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simultaneous sequential processing

L Li, A J Fijneman, J A Kaandorp, J Aizenberg, W L Noorduin
Controlling nucleation and growth is crucial in biological and artificial mineralization and self-assembly processes. The nucleation barrier is determined by the chemistry of the interfaces at which crystallization occurs and local supersaturation. Although chemically tailored substrates and lattice mismatches are routinely used to modify energy landscape at the substrate/nucleus interface and thereby steer heterogeneous nucleation, strategies to combine this with control over local supersaturations have remained virtually unexplored...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Laurence Dufourny, Oona Delmas, Ana-Paula Teixeira-Gomes, Caroline Decourt, Joanna H Sliwowska
Somatostatin (SST) a neuropeptide involved in the central modulation of several physiological functions, is co-distributed in the same hypothalamic areas as kisspeptin (KP), the most potent secretagogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion known to date. As SST infused intracerebroventricularly (icv) evoked a potent inhibition of GnRH release, we explored neuroanatomical relationships between KP and SST populations in male and female rats. For that, intact males and ovariectomised oestradiol-replaced females were killed and their brains processed in order to simultaneously detect KP, SST and synapsin, a marker for synapses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Tochukwu C Okwuosa, Cindy Soares, Verena Golwitzer, Rober Habashy, Peter Timmins, Mohamed A Alhnan
A method for the production of liquid capsules with the potential of modifying drug dose and release is presented. For the first time, the co-ordinated use of fused deposition modelling (FDM), 3D printing and liquid dispensing to fabricate individualised dosage form on demand in a fully automated fashion has been demonstrated. Polymethacrylate shells (Eudragit EPO and RL) for immediate and extended release were fabricated using FDM 3D printing and simultaneously filled using a computer-controlled liquid dispenser loaded with model drug solution (theophylline) or suspension (dipyridamole)...
March 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xiujun Li, Xudong Zhao, Wendian Shi, Yang Lu, Christopher M Conway
A current controversy in the area of implicit statistical learning (ISL) is whether this process consists of a single, central mechanism or multiple modality-specific ones. To provide insight into this question, the current study involved three ISL experiments to explore whether multimodal input sources are processed separately in each modality or are integrated together across modalities. In Experiment 1, visual and auditory ISL were measured under unimodal conditions, with the results providing a baseline level of learning for subsequent experiments...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Katherine D Walton, Darcy Mishkind, Misty R Riddle, Clifford J Tabin, Deborah L Gumucio
Efficient absorption of nutrients by the intestine is essential for life. In mammals and birds, convolution of the intestinal surface into finger-like projections called villi is an important adaptation that ensures the massive surface area for nutrient contact that is required to meet metabolic demands. Each villus projection serves as a functional absorptive unit: it is covered by a simple columnar epithelium that is derived from endoderm and contains a mesodermally derived core with supporting vasculature, lacteals, enteric nerves, smooth muscle, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and immune cells...
March 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Catherine Lambert, Devang Nijsure, Vincent Huynh, Ryan Wylie
Methods to reversibly control the chemical environment of hydrogels have application in three-dimensional (3D) cell culture to study cell proliferation, migration and differentiation in environments more representative of in vivo environments. Herein, we developed a method to temporally control the chemical environment of agarose hydrogels through non-covalent attachment of peptide motifs. Streptavidin-CGRGDS conjugates were immobilized in desthiobiotin-modified agarose hydrogels through the desthiobiotin-streptavidin interaction (KD 10-11 M)...
March 6, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Satya Pal Verma, Biswajit Sarkar
Flux decline due to membrane fouling by surfactant micelles is the major problem limiting the use of micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) for the treatment of wastewater. Understanding of underlying mechanisms of membrane fouling, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm are very important for the successful application of MEUF studies. In the present study, an unsteady state model considering sequential occurrence of complete pore blocking and gel layer formation was proposed for explaining flux decline behavior during rhamnolipid based MEUF for simultaneous removal of Cd+2 and p-cresol from aqueous solution under batch concentration mode...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Bernhard Bereiter, Kenji Kawamura, Jeffrey P Severinghaus
RATIONALE: The global ocean constitutes the largest heat buffer in the global climate system, but little is known about its past changes. The isotopic and elemental ratios of heavy noble gases (krypton and xenon), together with argon and nitrogen in trapped air from ice cores can be used to reconstruct past mean ocean temperatures (MOTs). Here we introduce two successively developed methods to measure these parameters with a sufficient precision to provide new constraints on past MOT changes...
March 3, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Alexander L M Siegel, Alan D Castel
Older adults typically experience memory impairments for verbal and visuospatial episodic information, which are most pronounced for associative information. Although some age-related verbal memory deficits may be reduced by selectively focusing on high-value item information, the binding of items to locations in visuospatial memory involves different processes that are impaired in older adults. In the current study, we examined whether age-related impairment in visuospatial binding could be alleviated by strategic focus on important information and whether varying study time and presentation formats would affect such selectivity...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Sarah C McEwen, Prabha Siddarth, Berna Abedelsater, Yena Kim, Wenli Mui, Pauline Wu, Natacha D Emerson, Jacob Lee, Shayna Greenberg, Tiffany Shelton, Scott Kaiser, Gary W Small, David A Merrill
BACKGROUND: Several modifiable lifestyle factors have been shown to have potential beneficial effects in slowing cognitive decline. Two such factors that may affect cognitive performance and slow the progression of memory loss into dementia in older adults are cognitive training and physical activity. There are currently no effective treatments for dementia; therefore, preventative strategies to delay or prevent the onset of dementia are of critical importance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of simultaneous performance of memory training and aerobic exercise to a sequential performance intervention on memory functioning in older adults...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Yury Shevchenko, Arndt Bröder
The exact effect of different moods on choosing strategies in multi-attribute decision tasks is yet unknown since previous work has found apparently contradicting results. Furthermore, different theoretical accounts lead to opposite expectations. While the "mood-as-information" theory states that a positive mood leads to heuristic processing of information and application of non-compensatory strategies, the "broaden-and-build" theory expects more non-compensatory decision-making in a negative mood...
February 22, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Junwen Zhang, Teng Ma, Yani Yan, Xianjun Xie, Olusegun K Abass, Congqiang Liu, Zhiqi Zhao, Zhizhen Wang
High arsenic groundwater generally coexists with elevated Fe2+ concentrations (mg L-1 levels) under reducing conditions, but an explanation for the extremely high arsenic (up to ∼2690) concentrations at very low Fe2+ (i.e., μg L-1 levels) in groundwater of Datong Basin remains elusive. Field groundwater investigation and laboratory microcosm experiments were implemented in this study. The field groundwater was characterized by weakly alkaline (pH 7.69 to 8.34) and reducing conditions (Eh -221.7 to -31...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kota Suzuki, Yosuke Kita, Yuhei Oi, Yasuko Okumura, Hideyuki Okuzumi, Masumi Inagaki
OBJECTIVE: The right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an essential role in active processing within visuospatial working memory (VSWM). The aim of this study was to examine developmental changes in the recruitment patterns of the PFC during visuospatial memory tasks in school-age participants. METHODS: We recruited 80 school-age children who were classified into three age groups: 7- to 8-year-old, 9- to 10-year-old, and 11- to 12-year-old children. We used near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure PFC activity during visuospatial memory task...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Kyle W Killebrew, Gennadiy Gurariy, Candace E Peacock, Marian E Berryhill, Gideon P Caplovitz
Why are some visual stimuli remembered, whereas others are forgotten? A limitation of recognition paradigms is that they measure aggregate behavioral performance and/or neural responses to all stimuli presented in a visual working memory (VWM) array. To address this limitation, we paired an electroencephalography (EEG) frequency-tagging technique with two full-report VWM paradigms. This permitted the tracking of individual stimuli as well as the aggregate response. We recorded high-density EEG (256 channel) while participants viewed four shape stimuli, each flickering at a different frequency...
February 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Hayati Samsudin, Rafael Auras, Gary Burgess, Kirk Dolan, Herlinda Soto-Valdez
A two-step solution based on the boundary conditions of Crank's equations for mass transfer in a film was developed. Three driving factors, the diffusion (D), partition (Kp,f) and convective mass transfer coefficients (h), govern the sorption and/or desorption kinetics of migrants from polymer films. These three parameters were simultaneously estimated. They provide in-depth insight into the physics of a migration process. The first step was used to find the combination of D, Kp,f and h that minimized the sums of squared errors (SSE) between the predicted and actual results...
March 2018: Food Research International
Francesco Cenni, Simon-Henri Schless, Lynn Bar-On, Erwin Aertbeliën, Herman Bruyninckx, Britta Hanssen, Kaat Desloovere
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: 3D freehand Ultrasonography is a medical imaging technique that can be used to measure muscle and tendon morphological and structural properties, including volume, lengths and echo-intensity. These properties are clinically relevant in neurological disorders such as spastic cerebral palsy to monitor disease progression and evaluate the effect of treatment. This study presents a methodology for extracting these parameters along with a clinical reliability analysis for the data acquisition and processing...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Zhuangkun Wei, Wenxiu Hu, Dahai Han, Min Zhang, Bin Li, Chenglin Zhao
One primary challenge in wireless ultraviolet communications (UVCs) is the inter-symbol-interference (ISI), which may block the detection of current informative signal, especially when channel-related characteristics are unknown. In this paper, we propose a UV channel-related Bayesian scheme that can simultaneously estimate the channel characteristics and detect informative signals, which therefore can address the ISI disturbance. By investigating the UV single-scattering photon model, the dynamic behaviors of the channel state information (CSI), which involve the uncertain signal and the unknown channel parameters are formulated...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Fanyang Mo, Di Qiu, Yan Zhang, Jianbo Wang
The Sandmeyer reaction represents an important organic transformation that converts an arylamine to an aryl halide using Cu(I) halide via a diazonium salt intermediate. The reaction was first reported by Sandmeyer in 1884, and a number of named reactions closely related to it have been developed and widely applied in organic synthesis throughout the 20th century. These include the Pschorr reaction for the synthesis of biaryl tricycles, the Gomberg-Bachmann reaction for biaryl formations, the Balz-Schiemann reaction for C-F bond formations, and the Meerwein reaction for arylation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds...
January 25, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yalin Yang, Juan Li, Qiang Yu, Junxiu Hou, Chenchen Gao, Dong Li, Yang Liu, Chao Ran, Zhigang Zhou
In this study, we investigated the secretion mechanism of the hyper-secretion signal peptide-lacking β-xylosidase PtXyl43, a non-classically secreted protein, from the fungus Paecilomyces thermophila in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). PtXyl43 secretion is a two-step process, and the second step is accompanied by cell periplasmic leakage, indicating that PtXyl43 secretion is the result of semi-specific secretion. Homology modeling of PtXyl43 suggested that PtXyl43 had a canonical GH43 family β-xylosidase structure containing five blades...
January 24, 2018: AMB Express
Songbo Ni, Heiko Wolf, Lucio Isa
Hybrid nanoparticle clusters (often metallic) are interesting plasmonic materials with tunable resonances and a near-field electromagnetic enhancement at interparticle junctions. Therefore, in recent years, we have witnessed a surge in both the interest in these materials and the efforts to obtain them. However, a versatile fabrication of hybrid nanoclusters, i.e., combining more than one material, still remains an open challenge. Current lithographical or self-assembly methods are limited to the preparation of hybrid clusters with up to two different materials, and typically to the fabrication of hybrid dimers...
January 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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