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successive sequential cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754428/tapering-off-long-term-opioid-therapy-in-chronic-non-cancer-pain-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Geana Paula Kurita, Jette Højsted, Per Sjøgren
BACKGROUND: The indications for initiating long-term opioid treatment (L-TOT) for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) are often unclear and associated with problematic use. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of stabilizing opioid therapy followed by a sequential opioid tapering off program in CNCP patients. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial with a medications stabilization period (Phase 1) followed by a opioid tapering off program (Phase 2). In Phase 2, patients were randomized to Control Group (stable treatment) or Taper off Group (sequential opioid dose reduction) and assessed at baseline, after stabilization and up to six months...
May 13, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383725/erp-components-and-behavior-in-the-auditory-equiprobable-go-no-go-task-inhibition-in-young-adults
#2
Jack S Fogarty, Robert J Barry, Frances M De Blasio, Genevieve Z Steiner
Previous research suggests that young adults do not need active and effortful inhibition to successfully complete the auditory equiprobable go/no-go task, a view that was incorporated into Barry and De Blasio's sequential processing schema for this task. However, recent evidence in children suggests that view could be incorrect. The present research aims to clarify the functionality of the N2 and P3 subcomponents within the proposed schema, assessing the role of inhibition in this task. To optimize the quantification of the N2 and P3 subcomponents, separate temporal PCAs were applied to the go/no-go ERP data from 40 young adults...
January 31, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227328/limitations-of-teaching-endoscopy
#3
Amnon Sonnenberg
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Endoscopic procedures of the gastrointestinal tract represent a category of diagnostic tests that considerably rely on skills and dexterity of a human tester. The present analysis aimed to delineate factors that affect the success of teaching endoscopy and potentially limit the acquisition of new skills and knowledge. METHODS: The performance of the endoscopist is described in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The outcomes of sequential testing and acquisition of new knowledge are calculated using matrix algebra...
March 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217996/switching-between-multiple-codes-of-snarc-like-associations-two-conceptual-replication-attempts-with-anodal-tdcs-in-sham-controlled-cross-over-design
#4
Philipp A Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
In societies with left-to-right reading direction, left-side vs. right-side behavioral decisions are faster for relatively small vs. large number magnitudes, and vice versa, a phenomenon termed Spatial-Numerical Associations of Response Codes (SNARC) effect. But also for non-numerical sequential items, SNARC-like effects were observed, suggesting a common neurocognitive mechanism based on the ordinal structures of both numbers and sequences. Modulation of prefrontal networks that are involved in providing spatial associations during cognitive behavior can contribute to elaborate their neuropsychological theoretical foundations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212607/when-syntax-meets-action-brain-potential-evidence-of-overlapping-between-language-and-motor-sequencing
#5
Pilar Casado, Manuel Martín-Loeches, Inmaculada León, David Hernández-Gutiérrez, Javier Espuny, Francisco Muñoz, Laura Jiménez-Ortega, Sabela Fondevila, Manuel de Vega
This study aims to extend the embodied cognition approach to syntactic processing. The hypothesis is that the brain resources to plan and perform motor sequences are also involved in syntactic processing. To test this hypothesis, Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read sentences with embedded relative clauses, judging for their acceptability (half of the sentences contained a subject-verb morphosyntactic disagreement). The sentences, previously divided into three segments, were self-administered segment-by-segment in two different sequential manners: linear or non-linear...
March 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163146/influence-of-sequential-vs-simultaneous-dual-task-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#6
REVIEW
Jamie L Tait, Rachel L Duckham, Catherine M Milte, Luana C Main, Robin M Daly
Emerging research indicates that exercise combined with cognitive training may improve cognitive function in older adults. Typically these programs have incorporated sequential training, where exercise and cognitive training are undertaken separately. However, simultaneous or dual-task training, where cognitive and/or motor training are performed simultaneously with exercise, may offer greater benefits. This review summary provides an overview of the effects of combined simultaneous vs. sequential training on cognitive function in older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982265/task-irrelevant-emotional-faces-impair-response-adjustments-in-a-double-step-saccade-task
#7
Zhenlan Jin, Shulin Yue, Junjun Zhang, Ling Li
Cognitive control enables us to adjust behaviours according to task demands, and emotion influences the cognitive control. We examined how task-irrelevant emotional stimuli impact the ability to inhibit a prepared response and then programme another appropriate response. In the study, either a single target or two sequential targets appeared after emotional face images (positive, neutral, and negative). Subjects were required to freely viewed the emotional faces and make a saccade quickly upon target onset, but inhibit their initial saccades and redirect gaze to the second target if it appeared...
October 5, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689319/barriers-to-success-physical-separation-optimizes-event-file-retrieval-in-shared-workspaces
#8
Bibiana Klempova, Roman Liepelt
Sharing tasks with other persons can simplify our work and life, but seeing and hearing other people's actions may also be very distracting. The joint Simon effect (JSE) is a standard measure of referential response coding when two persons share a Simon task. Sequential modulations of the joint Simon effect (smJSE) are interpreted as a measure of event-file processing containing stimulus information, response information and information about the just relevant control-state active in a given social situation...
July 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652832/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-to-aid-weight-loss-in-obese-patients-current-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Gianluca Castelnuovo, Giada Pietrabissa, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Roberto Cattivelli, Alessandro Rossi, Margherita Novelli, Giorgia Varallo, Enrico Molinari
Obesity is a chronic condition associated with risk factors for many medical complications and comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, osteoarthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and different psychosocial issues and psychopathological disorders. Obesity is a highly complex, multifactorial disease: genetic, biological, psychological, behavioral, familial, social, cultural, and environmental factors can influence in different ways...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422010/synaptic-input-sequence-discrimination-on-behavioral-timescales-mediated-by-reaction-diffusion-chemistry-in-dendrites
#10
Upinder Singh Bhalla
Sequences of events are ubiquitous in sensory, motor, and cognitive function. Key computational operations, including pattern recognition, event prediction, and plasticity, involve neural discrimination of spatio-temporal sequences. Here, we show that synaptically-driven reaction-diffusion pathways on dendrites can perform sequence discrimination on behaviorally relevant time-scales. We used abstract signaling models to show that selectivity arises when inputs at successive locations are aligned with, and amplified by, propagating chemical waves triggered by previous inputs...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280475/sensorimotor-coarticulation-in-the-execution-and-recognition-of-intentional-actions
#11
Francesco Donnarumma, Haris Dindo, Giovanni Pezzulo
Humans excel at recognizing (or inferring) another's distal intentions, and recent experiments suggest that this may be possible using only subtle kinematic cues elicited during early phases of movement. Still, the cognitive and computational mechanisms underlying the recognition of intentional (sequential) actions are incompletely known and it is unclear whether kinematic cues alone are sufficient for this task, or if it instead requires additional mechanisms (e.g., prior information) that may be more difficult to fully characterize in empirical studies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269514/regional-brain-activity-that-determines-successful-and-unsuccessful-working-memory-formation
#12
Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono
Using EEG source reconstruction with Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP), we investigated the regional brain activity that determines successful memory encoding in two participant groups of high and low accuracy rates. Eighteen healthy young adults performed a sequential fashion of visual Sternberg memory task. The 32-channel EEG was continuously measured during participants performed two 70 trials of memory task. The regional brain activity corresponding to the oscillatory EEG activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) during encoding period was analyzed by MSP implemented in SPM8...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240922/formalizing-neurath-s-ship-approximate-algorithms-for-online-causal-learning
#13
Neil R Bramley, Peter Dayan, Thomas L Griffiths, David A Lagnado
Higher-level cognition depends on the ability to learn models of the world. We can characterize this at the computational level as a structure-learning problem with the goal of best identifying the prevailing causal relationships among a set of relata. However, the computational cost of performing exact Bayesian inference over causal models grows rapidly as the number of relata increases. This implies that the cognitive processes underlying causal learning must be substantially approximate. A powerful class of approximations that focuses on the sequential absorption of successive inputs is captured by the Neurath's ship metaphor in philosophy of science, where theory change is cast as a stochastic and gradual process shaped as much by people's limited willingness to abandon their current theory when considering alternatives as by the ground truth they hope to approach...
April 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227767/regional-brain-activity-that-determines-successful-and-unsuccessful-working-memory-formation
#14
Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono
Using EEG source reconstruction with Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP), we investigated the regional brain activity that determines successful memory encoding in two participant groups of high and low accuracy rates. Eighteen healthy young adults performed a sequential fashion of visual Sternberg memory task. The 32-channel EEG was continuously measured during participants performed two 70 trials of memory task. The regional brain activity corresponding to the oscillatory EEG activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) during encoding period was analyzed by MSP implemented in SPM8...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995983/cognitive-control-activity-is-modulated-by-the-magnitude-of-interference-and-pre-activation-of-monitoring-mechanisms
#15
Jesús Cespón, Santiago Galdo-Álvarez, Fernando Díaz
The Simon task is used to study interference from irrelevant spatial information. Interference is manifested by longer reaction times when the required response -based on non-spatial features- is spatially incompatible with stimulus position. Interference is greater when incompatible trials are preceded by compatible trials (compatible-incompatible sequence) than when they are preceded by incompatible trials (incompatible-incompatible sequence). However, the relationships between spatial attention, interference and cognitive control have not been investigated...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943323/i-executive-control-in-early-childhood
#16
C A C Clark, N Chevalier, J M Nelson, T D James, J P Garza, H-J Choi, K A Espy
Executive control (EC) is a central construct in developmental science, although measurement limitations have hindered understanding of its nature and development in young children, relation to social risk, and prediction of important outcomes. Disentangling EC from the foundational cognitive abilities it regulates and that are inherently required for successful executive task completion (e.g., language, visual/spatial perception, and motor abilities) is particularly challenging at preschool age, when these foundational abilities are still developing and consequently differ substantially among children...
December 2016: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#17
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880825/can-simple-transmission-chains-foster-collective-intelligence-in-binary-choice-tasks
#18
Mehdi Moussaïd, Kyanoush Seyed Yahosseini
In many social systems, groups of individuals can find remarkably efficient solutions to complex cognitive problems, sometimes even outperforming a single expert. The success of the group, however, crucially depends on how the judgments of the group members are aggregated to produce the collective answer. A large variety of such aggregation methods have been described in the literature, such as averaging the independent judgments, relying on the majority or setting up a group discussion. In the present work, we introduce a novel approach for aggregating judgments-the transmission chain-which has not yet been consistently evaluated in the context of collective intelligence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736136/how-target-lure-similarity-shapes-confidence-judgments-in-multiple-alternative-decision-tasks
#19
Ruth Horry, Neil Brewer
Confidence judgments in 2-alternative decisions have been the subject of a great deal of research in cognitive psychology. Sequential sampling models have been particularly successful at explaining confidence judgments in such decisions and the relationships between confidence, accuracy, and response latencies. Across 5 experiments, we derived predictions from sequential sampling models and applied them to more complex decisions: multiple-alternative decisions, and compound decisions, such as eyewitness identification tasks, in which a target may be present or absent within the array of items that can be selected...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693137/rats-remember-items-in-context-using-episodic-memory
#20
Danielle Panoz-Brown, Hannah E Corbin, Stefan J Dalecki, Meredith Gentry, Sydney Brotheridge, Christina M Sluka, Jie-En Wu, Jonathon D Crystal
Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of unique events in sequential order [1-3]. Animal models of episodic memory have successfully documented episodic memory of a single event (e.g., [4-8]). However, a fundamental feature of episodic memory in people is that it involves multiple events, and notably, episodic memory impairments in human diseases are not limited to a single event. Critically, it is not known whether animals remember many unique events using episodic memory...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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