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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919403/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-agonists-as-narcolepsy-therapeutics
#1
Sarah W Black, Michael D Schwartz, Tsui-Ming Chen, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy, a disorder of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, a loss of muscle tone triggered by emotional stimulation. Current narcolepsy pharmacotherapeutics include controlled substances with abuse potential or drugs with undesirable side effects. As partial agonists at trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) promote wakefulness in mice and rats, we evaluated whether TAAR1 agonism had beneficial effects in two mouse models of narcolepsy...
October 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913167/gamma-band-directional-interactions-between-basal-forebrain-and-visual-cortex-during-wake-and-sleep-states
#2
Jayakrishnan Nair, Arndt-Lukas Klaassen, Jordan Poirot, Alexei Vyssotski, Björn Rasch, Gregor Rainer
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of cortical excitability and responsivity to sensory stimuli, and plays a major role in wake-sleep regulation. While the impact of BF on cortical EEG or LFP signals has been extensively documented, surprisingly little is known about LFP activity within BF. Based on bilateral recordings from rats in their home cage, we describe endogenous LFP oscillations in the BF during quiet wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) states. Using coherence and Granger causality methods, we characterize directional influences between BF and visual cortex (VC) during each of these states...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912885/tetrandrine-an-alkaloid-from-s-tetrandra-exhibits-anti-hypertensive-and-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-shr-via-different-mechanisms
#3
Yuan-Li Huang, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Qing Cao, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Xiao Hu, Hui Ye, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). PURPOSE: This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#4
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899291/dynamic-changes-in-sleep-pattern-during-post-partum-in-normal-pregnancy-in-rat-model
#5
Neelima Sivadas, Arathi Radhakrishnan, B S Aswathy, Velayudhan Mohan Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
To develop an animal model for studies on peri-partum sleep disorders, sleep patterns in female Wistar rats during pregnancy, post-partum and after weaning, were assessed and associated adaptive changes in their anxiety were examined. Adult nulliparous female rats, maintained in standard laboratory conditions with ad libitum food and water, were surgically implanted with electroencephalogram and electromyogram electrodes under anaesthesia for objective assessment of sleep-wakefulness (S-W). After post-surgical recovery, three control recordings of S-W were taken for 24h before the animals were kept for mating...
November 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894921/alterations-of-awake-eeg-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-without-cognitive-impairment
#6
Young Rong Bang, Hong Jun Jeon, Soyoung Youn, In-Young Yoon
The aim of this study was to find electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in subjects with drug-naïve idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) who had no cognitive impairment. A total of 57 iRBD patients confirmed by polysomnography (PSG) and 33 sex and age-matched healthy controls were included and their waking EEG was recorded from five cortical regions for 15min. Power spectral analyses by fast Fourier transforms were performed on EEG data. In PSG data, the iRBD patients showed sleep disturbances of short total sleep time, decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency and frequent awakening compared to controls...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886023/quantifying-the-dynamic-of-osa-brain-using-multifractal-formalism-a-novel-measure-for-sleep-fragmentation
#7
Somayeh Raiesdana
It is thought that the critical brain dynamics in sleep is modulated during frequent periods of wakefulness. This paper utilizes the capacity of EEG based scaling analysis to quantify sleep fragmentation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The scale-free (fractal) behavior refers to a state where no characteristic scale dominates the dynamics of the underlying process which is evident as long range correlations in a time series. Here, Multiscaling (multifractal) spectrum is utilized to quantify the disturbed dynamic of an OSA brain with fragmented sleep...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860547/the-discovery-of-suvorexant-the-first-orexin-receptor-drug-for-insomnia
#8
Paul J Coleman, Anthony L Gotter, W Joseph Herring, Christopher J Winrow, John J Renger
Historically, pharmacological therapies have used mechanisms such as γ- aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor potentiation to drive sleep through broad suppression of central nervous system activity. With the discovery of orexin signaling loss as the etiology underlying narcolepsy, a disorder associated with hypersomnolence, orexin antagonism emerged as an alternative approach to attenuate orexin-induced wakefulness more selectively. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) block the activity of orexin 1 and 2 receptors to both reduce the threshold to transition into sleep and attenuate orexin-mediated arousal...
November 17, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859029/reactivation-of-seizure-related-changes-to-interictal-spike-shape-and-synchrony-during-postseizure-sleep-in-patients
#9
Mark R Bower, Michal T Kucewicz, Erik K St Louis, Fredric B Meyer, W Richard Marsh, Matt Stead, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Local field potentials (LFPs) arise from synchronous activation of millions of neurons, producing seemingly consistent waveform shapes and relative synchrony across electrodes. Interictal spikes (IISs) are LFPs associated with epilepsy that are commonly used to guide surgical resection. Recently, changes in neuronal firing patterns observed in the minutes preceding seizure onset were found to be reactivated during postseizure sleep, a process called seizure-related consolidation (SRC), due to similarities with learning-related consolidation...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855738/sexsomnia-a-specialized-non-rem-parasomnia
#10
Anne-Laure Dubessy, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Valérie Attali, Jean-Baptiste Maranci, Isabelle Arnulf
OBJECTIVE: To describe patients with sexsomnia and to contrast their clinical and sleep measures with those of healthy controls and sleepwalkers. METHODS: Subjects referred for sexsomnia and for sleepwalking/night terror were interviewed, completed the Paris Arousal Disorder Severity Scale (PADSS) and were monitored one to two nights with video-polysomnography. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (70.6% male, aged 17 to 76 years) had sexsomnia, with amnestic fondling of the bed partner (n=11), complete sexual intercourse (n=8), masturbation (n=8) and spontaneous orgasm (n=1)...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853537/global-field-synchronization-reveals-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-as-most-synchronized-brain-state-in-the-human-eeg
#11
Peter Achermann, Thomas Rusterholz, Roland Dürr, Thomas König, Leila Tarokh
Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global field synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852786/electrophysiological-evidence-for-alternative-motor-networks-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#12
Marc Hackius, Esther Werth, Oguzkan Sürücü, Christian R Baumann, Lukas L Imbach
: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show mostly unimpaired motor behavior during REM sleep, which contrasts strongly to coexistent nocturnal bradykinesia. The reason for this sudden amelioration of motor control in REM sleep is unknown, however. We set out to determine whether movements during REM sleep are processed by different motor networks than movements in the waking state. We recorded local field potentials in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and scalp EEG (modified 10/20 montage) during sleep in humans with PD and RBD...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849520/cellular-and-neurochemical-basis-of-sleep-stages-in-the-thalamocortical-network
#13
Giri P Krishnan, Sylvain Chauvette, Isaac Shamie, Sara Soltani, Igor Timofeev, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren, Maxim Bazhenov
The link between the combined action of neuromodulators in the brain and global brain states remains a mystery. In this study, using biophysically realistic models of the thalamocortical network, we identified the critical intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms, associated with the putative action of acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and monoamines, which lead to transitions between primary brain vigilance states (waking, non-rapid eye movement sleep [NREM] and REM sleep) within an ultradian cycle. Using ECoG recordings from humans and LFP recordings from cats and mice, we found that during NREM sleep the power of spindle and delta oscillations is negatively correlated in humans and positively correlated in animal recordings...
November 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842553/disharmony-between-wake-and-respiration-promoting-activities-effects-of-modafinil-on-ventilatory-control-in-rodents
#14
Jiro Terada, Isato Fukushi, Kotaro Takeda, Yohei Hasebe, Mieczyslaw Pokorski, Koichiro Tatsumi, Yasumasa Okada
BACKGROUND: Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug and has been widely used for daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. A recent case series reported that daily oral modafinil alleviated hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients with COPD. However, the precise action of modafinil on respiration such as hypercapnic and/or hypoxic ventilatory responses remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of modafinil on the ventilatory control...
November 14, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826247/modulations-of-heart-rate-ecg-and-cardio-respiratory-coupling-observed-in-polysomnography
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Penzel, Jan W Kantelhardt, Ronny P Bartsch, Maik Riedl, Jan F Kraemer, Niels Wessel, Carmen Garcia, Martin Glos, Ingo Fietze, Christoph Schöbel
The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821764/the-cholinergic-forebrain-arousal-system-acts-directly-on-the-circadian-pacemaker
#16
Glenn R Yamakawa, Priyoneel Basu, Filomeno Cortese, Johanna MacDonnell, Danica Whalley, Victoria M Smith, Michael C Antle
Sleep and wake states are regulated by a variety of mechanisms. One such important system is the circadian clock, which provides temporal structure to sleep and wake. Conversely, changes in behavioral state, such as sleep deprivation (SD) or arousal, can phase shift the circadian clock. Here we demonstrate that the level of wakefulness is critical for this arousal resetting of the circadian clock. Specifically, drowsy animals with significant power in the 7- to 9-Hz band of their EEGs do not exhibit phase shifts in response to a mild SD procedure...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812555/sleep-physiology-in-toddlers-effects-of-missing-a-nap-on-subsequent-night-sleep
#17
Jonathan M Lassonde, Thomas Rusterholz, Salome Kurth, Allyson M Schumacher, Peter Achermann, Monique K LeBourgeois
The shift from a biphasic to a monophasic sleep schedule is a fundamental milestone in early childhood. This transition, however, may result in periods of acute sleep loss as children may nap on some but not all days. Although data indicating the behavioral consequences of nap deprivation in young children are accumulating, little is known about changes to sleep neurophysiology following daytime sleep loss. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the effects of acute nap deprivation on subsequent nighttime sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters in toddlers...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806374/forward-genetics-analysis-of-sleep-in-randomly-mutagenized-mice
#18
Hiromasa Funato, Chika Miyoshi, Tomoyuki Fujiyama, Takeshi Kanda, Makito Sato, Zhiqiang Wang, Jing Ma, Shin Nakane, Jun Tomita, Aya Ikkyu, Miyo Kakizaki, Noriko Hotta-Hirashima, Satomi Kanno, Haruna Komiya, Fuyuki Asano, Takato Honda, Staci J Kim, Kanako Harano, Hiroki Muramoto, Toshiya Yonezawa, Seiya Mizuno, Shinichi Miyazaki, Linzi Connor, Vivek Kumar, Ikuo Miura, Tomohiro Suzuki, Atsushi Watanabe, Manabu Abe, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Satoru Takahashi, Kenji Sakimura, Yu Hayashi, Qinghua Liu, Kazuhiko Kume, Shigeharu Wakana, Joseph S Takahashi, Masashi Yanagisawa
Sleep is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and is tightly regulated in a homeostatic manner. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that determine the amount of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS) remain unknown. Here we identify two dominant mutations that affect sleep and wakefulness by using an electroencephalogram/electromyogram-based screen of randomly mutagenized mice. A splicing mutation in the Sik3 protein kinase gene causes a profound decrease in total wake time, owing to an increase in inherent sleep need...
November 2, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793660/reduced-expression-of-%C3%AE-5gabaa-receptors-elicits-autism-like-alterations-in-eeg-patterns-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#19
Lia Mesbah-Oskui, Antonello Penna, Beverley A Orser, Richard L Horner
A reduction in the activity of GABAA receptors, particularly α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors (α5GABAARs), has been implicated in the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Genetically modified mice that lack α5GABAARs (Gabra5(-/-)) exhibit autism-like behaviors and both enhanced and impaired learning and memory, depending on the behavioral task. The aim of this study was to examine the electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and sleep-wake behaviors in Gabra5(-/-) mice and wild-type mice. In addition, since some individuals with ASD can exhibit elevated innate immune response, mice were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 125mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) or vehicle and EEG and sleep-wake patterns were assessed...
October 25, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791431/neuronal-oscillations-indicate-sleep-dependent-changes-in-the-cortical-memory-trace
#20
Moritz Köster, Holger Finger, Maren Kater, Christoph Schenk, Thomas Gruber
Sleep promotes the consolidation of newly acquired associative memories. Here we used neuronal oscillations in the human EEG to investigate sleep-dependent changes in the cortical memory trace. The retrieval activity for object-color associations was assessed immediately after encoding and after 3 hr of sleep or wakefulness. Sleep had beneficial effects on memory performance and led to reduced event-related theta and gamma power during the retrieval of associative memories. Furthermore, event-related alpha suppression was attenuated in the wake group for memorized and novel stimuli...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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