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successive sequential cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422010/synaptic-input-sequence-discrimination-on-behavioral-timescales-mediated-by-reaction-diffusion-chemistry-in-dendrites
#1
Upinder Singh Bhalla
Sequences of events are ubiquitous in sensory, motor, and cognitive function. Key computational operations, including pattern recognition, event prediction, and plasticity, involve neural discrimination of spatio-temporal sequences. Here, we show that synaptically-driven reaction-diffusion pathways on dendrites can perform sequence discrimination on behaviorally relevant time-scales. We used abstract signaling models to show that selectivity arises when inputs at successive locations are aligned with, and amplified by, propagating chemical waves triggered by previous inputs...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280475/sensorimotor-coarticulation-in-the-execution-and-recognition-of-intentional-actions
#2
Francesco Donnarumma, Haris Dindo, Giovanni Pezzulo
Humans excel at recognizing (or inferring) another's distal intentions, and recent experiments suggest that this may be possible using only subtle kinematic cues elicited during early phases of movement. Still, the cognitive and computational mechanisms underlying the recognition of intentional (sequential) actions are incompletely known and it is unclear whether kinematic cues alone are sufficient for this task, or if it instead requires additional mechanisms (e.g., prior information) that may be more difficult to fully characterize in empirical studies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269514/regional-brain-activity-that-determines-successful-and-unsuccessful-working-memory-formation
#3
Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono
Using EEG source reconstruction with Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP), we investigated the regional brain activity that determines successful memory encoding in two participant groups of high and low accuracy rates. Eighteen healthy young adults performed a sequential fashion of visual Sternberg memory task. The 32-channel EEG was continuously measured during participants performed two 70 trials of memory task. The regional brain activity corresponding to the oscillatory EEG activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) during encoding period was analyzed by MSP implemented in SPM8...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240922/formalizing-neurath-s-ship-approximate-algorithms-for-online-causal-learning
#4
Neil R Bramley, Peter Dayan, Thomas L Griffiths, David A Lagnado
Higher-level cognition depends on the ability to learn models of the world. We can characterize this at the computational level as a structure-learning problem with the goal of best identifying the prevailing causal relationships among a set of relata. However, the computational cost of performing exact Bayesian inference over causal models grows rapidly as the number of relata increases. This implies that the cognitive processes underlying causal learning must be substantially approximate. A powerful class of approximations that focuses on the sequential absorption of successive inputs is captured by the Neurath's ship metaphor in philosophy of science, where theory change is cast as a stochastic and gradual process shaped as much by people's limited willingness to abandon their current theory when considering alternatives as by the ground truth they hope to approach...
April 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227767/regional-brain-activity-that-determines-successful-and-unsuccessful-working-memory-formation
#5
Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono
Using EEG source reconstruction with Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP), we investigated the regional brain activity that determines successful memory encoding in two participant groups of high and low accuracy rates. Eighteen healthy young adults performed a sequential fashion of visual Sternberg memory task. The 32-channel EEG was continuously measured during participants performed two 70 trials of memory task. The regional brain activity corresponding to the oscillatory EEG activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) during encoding period was analyzed by MSP implemented in SPM8...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995983/cognitive-control-activity-is-modulated-by-the-magnitude-of-interference-and-pre-activation-of-monitoring-mechanisms
#6
Jesús Cespón, Santiago Galdo-Álvarez, Fernando Díaz
The Simon task is used to study interference from irrelevant spatial information. Interference is manifested by longer reaction times when the required response -based on non-spatial features- is spatially incompatible with stimulus position. Interference is greater when incompatible trials are preceded by compatible trials (compatible-incompatible sequence) than when they are preceded by incompatible trials (incompatible-incompatible sequence). However, the relationships between spatial attention, interference and cognitive control have not been investigated...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943323/i-executive-control-in-early-childhood
#7
C A C Clark, N Chevalier, J M Nelson, T D James, J P Garza, H-J Choi, K A Espy
Executive control (EC) is a central construct in developmental science, although measurement limitations have hindered understanding of its nature and development in young children, relation to social risk, and prediction of important outcomes. Disentangling EC from the foundational cognitive abilities it regulates and that are inherently required for successful executive task completion (e.g., language, visual/spatial perception, and motor abilities) is particularly challenging at preschool age, when these foundational abilities are still developing and consequently differ substantially among children...
December 2016: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#8
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880825/can-simple-transmission-chains-foster-collective-intelligence-in-binary-choice-tasks
#9
Mehdi Moussaïd, Kyanoush Seyed Yahosseini
In many social systems, groups of individuals can find remarkably efficient solutions to complex cognitive problems, sometimes even outperforming a single expert. The success of the group, however, crucially depends on how the judgments of the group members are aggregated to produce the collective answer. A large variety of such aggregation methods have been described in the literature, such as averaging the independent judgments, relying on the majority or setting up a group discussion. In the present work, we introduce a novel approach for aggregating judgments-the transmission chain-which has not yet been consistently evaluated in the context of collective intelligence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736136/how-target-lure-similarity-shapes-confidence-judgments-in-multiple-alternative-decision-tasks
#10
Ruth Horry, Neil Brewer
Confidence judgments in 2-alternative decisions have been the subject of a great deal of research in cognitive psychology. Sequential sampling models have been particularly successful at explaining confidence judgments in such decisions and the relationships between confidence, accuracy, and response latencies. Across 5 experiments, we derived predictions from sequential sampling models and applied them to more complex decisions: multiple-alternative decisions, and compound decisions, such as eyewitness identification tasks, in which a target may be present or absent within the array of items that can be selected...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693137/rats-remember-items-in-context-using-episodic-memory
#11
Danielle Panoz-Brown, Hannah E Corbin, Stefan J Dalecki, Meredith Gentry, Sydney Brotheridge, Christina M Sluka, Jie-En Wu, Jonathon D Crystal
Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of unique events in sequential order [1-3]. Animal models of episodic memory have successfully documented episodic memory of a single event (e.g., [4-8]). However, a fundamental feature of episodic memory in people is that it involves multiple events, and notably, episodic memory impairments in human diseases are not limited to a single event. Critically, it is not known whether animals remember many unique events using episodic memory...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634051/foraging-success-under-uncertainty-search-tradeoffs-and-optimal-space-use
#12
Frederic Bartumeus, Daniel Campos, William S Ryu, Roger Lloret-Cabot, Vicenç Méndez, Jordi Catalan
Understanding the structural complexity and the main drivers of animal search behaviour is pivotal to foraging ecology. Yet, the role of uncertainty as a generative mechanism of movement patterns is poorly understood. Novel insights from search theory suggest that organisms should collect and assess new information from the environment by producing complex exploratory strategies. Based on an extension of the first passage time theory, and using simple equations and simulations, we unveil the elementary heuristics behind search behaviour...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591549/the-emergence-of-temporal-language-in-nicaraguan-sign-language
#13
Annemarie Kocab, Ann Senghas, Jesse Snedeker
Understanding what uniquely human properties account for the creation and transmission of language has been a central goal of cognitive science. Recently, the study of emerging sign languages, such as Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL), has offered the opportunity to better understand how languages are created and the roles of the individual learner and the community of users. Here, we examined the emergence of two types of temporal language in NSL, comparing the linguistic devices for conveying temporal information among three sequential age cohorts of signers...
November 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485428/comparing-different-sequential-mediational-interpretations-of-beck-s-cognitive-model-of-depression-in-adolescents
#14
Patrick Pössel
Depression is a developmental phenomenon with significantly increasing rates during adolescence. As Beck's cognitive model of depression has been commonly accepted to explain the development and maintenance of depression, it is crucial to understand how and when cognitive vulnerabilities predicted in this model begin to interact. Three sequential interpretations of this model were compared. The causal mediational interpretation identifies dysfunctional attitudes as most distal to depressive symptoms, followed by cognitive errors, cognitive triad, and negative automatic thoughts, with each construct successively more proximal to depressive symptoms...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281057/testing-a-model-to-reveal-the-predictive-mechanism-of-care-seeking-decisions-among-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#15
Polly W C Li, Doris S F Yu
BACKGROUND: Extensive research has been conducted to examine the factors affecting care-seeking decisions in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Such a decision-making process is multifactorial, and its underlying mechanism is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to test a theoretically integrated model to identify the mechanisms underlying patients' care-seeking decisions in the context of AMI. METHODS: On the basis of both empirical and theoretical evidence, we proposed that patients' care-seeking decisions are driven by 2 sequential perceptual-cognitive processes concerned with illness labeling and interpretation, as well as the contextual influences of perceived barriers to care seeking and cues from others...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266563/test-retest-retest-and-retest-growth-curve-models-of-repeat-testing-with-immediate-post-concussion-assessment-and-cognitive-testing-impact
#16
Arthur C Maerlender, Caitlin J Masterson, Tiffany D James, Jonathan Beckwith, Per Gunner Brolinson, Joe Crisco, Stefan Duma, Laura A Flashman, Rick Greenwald, Steven Rowson, Beth Wilcox, Tom W McAllister
Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test-retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26952739/diffusion-decision-model-current-issues-and-history
#17
REVIEW
Roger Ratcliff, Philip L Smith, Scott D Brown, Gail McKoon
There is growing interest in diffusion models to represent the cognitive and neural processes of speeded decision making. Sequential-sampling models like the diffusion model have a long history in psychology. They view decision making as a process of noisy accumulation of evidence from a stimulus. The standard model assumes that evidence accumulates at a constant rate during the second or two it takes to make a decision. This process can be linked to the behaviors of populations of neurons and to theories of optimality...
April 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934367/the-implicit-cognition-of-reciprocal-exchange-automatic-retrieval-of-positive-and-negative-experiences-with-partners-in-a-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#18
Raoul Bell, Nicolas Koranyi, Axel Buchner, Klaus Rothermund
Models of reciprocity imply that cheater detection is an important prerequisite for successful social exchange. Considering the fundamental role of memory in reciprocal exchange, these theories lead to the prediction that memory for cheaters should be preferentially enhanced. Here, we examine whether information of a partner's previous behaviour in an interaction is automatically retrieved when encountering the face of a partner who previously cheated or cooperated. In two studies, participants played a sequential prisoner's dilemma game with cheaters and cooperative partners...
March 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931602/sequential-detection-of-learning-in-cognitive-diagnosis
#19
Sangbeak Ye, Georgios Fellouris, Steven Culpepper, Jeff Douglas
In order to look more closely at the many particular skills examinees utilize to answer items, cognitive diagnosis models have received much attention, and perhaps are preferable to item response models that ordinarily involve just one or a few broadly defined skills, when the objective is to hasten learning. If these fine-grained skills can be identified, a sharpened focus on learning and remediation can be achieved. The focus here is on how to detect when learning has taken place for a particular attribute and efficiently guide a student through a sequence of items to ultimately attain mastery of all attributes while administering as few items as possible...
May 2016: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780564/therapist-and-client-discussions-of-drinking-and-coping-a-sequential-analysis-of-therapy-dialogues-in-three-evidence-based-alcohol-use-disorder-treatments
#20
Molly Magill, Justin Walthers, Nadine R Mastroleo, Jacques Gaume, Richard Longabaugh, Timothy R Apodaca
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research into the active ingredients of behavioral interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUD) has focused upon treatment-specific factors, often yielding disappointing results. The present study examines common factors of change in motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy and 12-Step facilitation therapy by (1) estimating transitional probabilities between therapist behaviors and subsequent client Change (CT) and Sustain (ST) Talk and (2) examining therapist skillfulness as a potential predictor of transition probability magnitude...
June 2016: Addiction
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