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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#1
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885835/sequential-enzymatic-conversion-of-%C3%AE-angelica-lactone-to-%C3%AE-valerolactone-through-hydride-independent-c-c-bond-isomerization
#2
Nikolaus G Turrini, Elisabeth Eger, Tamara C Reiter, Kurt Faber, Mélanie Hall
A case of hydride-independent reaction catalyzed by flavin-dependent ene-reductases from the Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) family was identified. α-Angelica lactone was isomerized to the conjugated β-isomer in a nicotinamide-free and hydride-independent process. The catalytic cycle of C=C bond isomerization appears to be flavin-independent and to rely solely on a deprotonation-reprotonation sequence through acid-base catalysis. Key residues in the enzyme active site were mutated and provided insight on important mechanistic features...
November 25, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862507/accelerated-ferumoxytol-enhanced-4d-multiphase-steady-state-imaging-with-contrast-enhancement-music-cardiovascular-mri-validation-in-pediatric-congenital-heart-disease
#3
Ziwu Zhou, Fei Han, Stanislas Rapacchi, Kim-Lien Nguyen, Daniel Z Brunengraber, Grace-Hyun J Kim, J Paul Finn, Peng Hu
The purpose of this work was to validate a parallel imaging (PI) and compressed sensing (CS) combined reconstruction method for a recently proposed 4D non-breath-held, multiphase, steady-state imaging technique (MUSIC) cardiovascular MRI in a cohort of pediatric congenital heart disease patients. We implemented a graphics processing unit accelerated CS-PI combined reconstruction method and applied it in 13 pediatric patients who underwent cardiovascular MRI after ferumoxytol administration. Conventional breath-held contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) was first performed during the first pass of ferumoxytol injection, followed by the original MUSIC and the proposed CS-PI MUSIC during the steady-state distribution phase of ferumoxytol...
November 11, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810466/proposed-primary-endpoints-for-use-in-clinical-trials-that-compare-treatment-options-for-bloodstream-infection-in-adults-a-consensus-definition
#4
REVIEW
Patrick N A Harris, John F McNamara, David C Lye, Joshua S Davis, Louis Bernard, Allen C Cheng, Yohei Doi, Vance G Fowler, Keith S Kaye, Leonard Leibovici, Jeffrey Lipman, Martin J Llewelyn, Silvia Munoz-Price, Mical Paul, Anton Y Peleg, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Benjamin A Rogers, Harald Seifert, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Guy Thwaites, Steven Y C Tong, John Turnidge, Riccardo Utili, Steven A R Webb, David L Paterson
OBJECTIVES: To define standardised endpoints to aid the design of trials that compare antibiotic therapies for bloodstream infection (BSI). METHODS: Prospective studies, randomised trials or registered protocols comparing antibiotic therapies for BSI, published from 2005 to 2016, were reviewed. Consensus endpoints for BSI studies were defined using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Different primary and secondary endpoints were defined for pilot (small-scale studies designed to evaluate protocol design, feasibility and implementation) and definitive trials (larger-scale studies designed to test hypotheses and influence clinical practice), as well as for Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative BSI...
October 31, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766956/application-of-dynamic-topic-models-to-toxicogenomics-data
#5
Mikyung Lee, Zhichao Liu, Ruili Huang, Weida Tong
BACKGROUND: All biological processes are inherently dynamic. Biological systems evolve transiently or sustainably according to sequential time points after perturbation by environment insults, drugs and chemicals. Investigating the temporal behavior of molecular events has been an important subject to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the biological system in response to, such as, drug treatment. The intrinsic complexity of time series data requires appropriate computational algorithms for data interpretation...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748198/methods-for-selecting-phage-display-antibody-libraries
#6
Ricardo Jara-Acevedo, Paula Díez, María González-González, Rosa María Dégano, Nieves Ibarrola, Rafael Góngora, Alberto Orfao, Manuel Fuentes
The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.
October 7, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733614/spatiotemporal-distribution-of-location-and-object-effects-in-primary-motor-cortex-neurons-during-reach-to-grasp
#7
Adam G Rouse, Marc H Schieber
: Reaching and grasping typically are considered to be spatially separate processes that proceed concurrently in the arm and the hand, respectively. The proximal representation in the primary motor cortex (M1) controls the arm for reaching, while the distal representation controls the hand for grasping. Many studies of M1 activity therefore have focused either on reaching to various locations without grasping different objects, or else on grasping different objects all at the same location...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733181/what-can-we-learn-from-trial-decliners-about-improving-recruitment-qualitative-study
#8
Adwoa Hughes-Morley, Bridget Young, Roelie J Hempel, Ian T Russell, Waquas Waheed, Peter Bower
BACKGROUND: Trials increasingly experience problems in recruiting participants. Understanding the causes of poor recruitment is critical to developing solutions. We interviewed people who had declined a trial of an innovative psychological therapy for depression (REFRAMED) about their response to the trial invitation, in order to understand their decision and identify ways to improve recruitment. METHODS: Of 214 people who declined the trial, 35 (16 %) gave permission to be contacted about a qualitative study to explore their decision...
October 12, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730007/a-fast-and-efficient-technique-for-the-automatic-tracing-of-corneal-nerves-in-confocal-microscopy
#9
Pedro Guimarães, Jeffrey Wigdahl, Alfredo Ruggeri
PURPOSE: We describe a novel fully automatic method capable of tracing the subbasal plexus nerves from human corneal confocal images. METHODS: Following an increasing interest in the automatic analysis of corneal nerves, a few approaches have been proposed. These, however, cannot cope with large images, such as mosaics, in due time. The rationale of the proposed method is to minimize required computing time while still providing accurate results. Our method consists of two sequential steps - a thresholding step followed by a supervised classification...
September 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720268/development-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-from-sabin-strains-a%C3%A2-progress-report
#10
Hiromasa Okayasu, Carolyn Sein, Ahd Hamidi, Wilfried A M Bakker, Roland W Sutter
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has seen significant progress since it began in 1988, largely due to the worldwide use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In order to achieve polio eradication the global cessation of OPV is necessary because OPV contains live attenuated poliovirus, which in rare circumstances could re-gain wild poliovirus (WPV) characteristics with potential to establish transmission. The GPEI endgame strategy for the period 2013-2018 recommends the globally synchronised sequential cessation of the Sabin strains contained in the OPV, starting with type 2 Sabin...
October 5, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712918/enrichment-and-characterization-of-acid-tolerant-nitrifying-sludge
#11
Lan Wang, Ping Zheng, Ghulam Abbas, Yajuan Xing, Wei Li, Ru Wang, Liangwei Deng, Yunhui Lei, Dan Zheng, Yunhong Zhang
Nitrification is an acidifying process that requires the addition of external alkalinity because of the alkaliphilic nature of the most ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. In this study, aerobic activated sludge was used as inoculum in an internal loop air-lift reactor, which resulted in successful enrichment of acid-tolerant nitrifying (ACIN) sludge at pH 6.0 by sequential addition of tea orchard soil suspension. The results showed that ACIN sludge had a remarkable acid tolerant capability with a volumetric ammonia conversion rate of 1...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696353/online-optimal-experimental-re-design-in-robotic-parallel-fed-batch-cultivation-facilities-for-validation-of-macro-kinetic-growth-models-using-e-coli-as-an-example
#12
M N Cruz Bournazou, T Barz, D Nickel, D Lopez Cárdenas, F Glauche, A Knepper, P Neubauer
We present an integrated framework for the online optimal experimental re-design of parallel nonlinear dynamic processes that aims to precisely estimate the parameter set of macro kinetic growth models with minimal experimental effort. This provides a systematic solution for rapid validation of a specific model to new strains, mutants, or products. In biosciences, this is especially important as model identification is a long and laborious process which is continuing to limit the use of mathematical modeling in this field...
October 3, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668565/impact-of-pharmacy-intervention-on-prior-authorization-success-and-efficiency-at-a-university-medical-center
#13
Timothy Cutler, Yifan She, Jason Barca, Shawn Lester, Guibo Xing, Jigna Patel, Joy Melnikow
BACKGROUND: Prior authorizations (PAs) may improve appropriate use of prescription medications. Despite potential savings for health insurance plans, the PA process is time consuming for the ordering provider, pharmacy, and patient. The UC Davis Health System (UCDHS) has created a centralized pharmacy-run clinic PA process. OBJECTIVE: To compare the mean PA processing time between the new centralized clinic and usual care and provide secondary endpoints for PA approval rates, time to prescription fill, time to prescription pick-up, total staff time, and estimated labor costs...
October 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662372/attaining-proficiency-in-robotic-assisted-minimally-invasive-esophagectomy-while-maximizing-safety-during-procedure-development
#14
Inderpal S Sarkaria, Nabil P Rizk, Rachel Grosser, Debra Goldman, David J Finley, Amanda Ghanie, Camelia S Sima, Manjit S Bains, Prasad S Adusumilli, Valerie W Rusch, David R Jones
OBJECTIVE: Robotic-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE) is an emerging complex operation with limited reports detailing morbidity, mortality, and requirements for attaining proficiency. Our objective was to develop a standardized RAMIE technique, evaluate procedure safety, and assess outcomes using a dedicated operative team and 2-surgeon approach. METHODS: We conducted a study of sequential patients undergoing RAMIE from January 25, 2011, to May 5, 2014...
July 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660035/incremental-change-in-the-set-of-coactive-cortical-assemblies-enables-mental-continuity
#15
Jared Edward Reser
This opinion article explores how sustained neural firing in association areas allows high-order mental representations to be coactivated over multiple perception-action cycles, permitting sequential mental states to share overlapping content and thus be recursively interrelated. The term "state-spanning coactivity" (SSC) is introduced to refer to neural nodes that remain coactive as a group over a given period of time. SSC ensures that contextual groupings of goal or motor-relevant representations will demonstrate continuous activity over a delay period...
September 19, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651152/temporal-processing-capacity-in-auditory-deprived-superior-paraolivary-neurons-is-rescued-by-sequential-plasticity-during-early-development
#16
Sara C M Leijon, Stefan Peyda, Anna K Magnusson
The leading treatments for severe hearing disabilities work on the principle of conveying electrical pulses to the auditory brainstem that enable perception of speech. It is currently not known how well the brainstem neurons specialized for decoding such coarse sound information develop when deprived of auditory input activity. Here, we used congenitally deaf α1D(-/-) mice, lacking activity in the auditory nerve, to investigate the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) - a prominent mammalian brainstem structure that responds selectively to sound pulses by rebound spiking...
September 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643473/improving-medication-titration-in-heart-failure-by-embedding-a-structured-medication-titration-plan
#17
Annabel Hickey, Jessica Suna, Louise Marquart, Charles Denaro, George Javorsky, Andrew Munns, Alison Mudge, John J Atherton
BACKGROUND: To improve up-titration of medications to target dose in heart failure patients by improving communication from hospital to primary care. METHODS: This quality improvement project was undertaken within three heart failure disease management (HFDM) services in Queensland, Australia. A structured medication plan was collaboratively designed and implemented in an iterative manner, using methods including awareness raising and education, audit and feedback, integration into existing work practice, and incentive payments...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639228/development-of-partial-nitrification-as-a-first-step-of-nitrite-shunt-process-in-a-sequential-batch-reactor-sbr-using-ammonium-oxidizing-bacteria-aob-controlled-by-mixing-regime
#18
Moomen Soliman, Ahmed Eldyasti
Shortcut biological nitrogen removal is a non-conventional way of removing nitrogen from wastewater using two processes either nitrite shunt or deammonification. In the nitrite shunt process, the ammonia oxidation step stops at the nitrite stage, which is known as partial nitrification, then nitrite is directly reduced to nitrogen gas. Effective partial nitrification could be achieved by accumulating Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and inhibiting Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB). In this research, a novel control strategy has been developed to control the DO using the variable mixing regime in a suspended growth system using a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) in order to achieve a stable ammonia removal efficiency (ARE) and nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) at a high nitrogen loading rate (NLR)...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634051/foraging-success-under-uncertainty-search-tradeoffs-and-optimal-space-use
#19
Frederic Bartumeus, Daniel Campos, William S Ryu, Roger Lloret-Cabot, Vicenç Méndez, Jordi Catalan
Understanding the structural complexity and the main drivers of animal search behaviour is pivotal to foraging ecology. Yet, the role of uncertainty as a generative mechanism of movement patterns is poorly understood. Novel insights from search theory suggest that organisms should collect and assess new information from the environment by producing complex exploratory strategies. Based on an extension of the first passage time theory, and using simple equations and simulations, we unveil the elementary heuristics behind search behaviour...
November 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630603/psychological-momentum-a-key-to-continued-success
#20
Seppo E Iso-Ahola, Charles O Dotson
One of the most fundamental characteristics about humans is their desire for success, especially in highly competitive societies. What does it take to be successful? Is success simply a matter of better performance, and if so, what specifically is it about performance that determines success? A long research tradition suggests that psychological momentum (PM) plays a critical role in goal pursuit and achievement. Accordingly, sequential runs of success are an essential feature of high levels of performance, meaning that better performers perceive and experience momentum of success more frequently, ride it as long as they can, and as a result, become more successful in the end...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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