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successive sequential cognition

Ruth Horry, Neil Brewer
Confidence judgments in 2-alternative decisions have been the subject of a great deal of research in cognitive psychology. Sequential sampling models have been particularly successful at explaining confidence judgments in such decisions and the relationships between confidence, accuracy, and response latencies. Across 5 experiments, we derived predictions from sequential sampling models and applied them to more complex decisions: multiple-alternative decisions, and compound decisions, such as eyewitness identification tasks, in which a target may be present or absent within the array of items that can be selected...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Danielle Panoz-Brown, Hannah E Corbin, Stefan J Dalecki, Meredith Gentry, Sydney Brotheridge, Christina M Sluka, Jie-En Wu, Jonathon D Crystal
Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of unique events in sequential order [1-3]. Animal models of episodic memory have successfully documented episodic memory of a single event (e.g., [4-8]). However, a fundamental feature of episodic memory in people is that it involves multiple events, and notably, episodic memory impairments in human diseases are not limited to a single event. Critically, it is not known whether animals remember many unique events using episodic memory...
September 17, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Frederic Bartumeus, Daniel Campos, William S Ryu, Roger Lloret-Cabot, Vicenç Méndez, Jordi Catalan
Understanding the structural complexity and the main drivers of animal search behaviour is pivotal to foraging ecology. Yet, the role of uncertainty as a generative mechanism of movement patterns is poorly understood. Novel insights from search theory suggest that organisms should collect and assess new information from the environment by producing complex exploratory strategies. Based on an extension of the first passage time theory, and using simple equations and simulations, we unveil the elementary heuristics behind search behaviour...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Annemarie Kocab, Ann Senghas, Jesse Snedeker
Understanding what uniquely human properties account for the creation and transmission of language has been a central goal of cognitive science. Recently, the study of emerging sign languages, such as Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL), has offered the opportunity to better understand how languages are created and the roles of the individual learner and the community of users. Here, we examined the emergence of two types of temporal language in NSL, comparing the linguistic devices for conveying temporal information among three sequential age cohorts of signers...
November 2016: Cognition
Patrick Pössel
Depression is a developmental phenomenon with significantly increasing rates during adolescence. As Beck's cognitive model of depression has been commonly accepted to explain the development and maintenance of depression, it is crucial to understand how and when cognitive vulnerabilities predicted in this model begin to interact. Three sequential interpretations of this model were compared. The causal mediational interpretation identifies dysfunctional attitudes as most distal to depressive symptoms, followed by cognitive errors, cognitive triad, and negative automatic thoughts, with each construct successively more proximal to depressive symptoms...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Polly W C Li, Doris S F Yu
BACKGROUND: Extensive research has been conducted to examine the factors affecting care-seeking decisions in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Such a decision-making process is multifactorial, and its underlying mechanism is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to test a theoretically integrated model to identify the mechanisms underlying patients' care-seeking decisions in the context of AMI. METHODS: On the basis of both empirical and theoretical evidence, we proposed that patients' care-seeking decisions are driven by 2 sequential perceptual-cognitive processes concerned with illness labeling and interpretation, as well as the contextual influences of perceived barriers to care seeking and cues from others...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Arthur C Maerlender, Caitlin J Masterson, Tiffany D James, Jonathan Beckwith, Per Gunner Brolinson, Joe Crisco, Stefan Duma, Laura A Flashman, Rick Greenwald, Steven Rowson, Beth Wilcox, Tom W McAllister
Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test-retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Roger Ratcliff, Philip L Smith, Scott D Brown, Gail McKoon
There is growing interest in diffusion models to represent the cognitive and neural processes of speeded decision making. Sequential-sampling models like the diffusion model have a long history in psychology. They view decision making as a process of noisy accumulation of evidence from a stimulus. The standard model assumes that evidence accumulates at a constant rate during the second or two it takes to make a decision. This process can be linked to the behaviors of populations of neurons and to theories of optimality...
April 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Raoul Bell, Nicolas Koranyi, Axel Buchner, Klaus Rothermund
Models of reciprocity imply that cheater detection is an important prerequisite for successful social exchange. Considering the fundamental role of memory in reciprocal exchange, these theories lead to the prediction that memory for cheaters should be preferentially enhanced. Here, we examine whether information of a partner's previous behaviour in an interaction is automatically retrieved when encountering the face of a partner who previously cheated or cooperated. In two studies, participants played a sequential prisoner's dilemma game with cheaters and cooperative partners...
March 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Sangbeak Ye, Georgios Fellouris, Steven Culpepper, Jeff Douglas
In order to look more closely at the many particular skills examinees utilize to answer items, cognitive diagnosis models have received much attention, and perhaps are preferable to item response models that ordinarily involve just one or a few broadly defined skills, when the objective is to hasten learning. If these fine-grained skills can be identified, a sharpened focus on learning and remediation can be achieved. The focus here is on how to detect when learning has taken place for a particular attribute and efficiently guide a student through a sequence of items to ultimately attain mastery of all attributes while administering as few items as possible...
May 2016: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Molly Magill, Justin Walthers, Nadine R Mastroleo, Jacques Gaume, Richard Longabaugh, Timothy R Apodaca
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research into the active ingredients of behavioral interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUD) has focused upon treatment-specific factors, often yielding disappointing results. The present study examines common factors of change in motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy and 12-Step facilitation therapy by (1) estimating transitional probabilities between therapist behaviors and subsequent client Change (CT) and Sustain (ST) Talk and (2) examining therapist skillfulness as a potential predictor of transition probability magnitude...
June 2016: Addiction
Lise McCoy, Robin K Pettit, Joy H Lewis, J Aaron Allgood, Curt Bay, Frederic N Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Student engagement is an important domain for medical education, however, it is difficult to quantify. The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual patient simulations (VPS) for increasing medical student engagement. Our aims were specifically to investigate how and to what extent the VPS foster student engagement. This study took place at A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (ATSU-SOMA), in the USA. METHODS: First year medical students (n = 108) worked in teams to complete a series of four in-class virtual patient case studies...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Céline Poletti, Rita Sleimen-Malkoun, Patrick Lemaire, Jean-Jacques Temprado
The present study aimed at investigating age-related changes in strategic variations and sequential effects in discrete Fitts' aiming task. Three sequential effects were investigated, namely trial sequential difficulty effects (TSDE), strategy sequential difficulty effects (SSDE), and strategy repetition effects (SRE). After generalizing previously observed aging effects on strategic variations, our results showed that movement times were longer when performed after harder ID level than when following easier ID level (TSDE)...
January 2016: Acta Psychologica
Daniel J Kota, Karthik S Prabhakara, Alexandra J van Brummen, Supinder Bedi, Hasen Xue, Bryan DiCarlo, Charles S Cox, Scott D Olson
UNLABELLED: More than 6.5 million patients are burdened by the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial deficits associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the U.S. Despite extensive efforts to develop neuroprotective therapies for this devastating disorder, there have been no successful outcomes in human clinical trials to date. Retrospective studies have shown that β-adrenergic receptor blockers, specifically propranolol, significantly decrease mortality of TBI through mechanisms not yet fully elucidated but are thought to counterbalance a hyperadrenergic state resulting from a TBI...
January 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Jenny Guidi, Elena Tomba, Giovanni A Fava
OBJECTIVE: A number of randomized controlled trials in major depressive disorder have employed a sequential model, which consists of the use of pharmacotherapy in the acute phase and of psychotherapy in its residual phase. The aim of this review was to provide an updated meta-analysis of the efficacy of this approach in reducing the risk of relapse in major depressive disorder and to place these findings in the larger context of treatment selection. METHOD: Keyword searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from inception of each database through October 2014...
February 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Raoul Bell, Julia Sasse, Malte Möller, Daniela Czernochowski, Susanne Mayr, Axel Buchner
A sequential prisoner's dilemma game was combined with psychophysiological measures to examine the cognitive underpinnings of reciprocal exchange. Participants played four rounds of the game with partners who either cooperated or cheated. In a control condition, the partners' faces were shown, but no interaction took place. The partners' behaviors were consistent in the first three rounds of the game, but in the last round some of the partners unexpectedly changed strategies. In the first round of the game, the feedback about a partner's decision elicited a feedback P300, which was more pronounced for cooperation and cheating in comparison to the control condition, but did not vary as a function of feedback valence...
February 2016: Psychophysiology
Christoph Schütz, Thomas Schack
In a sequential task, the grasp postures people select depend on their movement history. This motor hysteresis effect results from the reuse of former movement plans and reduces the cognitive cost of movement planning. Movement plans for hand trajectories not only transfer across successive trials, but also across hands. We therefore asked whether such a transfer would also be found in movement plans for hand postures. To this end, we designed a sequential, continuous posture selection task. Participants had to open a column of drawers with cylindrical knobs in ascending and descending sequences...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Ana M L Nogueira, Orlando F A Bueno, Gilberto M Manzano, André F Kohn, Sabine Pompéia
Electrophysiological markers of chunking of words during encoding have mostly been shown in studies that present pairs of related stimuli. In these cases it is difficult to disentangle cognitive processes that reflect distinctiveness (i.e., conspicuous items because they are related), perceived association between related items and unified representations of various items, or chunking. Here, we propose a paradigm that enables the determination of a separate Event-related Potential (ERP) marker of these cognitive processes using sequentially related word triads...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
David Veale, Iona Naismith, Sarah Miles, Grace Childs, Jack Ball, Francesca Muccio, Simon Darnley
BACKGROUND: There is little data to inform the treatment of severe obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in an inpatient or residential setting. AIMS: This paper aimed to: a) describe treatment outcomes at a residential unit over 11 years; b) investigate whether treatment was successful for a subset of severe treatment refractory residents; c) compare an intensive treatment programme to a "standard" treatment programme; and d) find predictors of self or early discharge from the unit...
May 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Alexander R D Zahara, Nicole L Michel, Leanne M Flahr, Leanne E Ejack, Christy A Morrissey
Ecotoxicology research on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures has focused principally on short-term effects on reproduction, growth, and other physiological endpoints. Latent cognitive effects from early life exposure to low-level PCBs were examined in an avian model, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Thirty-six birds, divided equally among 4 treatment groups (control = 0 µg, low = 0.35 µg, intermediate = 0.70 µg, and high = 1.05 µg Aroclor 1254/g body weight), were dosed 1 d through 18 d posthatch, then tested 8 mo to 9 mo later in captivity in an analog to an open radial arm maze...
November 2015: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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