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simultaneous sequential cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872374/what-s-statistical-about-learning-insights-from-modelling-statistical-learning-as-a-set-of-memory-processes
#1
REVIEW
Erik D Thiessen
Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793183/evolving-methods-to-combine-cognitive-and-physical-training-for-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-study
#2
Ya-Yun Lee, Ching-Yi Wu, Ching-Hung Teng, Wen-Chuin Hsu, Ku-Chou Chang, Poyu Chen
BACKGROUND: Nonpharmacologic interventions, such as cognitive training or physical exercise, are effective in improving cognitive functions for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Some researchers have proposed that combining physical exercise with cognitive training may augment the benefits of cognition. However, strong evidence is lacking regarding whether a combined therapy is superior to a single type of training for older adults with MCI. Moreover, which combination approach - combining physical exercise with cognitive training sequentially or simultaneously - is more advantageous for cognitive improvement is not yet clear...
October 28, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535230/haptic-modality-takes-its-time-dynamic-of-activations-of-sensory-modalities-in-perceptual-and-memory-processes
#3
Stephanie Dabic, Amandine E Rey, Jordan Navarro, Rémy Versace
Based on claims resulting from grounded cognition theory that perceptual and memory processes are using the same distributed systems, the present study investigated the temporal aspect of access to memory traces through haptic and auditory modalities. Unlike in the case of visual or auditory components, the perception of a vibrotactile component is more sequential in nature and therefore cannot be fully processed before the end of the signal. The present study explores the dynamic of components activation in a situation of audio-vibrotactile asynchrony...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388526/time-perception-of-simultaneous-and-sequential-events-in-early-onset-schizophrenia
#4
M de Montalembert, N Coulon, D Cohen, O Bonnot, S Tordjman
Timing disorders in schizophrenia are a well-known phenomenon. However, no studies have yet assessed the role of temporal distortions in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), despite evidence that distorted time perception may share genetic risk factors with schizophrenia and may be a useful indicator in identifying individuals at risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the ability of 10 patients with EOS (mean age = 21.5 years, SD = 6) matched with 20 healthy control participants (mean age = 25...
August 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884088/taking-the-easy-way-out-increasing-implementation-effort-reduces-probability-maximizing-under-cognitive-load
#5
Christin Schulze, Ben R Newell
Cognitive load has previously been found to have a positive effect on strategy selection in repeated risky choice. Specifically, whereas inferior probability matching often prevails under single-task conditions, optimal probability maximizing sometimes dominates when a concurrent task competes for cognitive resources. We examined the extent to which this seemingly beneficial effect of increased task demands hinges on the effort required to implement each of the choice strategies. Probability maximizing typically involves a simple repeated response to a single option, whereas probability matching requires choice proportions to be tracked carefully throughout a sequential choice task...
July 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818505/effects-of-early-and-late-bilingualism-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#6
Jonathan A Berken, Xiaoqian Chai, Jen-Kai Chen, Vincent L Gracco, Denise Klein
UNLABELLED: Of current interest is how variations in early language experience shape patterns of functional connectivity in the human brain. In the present study, we compared simultaneous (two languages from birth) and sequential (second language learned after age 5 years) bilinguals using a seed-based resting-state MRI approach. We focused on the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as our ROI, as recent studies have demonstrated both neurofunctional and neurostructural changes related to age of second language acquisition in bilinguals in this cortical area...
January 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26739361/does-the-kabc-ii-display-ethnic-bias-in-the-prediction-of-reading-math-and-writing-in-elementary-school-through-high-school
#7
Caroline Scheiber
This study explored whether the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) predicted academic achievement outcomes of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition (KTEA-II) equally well across a representative sample of African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian school-aged children (N = 2,001) in three grade groups (1-4, 5-8, 9-12). It was of interest to study possible prediction bias in the slope and intercept of the five underlying Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive factors of the KABC-II-Sequential/Gsm (Short-Term Memory), Learning/Glr (Long-Term Storage and Retrieval), Simultaneous/Gv (Visual Processing), Planning/Gf (Fluid Reasoning), and Knowledge/Gc (Crystallized Ability)-in estimating reading, writing, and math...
January 6, 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26595475/decision-processes-and-the-slowing-of-simple-choices-in-schizophrenia
#8
Andrew Heathcote, Anna Suraev, Samuel Curley, Qinchun Gong, Jonathon Love, Patricia T Michie
Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have slowed response times (RT). We examined the role of decision processes in the slowing of simple choice responses. We updated Schatz's (1998) meta-analysis of deficits in speed and extend it to systematically examine the effects of schizophrenia on choice accuracy. We then report an experiment requiring decisions about motion direction, which we analyzed using an evidence accumulation model of choice, the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008)...
November 2015: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26502654/-cognitive-and-linguistic-abilities-of-a-boy-with-pvl-showing-relatively-higher-viq-compared-to-piq
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yukako Muramatsu, Jun Natsume, Miho Nakamura
In this study, we investigated the cognitive processing and language abilities of a 13-year-old boy with moderate periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), spastic diplegia and exotropia who had discrepant scores in the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third edition (VIQ; 82 > PIQ; under 40). In the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, his performance was poor at simultaneous processing compared to sequential processing...
September 2015: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26441742/efficient-multitasking-parallel-versus-serial-processing-of-multiple-tasks
#10
REVIEW
Rico Fischer, Franziska Plessow
In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26295338/appraisals-generate-specific-configurations-of-facial-muscle-movements-in-a-gambling-task-evidence-for-the-component-process-model-of-emotion
#11
Kornelia Gentsch, Didier Grandjean, Klaus R Scherer
Scherer's Component Process Model provides a theoretical framework for research on the production mechanism of emotion and facial emotional expression. The model predicts that appraisal results drive facial expressions, which unfold sequentially and cumulatively over time. In two experiments, we examined facial muscle activity changes (via facial electromyography recordings over the corrugator, cheek, and frontalis regions) in response to events in a gambling task. These events were experimentally manipulated feedback stimuli which presented simultaneous information directly affecting goal conduciveness (gambling outcome: win, loss, or break-even) and power appraisals (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as control appraisal (Experiment 2)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26082875/development-of-a-cognitive-bias-methodology-for-measuring-low-mood-in-chimpanzees
#12
Melissa Bateson, Daniel Nettle
There is an ethical and scientific need for objective, well-validated measures of low mood in captive chimpanzees. We describe the development of a novel cognitive task designed to measure 'pessimistic' bias in judgments of expectation of reward, a cognitive marker of low mood previously validated in a wide range of species, and report training and test data from three common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). The chimpanzees were trained on an arbitrary visual discrimination in which lifting a pale grey paper cone was associated with reinforcement with a peanut, whereas lifting a dark grey cone was associated with no reward...
2015: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051820/parallel-temporal-dynamics-in-hierarchical-cognitive-control
#13
Carolyn Ranti, Christopher H Chatham, David Badre
Cognitive control allows us to follow abstract rules in order to choose appropriate responses given our desired outcomes. Cognitive control is often conceptualized as a hierarchical decision process, wherein decisions made at higher, more abstract levels of control asymmetrically influence lower-level decisions. These influences could evolve sequentially across multiple levels of a hierarchical decision, consistent with much prior evidence for central bottlenecks and seriality in decision-making processes. However, here, we show that multiple levels of hierarchical cognitive control are processed primarily in parallel...
September 2015: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26030175/correction-to-yu-et-al-2015
#14
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Dynamics of postdecisional processing of confidence" by Shuli Yu, Timothy J. Pleskac and Matthew D. Zeigenfuse (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2015[Apr], Vol 144[2], 489-510). The paragraph before the Conclusion section states: "To investigate when this occurs, we simulated Model 8 using the best fitting parameters for each participant in Study 2 and extended the IJT duration." "Model 8" should be "Model 1." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-13746-006...
June 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25994960/brain-events-underlying-episodic-memory-changes-in-aging-a-longitudinal-investigation-of-structural-and-functional-connectivity
#15
Anders M Fjell, Markus H Sneve, Andreas B Storsve, Håkon Grydeland, Anastasia Yendiki, Kristine B Walhovd
Episodic memories are established and maintained by close interplay between hippocampus and other cortical regions, but degradation of a fronto-striatal network has been suggested to be a driving force of memory decline in aging. We wanted to directly address how changes in hippocampal-cortical versus striatal-cortical networks over time impact episodic memory with age. We followed 119 healthy participants (20-83 years) for 3.5 years with repeated tests of episodic verbal memory and magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of functional and structural connectivity and regional brain atrophy...
March 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25844627/dynamics-of-postdecisional-processing-of-confidence
#16
Shuli Yu, Timothy J Pleskac, Matthew D Zeigenfuse
Most cognitive theories assume that confidence and choice happen simultaneously and are based on the same information. The 3 studies presented in this article instead show that confidence judgments can arise, at least in part, from a postdecisional evidence accumulation process. As a result of this process, increasing the time between making a choice and confidence judgment improves confidence resolution. This finding contradicts the notion that confidence judgments are biased by decision makers seeking confirmatory evidence...
April 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25731997/functional-brain-networks-underlying-detection-and-integration-of-disconfirmatory-evidence
#17
Katie M Lavigne, Paul D Metzak, Todd S Woodward
Processing evidence that disconfirms a prior interpretation is a fundamental aspect of belief revision, and has clear social and clinical relevance. This complex cognitive process requires (at minimum) an alerting stage and an integration stage, and in the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used multivariate analysis methodology on two datasets in an attempt to separate these sequentially-activated cognitive stages and link them to distinct functional brain networks. Thirty-nine healthy participants completed one of two versions of an evidence integration experiment involving rating two consecutive animal images, both of which consisted of two intact images of animal faces morphed together at different ratios (e...
May 15, 2015: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25717168/inhibition-during-response-preparation-is-sensitive-to-response-complexity
#18
Ian Greenhouse, Dylan Saks, Timothy Hoang, Richard B Ivry
Motor system excitability is transiently suppressed during the preparation of movement. This preparatory inhibition is hypothesized to facilitate response selection and initiation. Given that demands on selection and initiation processes increase with movement complexity, we hypothesized that complexity would influence preparatory inhibition. To test this hypothesis, we probed corticospinal excitability during a delayed-response task in which participants were cued to prepare right- or left-hand movements of varying complexity...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25686094/identity-level-representations-affect-unfamiliar-face-matching-performance-in-sequential-but-not-simultaneous-tasks
#19
Nadia Menon, David White, Richard I Kemp
According to cognitive and neurological models of the face-processing system, faces are represented at two levels of abstraction. First, image-based pictorial representations code a particular instance of a face and include information that is unrelated to identity-such as lighting, pose, and expression. Second, at a more abstract level, identity-specific representations combine information from various encounters with a single face. Here we tested whether identity-level representations mediate unfamiliar face matching performance...
2015: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25613419/part-whole-information-assists-in-topological-%C3%A3-topological-but-not-in-orientation-%C3%A3-orientation-conjunction-searches
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Weijia Chen, Anthea G Blunden, Piers D L Howe
Visual search is a routine task used in everyday life and is an important field of research in cognitive psychology. In laboratory settings, it has been shown that search for a target defined by a unique conjunction of two colours is more efficient if one colour surrounds the other (a part-whole search) compared to when no such hierarchical structural relationship exists (a part-part search; Wolfe et al. in Perception & Psychophysics, 55, 537, 1994). A similar result has been shown to hold for size × size conjunction searches (Bilsky & Wolfe in Perception & Psychophysics, 57, 749, 1995)...
April 2015: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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