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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780501/a-bi-terminal-protein-ligation-strategy-to-probe-chromatin-structure-during-dna-damage
#1
Sinan Kilic, Iuliia Boichenko, Carolin C Lechner, Beat Fierz
The cellular response to DNA damage results in a signaling cascade that primes chromatin for repair. Combinatorial post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in this process by altering the physical properties of chromatin and recruiting downstream factors. One key signal integrator is the histone variant H2A.X, which is phosphorylated at a C-terminal serine (S139ph), and ubiquitylated within its N-terminal tail at lysines 13 and 15 (K13/15ub). How these PTMs directly impact chromatin structure and thereby facilitate DNA repair is not well understood...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752620/mechanism-of-change-in-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-body-image-and-self-care-on-art-adherence-among-sexual-minority-men-living-with-hiv
#2
Kalina M Lamb, Kelsey A Nogg, Steven A Safren, Aaron J Blashill
Body image disturbance is a common problem reported among sexual minority men living with HIV, and is associated with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Recently, a novel integrated intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy for body image and self-care; CBT-BISC) was developed and pilot tested to simultaneously improve body image and ART adherence in this population. Although CBT-BISC has demonstrated preliminary efficacy in improving ART adherence, the mechanisms of change are unknown. Utilizing data from a two-armed randomized controlled trial (N = 44 sexual minority men living with HIV), comparing CBT-BISC to an enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU) condition, sequential process mediation via latent difference scores was assessed, with changes in body image disturbance entered as the mechanism between treatment condition and changes in ART adherence...
May 11, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704092/new-protocol-for-dissociating-visuospatial-working-memory-ability-in-reaching-space-and-in-navigational-space
#3
Michela Lupo, Fabio Ferlazzo, Fabio Aloise, Francesco Di Nocera, Anna Maria Tedesco, Chiara Cardillo, Maria Leggio
Several studies have demonstrated that the processing of visuospatial memory for locations in reaching space and in navigational space is supported by independent systems, and that the coding of visuospatial information depends on the modality of the presentation (i.e., sequential or simultaneous). However, these lines of evidence and the most common neuropsychological tests used by clinicians to investigate visuospatial memory have several limitations (e.g., they are unable to analyze all the subcomponents of this function and are not directly comparable)...
April 27, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682873/multi-scale-responses-of-liquid-crystals-triggered-by-interfacial-assemblies-of-cleavable-homopolymers
#4
Young-Ki Kim, Yuran Huang, Michael Tsuei, Xin Wang, Nathan Gianneschi, Nicholas Lawrence Abbott
Liquid crystals (LCs) offer the basis of stimuli-responsive materials that can amplify targeted molecular events into macroscopic outputs. However, general and versatile design principles are needed to realize the full potential of these materials. To this end, we report the synthesis of two homopolymers with mesogenic side chains that can be cleaved upon exposure to either H2O2 (polymer P1) or UV light (polymer P2). Optical measurements reveal that the polymers dissolve in bulk LC and spontaneously assemble at nematic LC-aqueous interfaces to impose a perpendicular orientation on the LCs...
April 22, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678114/vertical-stratification-engineering-for-organic-bulk-heterojunction-devices
#5
Liqiang Huang, Gang Wang, Weihua Zhou, Boyi Fu, Xiaofang Cheng, Lifu Zhang, Zhibo Yuan, Sixing Xiong, Lin Zhang, Yuanpeng Xie, Andong Zhang, Youdi Zhang, Wei Ma, Weiwei Li, Yinhua Zhou, Elsa Reichmanis, Yiwang Chen
High efficiency organic solar cells (OSCs) can be produced through optimization of component molecular design, coupled with interfacial engineering and control of active layer morphology. However, vertical stratification of the bulk-heterojunction (BHJ), a spontaneous activity which occurs during the drying process, remains an intricate problem yet to be solved. Routes toward regulating the vertical separation profile and evaluating the effects on the final device should be explored to further enhance the performance of OSCs...
April 20, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677333/ensemble-representation-for-multiple-facial-expressions-evidence-for-a-capacity-limited-perceptual-process
#6
Luyan Ji, Wenfeng Chen, Tom Loeys, Gilles Pourtois
We tested the processing capacity of establishing ensemble representation for multiple facial expressions using the simultaneous-sequential paradigm. Each set consisted of 16 faces conveying a variable amount of happy and angry expressions. Participants judged on a continuous scale the perceived average emotion from each face set (Experiment 1). In the simultaneous condition, the 16 faces were presented concurrently; in the sequential condition, two sets, each containing eight faces, were presented successively...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653056/uv-photolysis-of-chloramine-and-persulfate-for-1-4-dioxane-removal-in-reverse-osmosis-permeate-for-potable-water-reuse
#7
Wei Li, Samuel Patton, Jamie M Gleason, Stephen Peter Mezyk, Kenneth P Ishida, Haizhou Liu
A sequential combination of membrane treatment and UV-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOP) has become the industry standard for potable water reuse. Chloramines are used as membrane anti-fouling agents and therefore carried over into the UV/AOP. In addition, persulfate (S2O82-) is an emerging oxidant which can be added into a UV/AOP, thus creating radicals generated from both chloramines and persulfate for water treatment. This study investigated the simultaneous photolysis of S2O82- and monochloramine (NH2Cl) on the removal of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) for potable water reuse...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649727/optimization-of-sodium-hydroxide-pretreatment-and-enzyme-loading-for-efficient-hydrolysis-of-rice-straw-to-improve-succinate-production-by-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli-kj122-under-simultaneous-saccharification-and-fermentation
#8
Apichai Sawisit, Surawee Jampatesh, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Kaemwich Jantama
Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) before subsequent use for succinate production by Escherichia coli KJ122 under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The NaOH pretreated rice straw was significantly enhanced lignin removal up to 95%. With the optimized enzyme loading of 4% cellulase complex + 0.5% xylanase (endo-glucanase 67 CMC-U/g, β-glucosidase 26 pNG-U/g and xylanase 18 CMC-U/g dry biomass), total sugar conversion reached 91.7 ± 0.8% (w/w). The physicochemical analysis of NaOH pretreated rice straw indicated dramatical changes in its structure, thereby favoring enzymatic saccharification...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642756/the-effect-of-visual-arrangement-on-visuospatial-short-term-memory-insights-from-children-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#9
Lucie Attout, Marie-Pascale Noël, Laurence Rousselle
Recent models of visuospatial (VSSP) short-term memory postulate the existence of two dissociable mechanisms depending on whether VSSP information is presented simultaneously or sequentially. However, they do not specify to what extent VSSP short-term memory is under the influence of general VSSP processing. This issue was examined in people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, a genetic condition involving a VSSP deficit. The configuration of VSSP information was manipulated (structured vs. unstructured) to explore the impact of arrangement on VSSP short-term memory...
April 11, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621971/linear-maldi-tof-simultaneous-spectrum-deconvolution-and-baseline-removal
#10
Vincent Picaud, Jean-Francois Giovannelli, Caroline Truntzer, Jean-Philippe Charrier, Audrey Giremus, Pierre Grangeat, Catherine Mercier
BACKGROUND: Thanks to a reasonable cost and simple sample preparation procedure, linear MALDI-ToF spectrometry is a growing technology for clinical microbiology. With appropriate spectrum databases, this technology can be used for early identification of pathogens in body fluids. However, due to the low resolution of linear MALDI-ToF instruments, robust and accurate peak picking remains a challenging task. In this context we propose a new peak extraction algorithm from raw spectrum. With this method the spectrum baseline and spectrum peaks are processed jointly...
April 5, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601530/metstabon-online-platform-for-metabolic-stability-predictions
#11
Sabina Podlewska, Rafał Kafel
Metabolic stability is an important parameter to be optimized during the complex process of designing new active compounds. Tuning this parameter with the simultaneous maintenance of a desired compound's activity is not an easy task due to the extreme complexity of metabolic pathways in living organisms. In this study, the platform for in silico qualitative evaluation of metabolic stability, expressed as half-lifetime and clearance was developed. The platform is based on the application of machine learning methods and separate models for human, rat and mouse data were constructed...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570318/native-frames-disentangling-sequential-from-concerted-three-body-fragmentation
#12
Jyoti Rajput, T Severt, Ben Berry, Bethany Jochim, Peyman Feizollah, Balram Kaderiya, M Zohrabi, U Ablikim, Farzaneh Ziaee, Kanaka Raju P, D Rolles, A Rudenko, K D Carnes, B D Esry, I Ben-Itzhak
A key question concerning the three-body fragmentation of polyatomic molecules is the distinction of sequential and concerted mechanisms, i.e., the stepwise or simultaneous cleavage of bonds. Using laser-driven fragmentation of OCS into O^{+}+C^{+}+S^{+} and employing coincidence momentum imaging, we demonstrate a novel method that enables the clear separation of sequential and concerted breakup. The separation is accomplished by analyzing the three-body fragmentation in the native frame associated with each step and taking advantage of the rotation of the intermediate molecular fragment, CO^{2+} or CS^{2+}, before its unimolecular dissociation...
March 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567594/production-of-bioethanol-and-value-added-compounds-from-wheat-straw-through-combined-alkaline-alkaline-peroxide-pretreatment
#13
Zhaoyang Yuan, Yangbing Wen, Guodong Li
An efficient scheme was developed for the conversion of wheat straw (WS) into bioethanol, silica and lignin. WS was pre-extracted with 0.2 mol/L sodium hydroxide at 30 °C for 5 h to remove about 91% of initial silica. Subsequently, the alkaline-pretreated solids were subjected to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment with 40 mg hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )/g biomass at 50 °C for 7 h to prepare highly digestible substrate. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis demonstrated that the sequential alkaline-AHP pretreated WS was efficiently hydrolyzed at 10% (w/v) solids loading using an enzyme dosage of 10 mg protein/g glucan...
March 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555753/directed-nucleation-and-growth-by-balancing-local-supersaturation-and-substrate-nucleus-lattice-mismatch
#14
L Li, A J Fijneman, J A Kaandorp, J Aizenberg, W L Noorduin
Controlling nucleation and growth is crucial in biological and artificial mineralization and self-assembly processes. The nucleation barrier is determined by the chemistry of the interfaces at which crystallization occurs and local supersaturation. Although chemically tailored substrates and lattice mismatches are routinely used to modify energy landscape at the substrate/nucleus interface and thereby steer heterogeneous nucleation, strategies to combine this with control over local supersaturations have remained virtually unexplored...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543369/neuroanatomical-connections-between-kisspeptin-neurones-and-somatostatin-neurones-in-female-and-male-rat-hypothalamus-a-possible-involvement-of-sstr1-in-kisspeptin-release
#15
Laurence Dufourny, Oona Delmas, Ana-Paula Teixeira-Gomes, Caroline Decourt, Joanna H Sliwowska
Somatostatin (SST) a neuropeptide involved in the central modulation of several physiological functions, is co-distributed in the same hypothalamic areas as kisspeptin (KP), the most potent secretagogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion known to date. As SST infused intracerebroventricularly (icv) evoked a potent inhibition of GnRH release, we explored neuroanatomical relationships between KP and SST populations in male and female rats. For that, intact males and ovariectomised oestradiol-replaced females were killed and their brains processed in order to simultaneously detect KP, SST and synapsin, a marker for synapses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540300/on-demand-manufacturing-of-patient-specific-liquid-capsules-via-co-ordinated-3d-printing-and-liquid-dispensing
#16
Tochukwu C Okwuosa, Cindy Soares, Verena Gollwitzer, Rober Habashy, Peter Timmins, Mohamed A Alhnan
A method for the production of liquid capsules with the potential of modifying drug dose and release is presented. For the first time, the co-ordinated use of fused deposition modelling (FDM), 3D printing and liquid dispensing to fabricate individualised dosage form on demand in a fully automated fashion has been demonstrated. Polymethacrylate shells (Eudragit EPO and RL) for immediate and extended release were fabricated using FDM 3D printing and simultaneously filled using a computer-controlled liquid dispenser loaded with model drug solution (theophylline) or suspension (dipyridamole)...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535653/lack-of-cross-modal-effects-in-dual-modality-implicit-statistical-learning
#17
Xiujun Li, Xudong Zhao, Wendian Shi, Yang Lu, Christopher M Conway
A current controversy in the area of implicit statistical learning (ISL) is whether this process consists of a single, central mechanism or multiple modality-specific ones. To provide insight into this question, the current study involved three ISL experiments to explore whether multimodal input sources are processed separately in each modality or are integrated together across modalities. In Experiment 1, visual and auditory ISL were measured under unimodal conditions, with the results providing a baseline level of learning for subsequent experiments...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513926/blueprint-for-an-intestinal-villus-species-specific-assembly-required
#18
REVIEW
Katherine D Walton, Darcy Mishkind, Misty R Riddle, Clifford J Tabin, Deborah L Gumucio
Efficient absorption of nutrients by the intestine is essential for life. In mammals and birds, convolution of the intestinal surface into finger-like projections called villi is an important adaptation that ensures the massive surface area for nutrient contact that is required to meet metabolic demands. Each villus projection serves as a functional absorptive unit: it is covered by a simple columnar epithelium that is derived from endoderm and contains a mesodermally derived core with supporting vasculature, lacteals, enteric nerves, smooth muscle, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and immune cells...
March 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508767/hydrogels-with-reversible-chemical-environments-for-in-vitro-cell-culture
#19
Catherine R Lambert, Devang Nijsure, Vincent Huynh, Ryan G Wylie
Methods to reversibly control the chemical environment of hydrogels have application in three-dimensional cell culture to study cell proliferation, migration and differentiation in environments more representative of in vivo environments. Herein, we have developed a method to temporally control the chemical environment of agarose hydrogels through non-covalent attachment of peptide motifs. Streptavidin-GRGDS conjugates were immobilized in desthiobiotin-modified agarose hydrogels through the desthiobiotin-streptavidin interaction (KD 10-11 M)...
April 11, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500995/simultaneous-removal-of-cd-ii-and-p-cresol-from-wastewater-by-micellar-enhanced-ultrafiltration-using-rhamnolipid-flux-decline-adsorption-kinetics-and-isotherm-studies
#20
Satya Pal Verma, Biswajit Sarkar
Flux decline due to membrane fouling by surfactant micelles is the major problem limiting the use of micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) for the treatment of wastewater. Understanding of underlying mechanisms of membrane fouling, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm are very important for the successful application of MEUF studies. In the present study, an unsteady state model considering sequential occurrence of complete pore blocking and gel layer formation was proposed for explaining flux decline behavior during rhamnolipid based MEUF for simultaneous removal of Cd+2 and p-cresol from aqueous solution under batch concentration mode...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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