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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150679/dynamics-of-high-frequency-brain-activity
#1
Steven X Moffett, Sean M O'Malley, Shushuang Man, Dawei Hong, Joseph V Martin
Evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) activity extends far beyond the traditional frequency range. Much of the prior study of >120 Hz EEG is in epileptic brains. In the current work, we measured EEG activity in the range of 200 to 2000 Hz, in the brains of healthy, spontaneously behaving rats. Both arrhythmic (1/f-type) and rhythmic (band) activities were identified and their properties shown to depend on EEG-defined stage of sleep/wakefulness. The inverse power law exponent of 1/f-type noise is shown to decrease from 3...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142322/bilateral-5%C3%A2-hz-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-fronto-temporal-areas-modulates-resting-state-eeg
#2
Aurora D'Atri, Claudia Romano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Serena Scarpelli, Valentina Alfonsi, Michele Ferrara, Fabio Ferlazzo, Paolo Maria Rossini, Luigi De Gennaro
Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125946/a-stereo-eeg-study-in-a-patient-with-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-due-to-depdc5-mutation
#3
Lorenzo Ferri, Francesca Bisulli, Roberto Mai, Laura Licchetta, Chiara Leta, Lino Nobili, Barbara Mostacci, Tommaso Pippucci, Paolo Tinuper
PURPOSE: Dishevelled EGL-10 and pleckstrin domain-containing protein 5 (DEPDC5) mutations are found in a wide spectrum of focal epilepsies ranging from epilepsy caused by malformation of cortical development to non-lesional epilepsy, including sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE). A surgical approach has been anecdotally reported in patients with DEPDC5 mutations, but most of these cases had a lesional etiology. METHODS: We describe a stereo-EEG (SEEG) study in a patient with drug-resistant/non-lesional SHE...
November 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123082/supramammillary-glutamate-neurons-are-a-key-node-of-the-arousal-system
#4
Nigel P Pedersen, Loris Ferrari, Anne Venner, Joshua L Wang, Stephen B G Abbott, Nina Vujovic, Elda Arrigoni, Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller
Basic and clinical observations suggest that the caudal hypothalamus comprises a key node of the ascending arousal system, but the cell types underlying this are not fully understood. Here we report that glutamate-releasing neurons of the supramammillary region (SuM(vglut2)) produce sustained behavioral and EEG arousal when chemogenetically activated. This effect is nearly abolished following selective genetic disruption of glutamate release from SuM(vglut2) neurons. Inhibition of SuM(vglut2) neurons decreases and fragments wake, also suppressing theta and gamma frequency EEG activity...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118106/sleep-in-humans-stabilizes-pattern-separation-performance
#5
A Hanert, F D Weber, A Pedersen, J Born, T Bartsch
Replay of hippocampal neural representations during sleep is thought to promote systems consolidation of declarative memory. How this reprocessing of memory during sleep affects the hippocampal representation itself, is unclear. Here we tested hippocampal stimulus processing, i.e., pattern separation, before and after periods of sleep and wakefulness in humans (female and male participants). Pattern separation deteriorated across the wake period but remained stable across sleep (p = .013) with this sleep-wake difference being most pronounced for stimuli with low similarity to targets (p = ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106402/selective-neuronal-lapses-precede-human-cognitive-lapses-following-sleep-deprivation
#6
Yuval Nir, Thomas Andrillon, Amit Marmelshtein, Nanthia Suthana, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi, Itzhak Fried
Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
November 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101338/in-human-non-rem-sleep-more-slow-wave-activity-leads-to-less-blood-flow-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#7
Laura Tüshaus, Ximena Omlin, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura, Andrea Federspiel, Roger Luechinger, Philipp Staempfli, Thomas Koenig, Peter Achermann
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is related to integrated neuronal activity of the brain whereas EEG provides a more direct measurement of transient neuronal activity. Therefore, we addressed what happens in the brain during sleep, combining CBF and EEG recordings. The dynamic relationship of CBF with slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG sleep intensity marker) corroborated vigilance state specific (i.e., wake, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages N1-N3, wake after sleep) differences of CBF e.g. in the posterior cingulate, basal ganglia, and thalamus, indicating their role in sleep-wake regulation and/or sleep processes...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093287/stilbene-glucoside-a-putative-sleep-promoting-constituent-from-polygonum-multiflorum-affects-sleep-homeostasis-by-affecting-the-activities-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-and-salivary-alpha-amylase
#8
Qian Wei, Guang Ta, Wenjing He, Wei Wang, Qiucheng Wu
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for treating insomnia for centuries. The most used CHM for insomnia was Polygonum multiflorum. However, the molecular mechanism for CHM preventing insomnia is unknown. Stilbene glucoside (THSG), an important active component of P. multiflorum, may play an important role for treating insomnia. To test the hypothesis, Kunming mice were treated with different dosages of THSG. To examine the sleep duration, a computer-controlled sleep-wake detection system was implemented...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072318/cortical-beta-eeg-oscillations-related-to-changes-in-muscle-tone-activity-during-sleep-in-spider-monkey-ateles-geoffroyi
#9
Manuel Alejandro Cruz-Aguilar, Miguel Angel Guevara, Marisela Hernández-González, Ignacio Ramírez-Salado, Enrique Hernández-Arteaga, Fructuoso Ayala-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: The physiological mechanisms that allow for sleeping in a vertical position, which is primordial for arboreal primates, have not been studied yet. METHODS: A non-invasive polysomnographic study of 6 spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) was conducted. The relative beta power of the motor cortex and its linear relation with muscle tone in the facial mentalis muscle and the abductor caudae medialis muscle of the tail during wakefulness and sleep stages were calculated...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066952/the-sleep-wake-cycle-in-the-nicotinic-alpha-9-acetylcholine-receptor-subunit-knock-out-mice
#10
Natalia Madrid-López, Jorge Estrada, Javier Díaz, Alejandro Bassi, Paul H Délano, Adrián Ocampo-Garcés
There is a neural matrix controlling the sleep-wake cycle (SWC) embedded within high ranking integrative mechanisms in the central nervous system. Nicotinic alpha-9 acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha-9 nAChR) participate in physiological processes occurring in sensory, endocrine and immune systems. There is a relationship between the SWC architecture, body homeostasis and sensory afferents so that disruption of afferent signaling is expected to affect the temporal organization of sleep and wake states. The analysis of the SWC of 9 nAChR knock-out animals may help to reveal the contribution of alpha-9 nAChR to sleep chronobiological determinants...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060680/eeg-fluctuations-of-wake-and-sleep-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Johnny O'Keeffe, Barbara Carlson, Lisa DeStefano, Michael Wenger, Melissa Craft, Linda Hershey, Jeremy Hughes, Dee Wu, Lei Ding, Han Yuan
Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), a condition in which the memory functions of cognition are significantly impaired, is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a tool capable of measuring the dynamics of the brain's neural networks, and is thus an important means in analysis and understanding of aMCI. In this proof-of-concept study, we compared the brain activation patterns of ten aMCI subjects with those of four healthy subjects during sleep by employing a 64-channel EEG data collection system...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060055/a-novel-hfo-based-method-for-unsupervised-localization-of-the-seizure-onset-zone-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#12
Paige M Murphy, Adam J von Paternos, Sabato Santaniello
High frequency oscillations (HFOs) are potential biomarkers of epileptic areas. In patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, HFO rates tend to be higher in the seizure onset zone (SOZ) than in other brain regions and the resection of HFO-generating areas positively correlates with seizure-free surgery outcome. Nonetheless, the development of robust unsupervised HFO-based tools for SOZ localization remains challenging. Current approaches predict the SOZ by processing small samples of intracranial EEG (iEEG) data and applying patient-specific thresholds on the HFO rate...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054698/visual-and-quantitative-electroencephalographic-analysis-in-healthy-term-neonates-within-the-first-six%C3%A2-hours-and-the-third-day-of-life
#13
José R Castro Conde, Desiré González Barrios, Candelaria González Campo, Nieves L González González, Beatriz Reyes Millán, Alejandro Jiménez Sosa
BACKGROUND: What constitutes a "normal" background electroencephalography (EEG) rhythm immediately after birth is not well understood. We performed video-electroencephalography recordings in the first six hours (first measure) and the third day of life (second measure) for evidence of transient changes in brain function. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of an incidental sample of healthy term neonates in a single-center nursery. Main outcome measures were as follows: (1) EEG visual analysis, which included sleep-wake cycles, proportions of discontinuity and bursts with delta brushes, and number per hour of alpha/theta rolandic activity, encoches frontales, and transients; and (2) the electroencephalographic spectral analysis, which included power spectrum in the following frequency bands: delta, 0...
May 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031758/the-association-of-mothers-and-fathers-insomnia-symptoms-with-school-aged-children-s-sleep-assessed-by-parent-report-and-in-home-sleep-electroencephalography
#14
Natalie Urfer-Maurer, Rebekka Weidmann, Serge Brand, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Alexander Grob, Peter Weber, Sakari Lemola
OBJECTIVE: Sleep plays an essential role for children's well-being. Because children's sleep is associated with parental sleep patterns, it must be considered in the family context. As a first aim of the present study, we test whether parental insomnia symptoms are related to children's in-home sleep-electroencephalography (EEG). Second, we examine the association between parental insomnia symptoms and maternal and paternal perception of children's sleep using actor-partner interdependence models...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031745/sleep-architecture-in-patients-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#15
Jaidaa F Mekky, Sonia M Elbhrawy, Mohamed F Boraey, Horeya M Omar
AIM: The aim is to analyze the sleep architecture using polysomnography (PSG) in patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME): (newly diagnosed and those on valproate drug) attending epilepsy clinic at Alexandria University Hospitals. METHODS: This study involved 20 patients with JME on valproate (age: 22.40 ± 5.80 years; M:F = 6:14), 20 newly diagnosed patients (age: 18.55 ± 6.0 years; M:F = 6:14), and 20 matched healthy controls (age: 22.10 ± 5...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029348/dysregulation-of-sleep-behavioral-states-in-narcolepsy
#16
Sarah F Schoch, Esther Werth, Rositsa Poryazova, Thomas E Scammell, Christian R Baumann, Lukas L Imbach
Study Objectives: Patients with narcolepsy suffer from poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented night sleep, but the underlying mechanism of sleep boundary dysregulation remains little understood. The goal of this study was to quantify abnormal sleep-wake regulation in narcolepsy patients. Methods: Using a model-based approach (state space analysis), we analyzed overnight EEG recordings in ten patients with narcolepsy type 1 and age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029214/sleepless-night-and-day-the-plight-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#17
Christine M Walsh, Leslie Ruoff, Kathleen Walker, Alaisa Emery, Jonathan Varbel, Elissaios Karageorgiou, Phi N Luong, Irida Mance, Hilary W Heuer, Adam L Boxer, Lea T Grinberg, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Thomas C Neylan
Objectives: To elucidate the unique sleep and waking characteristics in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a neurodegenerative disease associated with motor deficits and dementia that largely affects the brainstem and thalamic regions. Methods: A total of 20 PSP and 16 healthy older adult controls participated in this study. The participants underwent an overnight polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) the following day. Prior to the MSLT last trial, they were asked to complete the Stanford Sleepiness Scale...
November 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028805/what-drives-slow-wave-activity-during-early-non-rem-sleep-learning-during-prior-wake-or-effort
#18
Ziyang Li, Aarohi B Sheth, Bhavin R Sheth
What is the function of sleep in humans? One claim is that sleep consolidates learning. Slow wave activity (SWA), i.e. slow oscillations of frequency < 4 Hz, has been observed in electroencephalograms (EEG) during sleep; it increases with prior wakefulness and decreases with sleep. Studies have claimed that increase in SWA in specific regions of the sleeping brain is correlated with overnight improved performance, i.e. overnight consolidation, on a demanding motor learning task. We wondered if SWA change during sleep is attributable to overnight consolidation or to metabolic demand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983703/mapping-slow-waves-by-eeg-topography-and-source-localization-effects-of-sleep-deprivation
#19
Alessia Bersagliere, Roberto D Pascual-Marqui, Leila Tarokh, Peter Achermann
Slow waves are a salient feature of the electroencephalogram (EEG) during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep. The aim of this study was to assess the topography of EEG power and the activation of brain structures during slow wave sleep under normal conditions and after sleep deprivation. Sleep EEG recordings during baseline and recovery sleep after 40 h of sustained wakefulness were analyzed (eight healthy young men, 27 channel EEG). Power maps were computed for the first non-REM sleep episode (where sleep pressure is highest) in baseline and recovery sleep, at frequencies between 0...
October 5, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958087/neonatal-sleep-wake-analyses-predict-18-month-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#20
Renée A Shellhaas, Joseph W Burns, Fauziya Hassan, Martha D Carlson, John D E Barks, Ronald D Chervin
Objectives: The neurological examination of critically ill neonates is largely limited to reflexive behavior. The exam often ignores sleep-wake physiology that may reflect brain integrity and influence long-term outcomes. We assessed whether polysomnography and concurrent cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might improve prediction of 18-month neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods: Term newborns with suspected seizures underwent standardized neurologic examinations to generate Thompson scores and had 12-hour bedside polysomnography with concurrent cerebral NIRS...
November 1, 2017: Sleep
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