271) had ≥ 1 biopsy with steatosis...
July 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366357/low-and-high-birth-weights-are-risk-factors-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#15
Kimberly P Newton, Haruna S Feldman, Christina D Chambers, Laura Wilson, Cynthia Behling, Jeanne M Clark, Jean P Molleston, Naga Chalasani, Arun J Sanyal, Mark H Fishbein, Joel E Lavine, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
OBJECTIVES: To examine the distribution of birth weight in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) compared with the general US population, and to investigate the relationship between birth weight and severity of NAFLD. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, cross-sectional study of children with biopsy-proven NAFLD enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Database. Birth weight was categorized as low birth weight (LBW), normal birth weight (NBW), or high birth weight (HBW) and compared with the birth weight distribution in the general US population...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351520/toll-like-receptor-4-is-critical-for-the-development-of-resection-associated-hepatic-steatosis
#16
Lauren K Barron, James W Bao, Bola G Aladegbami, Jason J Colasanti, Jun Guo, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner
BACKGROUND: A significant number of children with short bowel syndrome experience intestinal failure-associated liver disease. We recently demonstrated accelerated hepatic steatosis after 50% small bowel resection (SBR) in mice. Since SBR is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome, the purpose of this study was to determine whether TLR4 signaling is critical to the development of resection-associated hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Male C57BL6 (control) and TLR4-knockout (KO) mice underwent 50% proximal SBR...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333768/management-of-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-academic-hepatologists-in-canada-a-nationwide-survey
#17
Marialena Mouzaki, Simon C Ling, Richard A Schreiber, Binita M Kamath
BACKGROUND: The literature on the optimal clinical management of pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is limited. The objective of this study was to identify discrepancies in the care provided to patients with NAFLD by hepatologists practicing in academic centers across Canada. METHODS: A nationwide survey was distributed electronically to all pediatric hepatologists practicing in university-affiliated hospitals using the infrastructure of the Canadian Pediatric Hepatology Research Group...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326205/shigella-sonnei-bacteremia-presenting-with-profound-hepatic-dysfunction
#18
Oluwaseun Shogbesan, Andrew Rettew, Bilal Shaikh, Abdullateef Abdulkareem, Anthony Donato
Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319602/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286193/in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-zone-1-steatosis-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis
#20
Jonathan A Africa, Cynthia A Behling, Elizabeth M Brunt, Nan Zhang, Yunjun Luo, Alan Wells, Jiayi Hou, Patricia H Belt, Rohit Kohil, Joel E Lavine, Jean P Molleston, Kimberly P Newton, Peter F Whitington, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Focal zone 1 steatosis, although rare in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), does occur in children with NAFLD. We investigated whether focal zone 1 steatosis and focal zone 3 steatosis are distinct subphenotypes of pediatric NAFLD. We aimed to determine associations between the zonality of steatosis and demographic, clinical, and histologic features in children with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 813 children (age <18 years; mean age, 12...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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