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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424085/the-within-host-population-dynamics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vary-with-treatment-efficacy
#1
Andrej Trauner, Qingyun Liu, Laura E Via, Xin Liu, Xianglin Ruan, Lili Liang, Huimin Shi, Ying Chen, Ziling Wang, Ruixia Liang, Wei Zhang, Wang Wei, Jingcai Gao, Gang Sun, Daniela Brites, Kathleen England, Guolong Zhang, Sebastien Gagneux, Clifton E Barry, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Combination therapy is one of the most effective tools for limiting the emergence of drug resistance in pathogens. Despite the widespread adoption of combination therapy across diseases, drug resistance rates continue to rise, leading to failing treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying treatment failure are well studied, but the processes governing successful combination therapy are poorly understood. We address this question by studying the population dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment with different combinations of antibiotics...
April 19, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419296/urinary-podocyte-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-mrna-as-markers-for-disease-activity-and-progression-in-anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-nephritis
#2
Akihiro Fukuda, Akihiro Minakawa, Yuji Sato, Takashi Iwakiri, Shuji Iwatsubo, Hiroyuki Komatsu, Masao Kikuchi, Kazuo Kitamura, Roger C Wiggins, Shouichi Fujimoto
Background.: Podocyte depletion causes glomerulosclerosis, with persistent podocyte loss being a major factor driving disease progression. Urinary podocyte mRNA is potentially useful for monitoring disease progression in both animal models and in humans. To determine whether the same principles apply to crescentic glomerular injury, a rat model of anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) nephritis was studied in parallel with a patient with anti-GBM nephritis. Methods...
April 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416691/neurophysiological-dynamics-of-phrase-structure-building-during-sentence-processing
#3
Matthew J Nelson, Imen El Karoui, Kristof Giber, Xiaofang Yang, Laurent Cohen, Hilda Koopman, Sydney S Cash, Lionel Naccache, John T Hale, Christophe Pallier, Stanislas Dehaene
Although sentences unfold sequentially, one word at a time, most linguistic theories propose that their underlying syntactic structure involves a tree of nested phrases rather than a linear sequence of words. Whether and how the brain builds such structures, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we used human intracranial recordings and visual word-by-word presentation of sentences and word lists to investigate how left-hemispheric brain activity varies during the formation of phrase structures. In a broad set of language-related areas, comprising multiple superior temporal and inferior frontal sites, high-gamma power increased with each successive word in a sentence but decreased suddenly whenever words could be merged into a phrase...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411651/enzyme-armoring-by-an-organosilica-layer-synthesis-and-characterization-of-hybrid-organic-inorganic-nanobiocatalysts
#4
M Rita Correro, Sabine Sykora, Philippe F-X Corvini, Patrick Shahgaldian
The availability of highly stable and reusable enzymes is one of the main challenges in bio-based industrial processes. Enzyme immobilization and encapsulation represent promising strategies to reach this goal. In this chapter, the synthetic strategy to produce hybrid organic/inorganic nanobiocatalysts (NBC) is reported. This strategy is based on the sequential immobilization of an enzyme on the surface of silica nanoparticles followed by the growth, at the surface of the nanoparticles, of a shielding layer which serves as an armor to protect the enzyme against denaturation/degradation...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405834/feasibility-study-of-a-generalized-framework-for-developing-computer-aided-detection-systems-a-new-paradigm
#5
Mitsutaka Nemoto, Naoto Hayashi, Shouhei Hanaoka, Yukihiro Nomura, Soichiro Miki, Takeharu Yoshikawa
We propose a generalized framework for developing computer-aided detection (CADe) systems whose characteristics depend only on those of the training dataset. The purpose of this study is to show the feasibility of the framework. Two different CADe systems were experimentally developed by a prototype of the framework, but with different training datasets. The CADe systems include four components; preprocessing, candidate area extraction, candidate detection, and candidate classification. Four pretrained algorithms with dedicated optimization/setting methods corresponding to the respective components were prepared in advance...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400723/electrophysiological-correlates-of-familiarity-and-recollection-in-associative-recognition-contributions-of-perceptual-and-conceptual-processing-to-unitization
#6
Bingcan Li, Xinrui Mao, Yujuan Wang, Chunyan Guo
It is generally accepted that associative recognition memory is supported by recollection. In addition, recent research indicates that familiarity can support associative memory, especially when two items are unitized into a single item. Both perceptual and conceptual manipulations can be used to unitize items, but few studies have compared these two methods of unitization directly. In the present study, we investigated the effects of familiarity and recollection on successful retrieval of items that were unitized perceptually or conceptually...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390015/approaches-towards-the-enhanced-production-of-rapamycin-by-streptomyces-hygroscopicus-mtcc-4003-through-mutagenesis-and-optimization-of-process-parameters-by-taguchi-orthogonal-array-methodology
#7
Subhasish Dutta, Bikram Basak, Biswanath Bhunia, Ankan Sinha, Apurba Dey
The present research was conducted to define the approaches for enhanced production of rapamycin (Rap) by Streptomyces hygroscopicus microbial type culture collection (MTCC) 4003. Both physical mutagenesis by ultraviolet ray (UV) and chemical mutagenesis by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) have been applied successfully for the improvement of Rap production. Enhancing Rap yield by novel sequential UV mutagenesis technique followed by fermentation gives a significant difference in getting economically scalable amount of this industrially important macrolide compound...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389106/development-of-the-green-garden-resources-education-and-environment-nexus-tool-an-evidence-based-model-for-school-garden-integration
#8
Kate Gardner Burt, Pamela Koch, Isobel Contento
BACKGROUND: Researchers have established the benefits of school gardens on students' academic achievement, dietary outcomes, physical activity, and psychosocial skills, yet limited research has been conducted about how school gardens become institutionalized and sustained. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop a tool that captures how gardens are effectively established, integrated, and sustained in schools. DESIGN: We conducted a sequential, exploratory, mixed-methods study...
April 4, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379264/a-fluorescein-based-chemosensor-for-relay-fluorescence-recognition-of-cu-ii-ions-and-biothiols-in-water-and-its-applications-to-a-molecular-logic-gate-and-living-cell-imaging
#9
Zhen-Hai Fu, Lu-Bin Yan, Xiaolong Zhang, Fan-Fan Zhu, Xin-Long Han, Jianguo Fang, Ya-Wen Wang, Yu Peng
Relay recognition of copper(ii) ions and biothiols via a fluorescence "on-off-on" cascade was designed and realized as a new sequential combination of cations and small molecules. Probe 1 bearing a fluorescein skeleton was thus synthesized, which performed well in 100% HEPES buffer (pH = 7.0) solution, as a highly sensitive, selective fluorescence sensor for Cu(2+). The limit of detection (LOD, 0.017 ppm) was obtained, and this value is much lower than 1.3 ppm, allowed by US EPA. The 1 : 1 complex generated from fast sensing of Cu(2+) when excited at 491 nm, showed good relay recognition for biothiols (i...
April 5, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374192/sequential-recruitment-of-study-participants-may-inflate-genetic-heritability-estimates
#10
Damia Noce, Martin Gögele, Christine Schwienbacher, Giulia Caprioli, Alessandro De Grandi, Luisa Foco, Stefan Platzgummer, Peter P Pramstaller, Cristian Pattaro
After the success of genome-wide association studies to uncover complex trait loci, attempts to explain the remaining genetic heritability (h (2)) are mainly focused on unraveling rare variant associations and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. Little attention is paid to the possibility that h (2) estimates are inflated as a consequence of the epidemiological study design. We studied the time series of 54 biochemical traits in 4373 individuals from the Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study, a pedigree-based study enrolling ten participants/day over several years, with close relatives preferentially invited within the same day...
April 3, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371310/sequential-bioavailability-of-sedimentary-organic-matter-to-heterotrophic-bacteria
#11
Nagissa Mahmoudi, Steven R Beaupré, Andrew D Steen, Ann Pearson
Aquatic sediments harbor diverse microbial communities that mediate organic matter degradation and influence biogeochemical cycles. The pool of bioavailable carbon continuously changes as a result of abiotic processes and microbial activity. It remains unclear how microbial communities respond to heterogeneous organic matrices and how this ultimately affects heterotrophic respiration. To explore the relationships between the degradation of mixed carbon substrates and microbial activity, we incubated batches of organic-rich sediments in a novel bioreactor (IsoCaRB) that permitted continuous observations of CO2 production rates, as well as sequential sampling of isotopic signatures (δ(13) C, Δ(14) C), microbial community structure and diversity, and extracellular enzyme activity...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358531/what-happens-during-annual-appraisal-interviews-how-leader-follower-interactions-unfold-and-impact-interview-outcomes
#12
Annika L Meinecke, Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock, Simone Kauffeld
Despite a wealth of research on antecedents and outcomes of annual appraisal interviews, the ingredients that make for a successful communication process within the interview itself remain unclear. This study takes a communication approach to highlight leader-follower dynamics in annual appraisal interviews. We integrate relational leadership theory and recent findings on leader-follower interactions to argue (a) how supervisors' task- and relation-oriented statements can elicit employee involvement during the interview process and (b) how these communication patterns affect both supervisors' and employees' perceptions of the interview...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356737/synthesis-characterization-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-novel-double-layer-nanocomposite-electrospun-fibers-for-wound-dressing-applications
#13
Alaa J Hassiba, Mohamed E El Zowalaty, Thomas J Webster, Aboubakr M Abdullah, Gheyath K Nasrallah, Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil, Adriaan S Luyt, Ahmed A Elzatahry
Herein, novel hybrid nanomaterials were developed for wound dressing applications with antimicrobial properties. Electrospinning was used to fabricate a double layer nanocomposite nanofibrous mat consisting of an upper layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) and chitosan loaded with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and a lower layer of polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers loaded with chlorhexidine (as an antiseptic). The top layer containing AgNPs, whose purpose was to protect the wound site against environmental germ invasion, was prepared by reducing silver nitrate to its nanoparticulate form through interaction with chitosan...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341507/endovascular-aortic-repair-for-progressive-chronic-thoracoabdominal-aortic-dissections
#14
Vito Mantese, Shameem Kunhammed
BACKGROUND: Ascending and thoracic aortic dissections progress into thoracoabdominal aneurysms 20-40% of the time, due to the initial aortic injury with associated weakness of the aortic wall. The increased firmness of the intimal flap usually results in a collapsed true lumen that does not spontaneously re-expand even with progressive dilatation of the aorta. In an effort to identify a safe and effective treatment path for this complex disease process, we present 4 cases illustrating successful sequential thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR)...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333507/the-sequence-of-study-changes-what-information-is-attended-to-encoded-and-remembered-during-category-learning
#15
Paulo F Carvalho, Robert L Goldstone
The sequence of study influences how we learn. Previous research has identified different sequences as potentially beneficial for learning in different contexts and with different materials. Here we investigate the mechanisms involved in inductive category learning that give rise to these sequencing effects. Across 3 experiments we show evidence that the sequence of study changes what information learners attend to during learning, what is encoded from the materials studied and, consequently, what is remembered from study...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317836/microscale-symmetrical-electroporator-array-as-a-versatile-molecular-delivery-system
#16
Mengxing Ouyang, Winfield Hill, Jung Hyun Lee, Soojung Claire Hur
Successful developments of new therapeutic strategies often rely on the ability to deliver exogenous molecules into cytosol. We have developed a versatile on-chip vortex-assisted electroporation system, engineered to conduct sequential intracellular delivery of multiple molecules into various cell types at low voltage in a dosage-controlled manner. Micro-patterned planar electrodes permit substantial reduction in operational voltages and seamless integration with an existing microfluidic technology. Equipped with real-time process visualization functionality, the system enables on-chip optimization of electroporation parameters for cells with varying properties...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303100/a-neural-dynamic-architecture-for-reaching-and-grasping-integrates-perception-and-movement-generation-and-enables-on-line-updating
#17
Guido Knips, Stephan K U Zibner, Hendrik Reimann, Gregor Schöner
Reaching for objects and grasping them is a fundamental skill for any autonomous robot that interacts with its environment. Although this skill seems trivial to adults, who effortlessly pick up even objects they have never seen before, it is hard for other animals, for human infants, and for most autonomous robots. Any time during movement preparation and execution, human reaching movement are updated if the visual scene changes (with a delay of about 100 ms). The capability for online updating highlights how tightly perception, movement planning, and movement generation are integrated in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294224/creation-of-a-dual-porosity-and-dual-depth-micromodel-for-the-study-of-multiphase-flow-in-complex-porous-media
#18
Wonjin Yun, Cynthia M Ross, Sophie Roman, Anthony R Kovscek
Silicon-based microfluidic devices, so-called micromodels in this application, are particularly useful laboratory tools for the direct visualization of fluid flow revealing pore-scale mechanisms controlling flow and transport phenomena in natural porous media. Current microfluidic devices with uniform etched depths, however, are limited when representing complex geometries such as the multiple-scale pore sizes common in carbonate rocks. In this study, we successfully developed optimized sequential photolithography to etch micropores (1...
April 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291673/mail-order-pharmacy-experience-of-veterans-living-with-aids-hiv
#19
Karishma Rohanraj Desai, Betty Chewning, Andrew Wilcox, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: The VA system is the largest single provider of healthcare in the United States and to individuals infected with HIV specifically. High quality medication management is particularly important since HIV is a chronic infectious condition which requires taking multiple medications with strict requirements for adherence to medication regimens. Veterans Administration (VA) patients are required to obtain all chronic medications using the VA mail-order pharmacy system. OBJECTIVE: Drawing on Donabedian's Quality Improvement framework, this study sought to examine experiences that Veterans with HIV have with the Veterans Administration medication mail-order system, and to explore opportunities for quality improvement...
February 24, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281911/comparing-oncology-clinical-programs-by-use-of-innovative-designs-and-expected-net-present-value-optimization-which-adaptive-approach-leads-to-the-best-result
#20
Tom Parke, Olga Marchenko, Vladimir Anisimov, Anastasia Ivanova, Christopher Jennison, Inna Perevozskaya, Guochen Song
Designing an oncology clinical program is more challenging than designing a single study. The standard approaches have been proven to be not very successful during the last decade; the failure rate of Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials in oncology remains high. Improving a development strategy by applying innovative statistical methods is one of the major objectives of a drug development process. The oncology sub-team on Adaptive Program under the Drug Information Association Adaptive Design Scientific Working Group (DIA ADSWG) evaluated hypothetical oncology programs with two competing treatments and published the work in the Therapeutic Innovation and Regulatory Science journal in January 2014...
2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
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