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simultaneous sequential processing

Diana Bello, Carmen Trasar-Cepeda
The compounds 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) are classified as priority pollutants, with potentially hazardous impacts on the environment. In soil, dissociation of the phenol group occurs, resulting in the simultaneous presence of neutral phenol and anionic phenolate. Although the toxicity of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,5-TCP to soil microbiota has been suggested to be mainly due to the phenolate anion, this hypothesis cannot be tested due to the lack of appropriate methods of extracting and quantifying the anionic form of these compounds (unlike the neutral form, which can be easily quantified)...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Paul B Leonard, Robert F Baldwin, R Daniel Hanks
Systematic conservation planning has been used extensively throughout the world to identify important areas for maintaining biodiversity and functional ecosystems, and is well suited to address large-scale biodiversity conservation challenges of the twenty-first century. Systematic planning is necessary to bridge implementation, scale, and data gaps in a collaborative effort that recognizes competing land uses. Here, we developed a conservation planning process to identify and unify conservation priorities around the central and southern Appalachian Mountains as part of the Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative (App LCC)...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vincenzo Guarino, Iriczalli Cruz Maya, Rosaria Altobelli, Wan Khartini Abdul Khodir, Luigi Ambrosio, Marco A Alvarez Pèrez, Angela Almaguer Flores
Main limitation of conventional antibiotic therapies concerns the low efficacy to bacteria attacks for long treatment times. In this context, the integrated use of electrofluidodynamics (EFDs) - basically electrospinning and electrospraying - may represent an interesting route to design nanostructured platforms with controlled release to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms in oral implant sites. They allow for the deposition of nanofibres and nanoparticles by different modes - i.e., sequential, simultaneous - for the fabrication of more efficacious systems in terms of degradation protection, pharmacokinetic control and drug distribution to the surrounding tissues...
October 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
Yi Shen
In many listening situations, information about the spectral content of a target sound may be distributed over time, and estimating the target spectrum requires efficient sequential processing. Listeners' ability to estimate the spectrum of a random-frequency, six-tone complex was investigated and the spectral content of the complex was revealed using a sequence of bursts. Whether each of the six tones was presented within each burst was determined at random according to a presentation probability. In separate conditions, the presentation probabilities (p) ranged from 0...
October 11, 2017: Hearing Research
Dimin Fan, Ying Lan, Paul G Tratnyek, Richard L Johnson, Jan Filip, Denis M O'Carroll, Ariel Nunez Garcia, Abinash Agrawal
Iron-based materials used in water treatment and groundwater remediation-especially micro- and nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI)-can be more effective when modified with lower-valent forms of sulfur (i.e., "sulfidated"). Controlled sulfidation for this purpose (using sulfide, dithionite, etc.) is the main topic of this review, but insights are derived by comparison with related and comparatively well-characterized processes such as corrosion of iron in sulfidic waters and abiotic natural attenuation by iron sulfide minerals...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
E M Brouwer-Brolsma, O van de Rest, R Godschalk, M P A Zeegers, M Gielen, R H M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: Concentrations of the fish fatty acids EPA and DHA are low among Dutch women of reproductive age. As the human brain incorporates high concentrations of these fatty acids in utero, particularly during third trimester of gestation, these low EPA and DHA concentrations may have adverse consequences for fetal brain development and functioning. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using longitudinal observational data of 292 mother-child pairs participating in the MEFAB cohort...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Taylor Chomiak, Bin Hu
Cortical information processing is structurally and functionally organized into hierarchical pathways, with primary sensory cortical regions providing modality specific information and associative cortical regions playing a more integrative role. Historically, there has been debate as to whether primary cortical regions mature earlier than associative cortical regions, or whether both primary and associative cortical regions mature simultaneously. Identifying whether primary and associative cortical regions mature hierarchically or simultaneously will not only deepen our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate brain maturation, but it will also provide fundamental insight into aspects of adolescent behavior, learning, neurodevelopmental disorders and computational models of neural processing...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ali Asghar Rastegari, Behnaz Buzari, Abdol-Khalegh Bordbar
Pepsin is generally used in the preparation of F(ab)2 fragments from antibodies. The antibodies that are one of the largest and fastest growing categories of bio- pharmaceutical candidates. Differential scanning calorimetric is principally suitable method to follow the energetics of a multi-domain, fragment to perform a more exhaustive description of the thermodynamics in an associating system. The thermodynamical models of analysis include the construction of a simultaneous fitting of a theoretical expression...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Leena Patil, Parag R Gogate
In the present work, application of ultrasound and stirring individually or in combination for improved emulsification of turmeric oil in skimmed milk has been investigated. The effect of different operating parameters/strategies such as addition of surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), at different concentrations, quantity of oil phase, applied power, sonication time and duty cycle on the droplet size have been investigated. The stability of emulsion was analyzed in terms of the fraction of the emulsion that remains stable for a period of 28days...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Kristof Strijkers, Albert Costa, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Language production models typically assume that retrieving a word for articulation is a sequential process with substantial functional delays between conceptual, lexical, phonological and motor processing, respectively. Nevertheless, explicit evidence contrasting the spatiotemporal dynamics between different word production components is scarce. Here, using anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography during overt meaningful speech production, we explore the speed with which lexico-semantic versus acoustic-articulatory information of a to-be-uttered word become first neurophysiologically manifest in the cerebral cortex...
September 22, 2017: NeuroImage
Yang Yang, Kanjakha Pal, Andy Koswara, Qingqing Sun, Yuqi Zhang, Justin Quon, Rahn McKeown, Charles Goss, Zoltan K Nagy
Control of crystal size and shape is crucially important for crystallization process development in the pharmaceutical industries. In general crystals of large size and low aspect ratio are desired for improved downstream manufacturability. It can be extremely challenging to design crystallization processes that achieve these targets for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that have very slow growth kinetics and needle-like morphology. In this work, a batch cooling crystallization process for a GlaxoSmithKline patented API, which is characterized by very slow growth rate and needle morphology, was studied and improved using process analytical technology (PAT) based feedback control techniques and in situ immersion milling...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Michael Wiemers, Harold Bekkering, Oliver Lindemann
Many studies demonstrated interactions between number processing and either spatial codes (effects of spatial-numerical associations) or visual size-related codes (size-congruity effect). However, the interrelatedness of these two number couplings is still unclear. The present study examines the simultaneous occurrence of space- and size-numerical congruency effects and their interactions both within and across trials. In a magnitude judgment task physically small or large digits were presented left or right from screen center...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
Silvan Steiner, Anne-Claire Macquet, Roland Seiler
Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Oulmann Zerhouni, Laurent Bègue, Francisco Comiran, Reinout W Wiers
Since implicit attitudes (i.e. evaluations occurring outside of complete awareness) are highly predictive of alcohol consumption, we tested an evaluative learning procedure based on repeated pairing to a critical stimulus (i.e. alcohol, the CS) with a valenced stimulus (the US) in order to modify implicit attitudes (i.e. evaluative conditioning; EC). We hypothesized that manipulating the learning context to bolster implicit affect misattribution should strengthen EC effects on implicit attitudes toward alcohol, while encouraging deliberate processing of CS-US pairs, should strengthen EC effects on explicit attitudes...
August 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Margaret C Jackson, Paul Counter, Jeremy J Tree
Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a condition in which individuals experience life-long problems recognising faces. In recent years, unpacking the nature of the impairments of this population has been the focus of numerous studies. One focus has been on the nature of face-based memory impairments for such individuals, with the onus being mainly on long-term memory deficits. Far fewer have considered the nature of face-based working memory (WM) impairments for DP cases, and the current study seeks to address this...
September 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Lohengrin Dias de Almeida Fernandes, Eduardo Barros Fagundes Netto, Ricardo Coutinho
Currently, spatial and temporal changes in nutrients availability, marine planktonic, and fish communities are best described on a shorter than inter-annual (seasonal) scale, primarily because the simultaneous year-to-year variations in physical, chemical, and biological parameters are very complex. The limited availability of time series datasets furnishing simultaneous evaluations of temperature, nutrients, plankton, and fish have limited our ability to describe and to predict variability related to short-term process, as species-specific phenology and environmental seasonality...
2017: PloS One
Fu Chen, Zhanbin Luo, Gangjun Liu, Yongjun Yang, Shaoliang Zhang, Jing Ma
Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the efficiency of a simultaneous chemical extraction and oxidation for removing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals from an actual soil polluted by the recycling activity of electronic waste. Various chemicals, including hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), citric acid (CA) and sodium persulfate (SP) were applied synchronously with Fe(2+) activated oxidation to enhance the co-removal of both types of pollutants. It is found that the addition of HPCD can enhance POPs removal through solubilization of POPs and iron chelation; while the CA-chelated Fe(2+) activation process is effective for extracting metals and degrading residual POPs...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Nicholas R Johnson, Steven M George
The thermal atomic layer etching (ALE) of WO3 and W was demonstrated with new "conversion-fluorination" and "oxidation-conversion-fluorination" etching mechanisms. Both of these mechanisms are based on sequential, self-limiting reactions. WO3 ALE was achieved by a "conversion-fluorination" mechanism using an AB exposure sequence with boron trichloride (BCl3) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). BCl3 converts the WO3 surface to a B2O3 layer while forming volatile WOxCly products. Subsequently, HF spontaneously etches the B2O3 layer producing volatile BF3 and H2O products...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jesse Hamilton, Dominique Franson, Nicole Seiberlich
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an essential technology in modern medicine. However, one of its main drawbacks is the long scan time needed to localize the MR signal in space to generate an image. This review article summarizes some basic principles and recent developments in parallel imaging, a class of image reconstruction techniques for shortening scan time. First, the fundamentals of MRI data acquisition are covered, including the concepts of k-space, undersampling, and aliasing. It is demonstrated that scan time can be reduced by sampling a smaller number of phase encoding lines in k-space; however, without further processing, the resulting images will be degraded by aliasing artifacts...
August 2017: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Carmen Bedia, Romà Tauler, Joaquim Jaumot
A new procedure based on the simultaneous analysis of multiple mass spectrometry images using multivariate curve resolution is presented in this work. Advantages of the application of the proposed approach are shown for three cases of plant studies demonstrating its potential usefulness in metabolomics studies, particularly in lipidomics. In the first dataset, a three stage germination time course process of green bean seeds is presented. The second example is a dose-response study where the stem bases of a non-exposed plant are compared to those of plants exposed to increasing concentrations of the pesticide chlorpyrifos...
December 1, 2017: Talanta
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