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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221701/accelerated-combinatorial-high-throughput-star-polymer-synthesis-via-a-rapid-one-pot-sequential-aqueous-raft-rosa-raft-polymerization-scheme
#1
Steffen Cosson, Maarten Danial, Julien Rosselgong Saint-Amans, Justin J Cooper-White
Advanced polymerization methodologies, such as reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT), allow unprecedented control over star polymer composition, topology, and functionality. However, using RAFT to produce high throughput (HTP) combinatorial star polymer libraries remains, to date, impracticable due to several technical limitations. Herein, the methodology "rapid one-pot sequential aqueous RAFT" or "rosa-RAFT," in which well-defined homo-, copolymer, and mikto-arm star polymers can be prepared in very low to medium reaction volumes (50 µL to 2 mL) via an "arm-first" approach in air within minutes, is reported...
February 21, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202769/project-impact-pilot-report-feasibility-of-implementing-a-hospital-to-home-transition-bundle
#2
Leah A Mallory, Snezana Nena Osorio, B Stephen Prato, Jennifer DiPace, Lisa Schmutter, Paula Soung, Amanda Rogers, William J Woodall, Kayla Burley, Sandra Gage, David Cooperberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To improve hospital to home transitions, a 4-element pediatric patient-centered transition bundle was developed, including: a transition readiness checklist; predischarge teach-back education; timely and complete written handoff to the primary care provider; and a postdischarge phone call. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of bundle implementation and report initial outcomes at 4 pilot sites. Outcome measures included postdischarge caregiver ability to teach-back key home management information and 30-day reuse rates...
February 15, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170162/gel-like-carbon-dots-characterization-and-their-potential-applications
#3
Yiqun Zhou, Alexandra Desserre, Shiv Kumar Sharma, Shanghao Li, Marvin Marksberry, Charles Chusuei, Patrica Blackwelder, Roger M Leblanc
A type of highly photoluminescent gel-like carbon dots (G-CDs) was successfully synthesized for the first time, by a rapid one-step solvothermal synthesis approach with citric acid and 1, 2-ethylenediamine (EDA) as the precursors. Their gel-like nature was revealed by the Tyndall and coagulation effect which was elucidated by their negative Zeta potential value. The influence of temperatures on the properties and sizes of these G-CDs was analyzed and the best method for maximum quantum yield (QY) was identified...
February 7, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166647/building-trust-and-diversity-in-patient-centered-oncology-clinical-trials-an-integrated-model
#4
Thelma C Hurd, Charles D Kaplan, Elise D Cook, Janice A Chilton, Jay S Lytton, Ernest T Hawk, Lovell A Jones
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Trust is the cornerstone of clinical trial recruitment and retention. Efforts to decrease barriers and increase clinical trial participation among diverse populations have yielded modest results. There is an urgent need to better understand the complex interactions between trust and clinical trial participation. The process of trust-building has been a focus of intense research in the business community. Yet, little has been published about trust in oncology clinical trials or the process of building trust in clinical trials...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151001/distribution-and-molecular-characterization-of-campylobacter-species-at-different-processing-stages-in-two-poultry-processing-plants
#5
Soo-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Jung Park, Jin-Hee Lee, Jong-Soo Lim, Kun-Ho Seo, Eun-Jeong Heo, Young-Jo Kim, Sung-Hwan Wee, Jin-San Moon
The present study analyzed the prevalence and molecular characterization of Campylobacter at different processing steps in poultry slaughterhouses to determine where contamination mainly occurs. A total of 1,040 samples were collected at four different stages (preprocessing cloacal swabs, postevisceration, postwashing, and postchilling) in two processing plants. Campylobacter was detected in 5.8% (15 of 260) of the cloacal swabs and in 13.3% (104 of 780) of the processing samples. In both plants, the sampling points with the greatest contamination rates were after evisceration (20...
February 2, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135270/optimal-sequential-immunization-can-focus-antibody-responses-against-diversity-loss-and-distraction
#6
Shenshen Wang
Affinity maturation is a Darwinian process in which B lymphocytes evolve potent antibodies to encountered antigens and generate immune memory. Highly mutable complex pathogens present an immense antigenic diversity that continues to challenge natural immunity and vaccine design. Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against this diversity by vaccination likely requires multiple exposures to distinct but related antigen variants, and yet how affinity maturation advances under such complex stimulation remains poorly understood...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130220/how-does-climate-influence-xylem-morphogenesis-over-the-growing-season-insights-from-long-term-intra-ring-anatomy-in-picea-abies
#7
Daniele Castagneri, Patrick Fonti, Georg von Arx, Marco Carrer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During the growing season, the cambium of conifer trees produces successive rows of xylem cells, the tracheids, that sequentially pass through the phases of enlargement and secondary wall thickening before dying and becoming functional. Climate variability can strongly influence the kinetics of morphogenetic processes, eventually affecting tracheid shape and size. This study investigates xylem anatomical structure in the stem of Picea abies to retrospectively infer how, in the long term, climate affects the processes of cell enlargement and wall thickening...
January 27, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123297/a-decomposable-silica-based-antibacterial-coating-for-percutaneous-titanium-implant
#8
Jia Wang, Guofeng Wu, Xiangwei Liu, Guanyang Sun, Dehua Li, Hongbo Wei
Although percutaneous titanium implants have become one of the best choices as retainers in the facial defects, peri-implantitis still occurs at a significant rate. This unwanted complication occurs due to adhesion of bacteria and subsequent biofilm formation. To solve this problem, we have developed a novel antibiotic nanodelivery system based on self-decomposable silica nanoparticles. In this study, silica-gentamycin (SG) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated using an innovative one-pot solution. The nanoparticles were incorporated within a gelatin matrix and cross-linked on microarc-oxidized titanium...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122680/the-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-expert-consensus-for-the-resuscitation-of-patients-who-arrest-after-cardiac-surgery
#9
(no author information available yet)
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Task Force on Resuscitation After Cardiac Surgery provides this professional society perspective on resuscitation in patients who arrest after cardiac surgery. This document was created using a multimodal methodology for evidence generation and includes information from existing guidelines, from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, from our own structured literature reviews on issues particular to cardiac surgery, and from an international survey on resuscitation hosted by CTSNet...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122228/temporally-distinct-six2-positive-second-heart-field-progenitors-regulate-mammalian-heart-development-and-disease
#10
Zhengfang Zhou, Jingying Wang, Chaoshe Guo, Weiting Chang, Jian Zhuang, Ping Zhu, Xue Li
The embryonic process of forming a complex structure such as the heart remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Six2 marks a dynamic subset of second heart field progenitors. Six2-positive (Six2(+)) progenitors are rapidly recruited and assigned, and their descendants are allocated successively to regions of the heart from the right ventricle (RV) to the pulmonary trunk. Global ablation of Six2(+) progenitors resulted in RV hypoplasia and pulmonary atresia. An early stage-specific ablation of a small subset of Six2(+) progenitors did not cause any apparent structural defect at birth but rather resulted in adult-onset cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112548/an-automatic-panoramic-image-reconstruction-scheme-from-dental-computed-tomography-images
#11
Thekla K Papakosta, Antonis D Savva, Theodore L Economopoulos, George K Matsopoulos, H-G Gröhndal
OBJECTIVE: Panoramic images of the jaws are extensively used for dental examinations and/or surgical planning because they provide a general overview of the patient's maxillary and mandibular regions. Panoramic images are two-dimensional (2D) projections of three-dimensional (3D) objects. Therefore, it should be possible to reconstruct them from 3D radiographic representations of the jaws, produced by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scanning, obviating the need for additional exposure to X-rays, should there be a need of panoramic views...
January 23, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106794/a-thoroughly-validated-virtual-screening-strategy-for-discovery-of-novel-hdac3-inhibitors
#12
Huabin Hu, Jie Xia, Dongmei Wang, Xiang Simon Wang, Song Wu
Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been recently identified as a potential target for the treatment of cancer and other diseases, such as chronic inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Virtual screening (VS) is currently a routine technique for hit identification, but its success depends on rational development of VS strategies. To facilitate this process, we applied our previously released benchmarking dataset, i.e., MUBD-HDAC3 to the evaluation of structure-based VS (SBVS) and ligand-based VS (LBVS) combinatorial approaches...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097707/covalent-bond-formation-via-on-surface-chemistry
#13
REVIEW
Philipp Alexander Held, Harald Fuchs, Armido Studer
In this Review article pioneering work and recent achievements in the emerging research area of on-surface chemistry is discussed. On-surface chemistry, sometimes also called two-dimensional chemistry, shows great potential for bottom-up preparation of defined nanostructures. In contrast to traditional organic synthesis, where reactions are generally conducted in well-defined reaction flasks in solution, on-surface chemistry is performed in the cavity of a scanning probe microscope on a metal crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions...
January 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095118/modeling-and-optimization-of-lime-based-stabilization-in-high-alkaline-arsenic-bearing-sludges-with-a-central-composite-design
#14
Jie Lei, Bing Peng, Xiaobo Min, Yanjie Liang, Yang You, Liyuan Chai
This study focuses on the modeling and optimization of lime-based stabilization in high alkaline arsenic-bearing sludges (HAABS) and describes the relationship between the arsenic leachate concentration (ALC) and stabilization parameters to develop a prediction model for obtaining the optimal process parameters and conditions. A central composite design (CCD) along with response surface methodology (RSM) was conducted to model and investigate the stabilization process with three independent variables: the Ca/As mole ratio, reaction time and liquid/solid ratio, along with their interactions...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074384/microfluidic-gut-liver-chip-for-reproducing-the-first-pass-metabolism
#15
Aerim Choe, Sang Keun Ha, Inwook Choi, Nakwon Choi, Jong Hwan Sung
After oral intake of drugs, drugs go through the first pass metabolism in the gut and the liver, which greatly affects the final outcome of the drugs' efficacy and side effects. The first pass metabolism is a complex process involving the gut and the liver tissue, with transport and reaction occurring simultaneously at various locations, which makes it difficult to be reproduced in vitro with conventional cell culture systems. In an effort to tackle this challenge, here we have developed a microfluidic gut-liver chip that can reproduce the dynamics of the first pass metabolism...
March 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068100/directed-self-assembly-of-polystyrene-b-poly-propylene-carbonate-on-chemical-patterns-via-thermal-annealing-for-next-generation-lithography
#16
Guan-Wen Yang, Guang-Peng Wu, Xuanxuan Chen, Shisheng Xiong, Christopher G Arges, Shengxiang Ji, Paul F Nealey, Xiao-Bing Lu, Donald J Darensbourg, Zhi-Kang Xu
Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) combines advantages of conventional photolithography and polymeric materials and shows competence in semiconductors and data storage applications. Driven by the more integrated, much smaller and higher performance of the electronics, however, the industry standard polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) in DSA strategy cannot meet the rapid development of lithography technology because its intrinsic limited Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ)...
January 27, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063930/systematic-time-dependent-visualization-and-quantitation-of-the-neurogenic-rate-in-brain-organoids
#17
Yoichi Kosodo, Taeko Suetsugu, Tetsuya J Kobayashi, Fumio Matsuzaki
Organoids mimicking the formation of the brain cortex have been demonstrated to be powerful tools for developmental studies as well as pathological investigations of brain malformations. Here, we report an integrated approach for the quantification of temporal neural production (neurogenic rate) in organoids derived from embryonic brains. Spherical tissue fragments with polarized cytoarchitectures were incubated in multiple cavities arranged in a polymethylmethacrylate chip. The time-dependent neurogenic rate in the organoids was monitored by the level of EGFP under the promoter of Tbr2, a transcription factor that is transiently expressed in neural fate-committed progenitors during corticogenesis...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063627/competition-between-rhizobia-under-different-environmental-conditions-affects-the-nodulation-of-a-legume
#18
Zhao Jun Ji, Hui Yan, Qing Guo Cui, En Tao Wang, Wen Feng Chen, Wen Xin Chen
Mutualistic symbiosis and nitrogen fixation of legume rhizobia play a key role in ecological environments. Although many different rhizobial species can form nodules with a specific legume, there is often a dominant microsymbiont, which has the highest nodule occupancy rates, and they are often known as the "most favorable rhizobia". Shifts in the most favorable rhizobia for a legume in different geographical regions or soil types are not well understood. Therefore, in order to explore the shift model, an experiment was designed using successive inoculations of rhizobia on one legume...
December 27, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061421/low-cost-and-facile-fabrication-of-a-paper-based-capillary-electrophoresis-microdevice-for-pathogen-detection
#19
Jee Won Lee, Dohwan Lee, Yong Tae Kim, Eun Yeol Lee, Do Hyun Kim, Tae Seok Seo
This paper describes the development of a novel paper-based capillary electrophoresis (pCE) microdevice using mineral paper, which is durable, oil and tear resistant, and waterproof. The pCE device is inexpensive (~$1.6 per device for materials), simple to fabricate, lightweight, and disposable, so it is more adequate for point-of-care (POC) pathogen diagnostics than a conventional CE device made of glass, quartz, silicon or polymer. In addition, the entire fabrication process can be completed within 1h without using expensive clean room facilities and cumbersome photolithography procedures...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048455/we-ab-209-02-a-new-inverse-planning-framework-with-principle-based-modeling-of-inter-structural-dosimetric-tradeoffs
#20
H Liu, P Dong, L Xing
PURPOSE: Traditional radiotherapy inverse planning relies on the weighting factors to phenomenologically balance the conflicting criteria for different structures. The resulting manual trial-and-error determination of the weights has long been recognized as the most time-consuming part of treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to develop an inverse planning framework that parameterizes the inter-structural dosimetric tradeoff among with physically more meaningful quantities to simplify the search for a clinically sensible plan...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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