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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910824/accelerated-high-resolution-photoacoustic-tomography-via-compressed-sensing
#1
Simon Arridge, Paul Beard, Marta Betcke, Ben Cox, Nam Huynh, Felix Lucka, Olumide Ogunlade, Edward Zhang
Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885978/factors-affecting-daily-cochlear-implant-use-in-children-datalogging-evidence
#2
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Joseph Sanfilippo, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
BACKGROUND: Children with profound hearing loss can gain access to sound through cochlear implants (CIs), but these devices must be worn consistently to promote auditory development. Although subjective parent reports have identified several factors limiting long-term CI use in children, it is also important to understand the day-to-day issues which may preclude consistent device use. In the present study, objective measures gathered through datalogging software were used to quantify the following in children: (1) number of hours of CI use per day, (2) practical concerns including repeated disconnections between the external transmission coil and the internal device (termed "coil-offs"), and (3) listening environments experienced during daily use...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872374/what-s-statistical-about-learning-insights-from-modelling-statistical-learning-as-a-set-of-memory-processes
#3
REVIEW
Erik D Thiessen
Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864984/simultaneous-biodegradation-of-three-mononitrophenol-isomers-by-a-tailor-made-microbial-consortium-immobilized-in-sequential-batch-reactors
#4
He Fu, Jun-Jie Zhang, Ying Xu, Hong-Jun Chao, Ning-Yi Zhou
The ortho-nitrophenol (ONP) utilizer Alcaligenes sp. strain NyZ215, meta-nitrophenol (MNP) utilizer Cupriavidus necator JMP134 and para-nitrophenol (PNP) utilizer Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 were assembled as a consortium to degrade three nitrophenol isomers in sequential batch reactors. Pilot test were conducted in flasks to demonstrate that a mixture of three mononitrophenols at 0.5 mM each could be mineralized by this microbial consortium within 84 hours. Interestingly, neither ONP nor MNP was degraded until PNP was almost consumed by strain WBC-3...
November 19, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863628/an-effective-compromise-between-cost-and-referral-rate-a-sequential-hearing-screening-protocol-using-teoaes-and-aabrs-for-healthy-newborns
#5
Yingying Shang, Wenyang Hao, Zhiqiang Gao, Chunxiao Xu, Ying Ru, Daofeng Ni
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the efficacy of a sequential hearing screening protocol using transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) tests in healthy newborns. DESIGN: A TEOAE screening was performed during the first 48-72 h of life. If the infants failed, an AABR test was performed at the same time, and they were referred for a TEOAE rescreening at six weeks old. The results of screening Protocol 1 (only TEOAE) were compared with those of screening Protocol 2 (sequential TEOAE + AABR screenings for the first screening and TEOAE for the rescreening)...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832133/a-low-cost-structurally-optimized-design-for-diverse-filter-types
#6
Majida Kazmi, Arshad Aziz, Pervez Akhtar, Nassar Ikram
A wide range of image processing applications deploys two dimensional (2D)-filters for performing diversified tasks such as image enhancement, edge detection, noise suppression, multi scale decomposition and compression etc. All of these tasks require multiple type of 2D-filters simultaneously to acquire the desired results. The resource hungry conventional approach is not a viable option for implementing these computationally intensive 2D-filters especially in a resource constraint environment. Thus it calls for optimized solutions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828466/groupwise-registration-of-sequential-images-from-multispectral-imaging-msi-of-the-retina-and-choroid
#7
Jianwei Lin, Yuanjie Zheng, Wanzhen Jiao, Bojun Zhao, Shaoting Zhang, James Gee, Rui Xiao
Multispectral Imaging (MSI) produces a sequence of discrete spectral slices that penetrate different light-absorbing species or chromophores and is a noninvasive technology useful for the early detection of various retinal, optic nerve and choroidal diseases. However, eye movement during the image acquisition process may introduce spatial misalignment between MSI images. This potentially causes trouble in the manual/automatic interpretation of MSI, but still remains an unresolved problem to this date. To deal with this MSI misalignment problem, we present a method on the groupwise registration of sequential images from MSI of the retina and choroid...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818300/multicolor-electron-microscopy-for-simultaneous-visualization-of-multiple-molecular-species
#8
Stephen R Adams, Mason R Mackey, Ranjan Ramachandra, Sakina F Palida Lemieux, Paul Steinbach, Eric A Bushong, Margaret T Butko, Ben N G Giepmans, Mark H Ellisman, Roger Y Tsien
Electron microscopy (EM) remains the primary method for imaging cellular and tissue ultrastructure, although simultaneous localization of multiple specific molecules continues to be a challenge for EM. We present a method for obtaining multicolor EM views of multiple subcellular components. The method uses sequential, localized deposition of different lanthanides by photosensitizers, small-molecule probes, or peroxidases. Detailed view of biological structures is created by overlaying conventional electron micrographs with pseudocolor lanthanide elemental maps derived from distinctive electron energy-loss spectra of each lanthanide deposit via energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy...
November 17, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802605/rigid-origami-via-optical-programming-and-deferred-self-folding-of-a-two-stage-photopolymer
#9
David J Glugla, Marvin D Alim, Keaton D Byars, Devatha P Nair, Christopher N Bowman, Kurt K Maute, Robert R McLeod
We demonstrate the formation of shape-programmed, glassy origami structures using a single-layer photopolymer with two mechanically distinct phases. The latent origami pattern consisting of rigid, high cross-link density panels and flexible, low cross-link density creases is fabricated using a series of photomask exposures. Strong optical absorption of the polymer formulation creates depth-wise gradients in the cross-link density of the creases, enforcing directed folding which enables programming of both mountain and valley folds within the same sheet...
November 2, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777303/hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-and-rnase-h-active-sites-work-simultaneously-and-independently
#10
An Li, Jiawen Li, Kenneth A Johnson
HIV Reverse Transcriptase (RT) plays a central role in viral replication and requires coordination of both polymerase and RNase H activities. Although this coordination is crucial in viral replication, whether a DNA/RNA hybrid can simultaneously engage both active sites has yet to be determined since structural and kinetic analyses have provided contradictory results. Single nucleotide incorporation and RNase H cleavage were examined using pre-steady-state kinetics with global data analysis. The results revealed three interconverting RT-DNA/RNA species: 43% were active for both sites, 27% showed only polymerase activity, and the remaining 30% were nonproductive...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775411/information-processing-capacity-in-psychopathy-effects-of-anomalous-attention
#11
Rachel K B Hamilton, Joseph P Newman
Hamilton and colleagues (2015) recently proposed that an integrative deficit in psychopathy restricts simultaneous processing, thereby leaving fewer resources available for information encoding, narrowing the scope of attention, and undermining associative processing. The current study evaluated this parallel processing deficit proposal using the Simultaneous-Sequential paradigm. This investigation marks the first a priori test of the Hamilton et al.'s theoretical framework. We predicted that psychopathy would be associated with inferior performance (as indexed by lower accuracy and longer response time) on trials requiring simultaneous processing of visual information relative to trials necessitating sequential processing...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767240/a-somatosensory-to-motor-cascade-of-cortical-areas-engaged-in-perceptual-decision-making-during-tactile-pattern-discrimination
#12
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764213/a-new-feedback-based-method-for-parameter-adaptation-in-image-processing-routines
#13
Arif Ul Maula Khan, Ralf Mikut, Markus Reischl
The parametrization of automatic image processing routines is time-consuming if a lot of image processing parameters are involved. An expert can tune parameters sequentially to get desired results. This may not be productive for applications with difficult image analysis tasks, e.g. when high noise and shading levels in an image are present or images vary in their characteristics due to different acquisition conditions. Parameters are required to be tuned simultaneously. We propose a framework to improve standard image segmentation methods by using feedback-based automatic parameter adaptation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764027/quantitative-method-for-simultaneous-analysis-of-a-5-probe-cocktail-for-cytochrome-p450-enzymes
#14
Laureen A Lammers, Roos Achterbergh, Marcel C M Pistorius, Yuma Bijleveld, Emmely M de Vries, Anita Boelen, Heinz-Josef Klümpen, Johannes A Romijn, Ron A A Mathôt
BACKGROUND: The metabolic activity of P450 enzymes in vivo can be determined using selective probe drugs. The simultaneous administration of multiple CYP-specific probe drugs is commonly known as the "cocktail approach." Disadvantages of a cocktail are large volumes of samples required for analysis and time-consuming analyses. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simplified but sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of 5 probe drugs [caffeine (CYP1A2), metoprolol (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19), and S-warfarin (CYP2C9)] in a previously validated cocktail using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763527/simultaneous-saccharification-and-fermentation-of-sugar-beet-pulp-with-mixed-bacterial-cultures-for-lactic-acid-and-propylene-glycol-production
#15
Joanna Berlowska, Weronika Cieciura, Sebastian Borowski, Marta Dudkiewicz, Michal Binczarski, Izabela Witonska, Anna Otlewska, Dorota Kregiel
Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732578/a-renewed-model-of-pancreatic-cancer-evolution-based-on-genomic-rearrangement-patterns
#16
Faiyaz Notta, Michelle Chan-Seng-Yue, Mathieu Lemire, Yilong Li, Gavin W Wilson, Ashton A Connor, Robert E Denroche, Sheng-Ben Liang, Andrew M K Brown, Jaeseung C Kim, Tao Wang, Jared T Simpson, Timothy Beck, Ayelet Borgida, Nicholas Buchner, Dianne Chadwick, Sara Hafezi-Bakhtiari, John E Dick, Lawrence Heisler, Michael A Hollingsworth, Emin Ibrahimov, Gun Ho Jang, Jeremy Johns, Lars G T Jorgensen, Calvin Law, Olga Ludkovski, Ilinca Lungu, Karen Ng, Danielle Pasternack, Gloria M Petersen, Liran I Shlush, Lee Timms, Ming-Sound Tsao, Julie M Wilson, Christina K Yung, George Zogopoulos, John M S Bartlett, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Francisco X Real, Sean P Cleary, Michael H Roehrl, John D McPherson, Lincoln D Stein, Thomas J Hudson, Peter J Campbell, Steven Gallinger
Pancreatic cancer, a highly aggressive tumour type with uniformly poor prognosis, exemplifies the classically held view of stepwise cancer development. The current model of tumorigenesis, based on analyses of precursor lesions, termed pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanINs) lesions, makes two predictions: first, that pancreatic cancer develops through a particular sequence of genetic alterations (KRAS, followed by CDKN2A, then TP53 and SMAD4); and second, that the evolutionary trajectory of pancreatic cancer progression is gradual because each alteration is acquired independently...
October 12, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722169/simultaneous-saccharification-and-fermentation-of-sugar-beet-pulp-for-efficient-bioethanol-production
#17
Joanna Berłowska, Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska, Maria Balcerek, Urszula Dziekońska-Kubczak, Piotr Patelski, Piotr Dziugan, Dorota Kręgiel
Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712116/estimation-of-the-coefficient-of-variation-with-minimum-risk-a-sequential-method-for-minimizing-sampling-error-and-study-cost
#18
Bhargab Chattopadhyay, Ken Kelley
The coefficient of variation is an effect size measure with many potential uses in psychology and related disciplines. We propose a general theory for a sequential estimation of the population coefficient of variation that considers both the sampling error and the study cost, importantly without specific distributional assumptions. Fixed sample size planning methods, commonly used in psychology and related fields, cannot simultaneously minimize both the sampling error and the study cost. The sequential procedure we develop is the first sequential sampling procedure developed for estimating the coefficient of variation...
August 11, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711334/kinetically-controlled-simplification-of-a-multiresponsive-10-%C3%A3-10-dynamic-imine-library
#19
Chia-Wei Hsu, Ognjen Š Miljanić
Kinetically controlled self-sorting processes in complex synthetic mixtures represent an important model for behaviours of biological networks, which operate far from equilibrium and without interference among simultaneous metabolic pathways. However, most of the previously reported kinetic self-sorting protocols dealt with small dynamic libraries and a single external stimulus. Here, we report the iterative simplification of a large imine dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) constructed from 10 aldehydes and 10 anilines, under the sequential influence of an oxidant, an adsorbent, and an increase in temperature...
October 11, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707033/efficiency-of-radiation-induced-base-lesion-excision-and-the-order-of-enzymatic-treatment
#20
Iyo Shiraishi, Naoya Shikazono, Masao Suzuki, Kentaro Fujii, Akinari Yokoya
PURPOSE: To clarify whether initial base excision repair processes at clustered DNA damage sites comprising multiple base lesions affect subsequent excision processes via the formation of additional strand breaks by glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease base excision enzymes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasmid DNA (pUC18) as a model DNA molecule was exposed to high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) ionizing radiation (He(2+) or C(6+) ions) or low-LET ionizing radiation (X-rays) under various conditions to produce varied radical-scavenging effects...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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