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simultaneous sequential processing

Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Arif Ul Maula Khan, Ralf Mikut, Markus Reischl
The parametrization of automatic image processing routines is time-consuming if a lot of image processing parameters are involved. An expert can tune parameters sequentially to get desired results. This may not be productive for applications with difficult image analysis tasks, e.g. when high noise and shading levels in an image are present or images vary in their characteristics due to different acquisition conditions. Parameters are required to be tuned simultaneously. We propose a framework to improve standard image segmentation methods by using feedback-based automatic parameter adaptation...
2016: PloS One
Laureen A Lammers, Roos Achterbergh, Marcel C M Pistorius, Yuma Bijleveld, Emmely M de Vries, Anita Boelen, Heinz-Josef Klümpen, Johannes A Romijn, RonA A Mathôt
BACKGROUND: The metabolic activity of P450 enzymes in vivo can be determined by using selective probe drugs. The simultaneous administration of multiple CYP-specific probe drugs is commonly referred to as the "cocktail approach." Disadvantages of a cocktail are large volumes of samples required for analysis and time-consuming analyses. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simplified but sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of five probe drugs (caffeine (CYP1A2), metoprolol (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19), and S-warfarin (CYP2C9)) in a previously validated cocktail using an LC-MS/MS method...
October 19, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Joanna Berlowska, Weronika Cieciura, Sebastian Borowski, Marta Dudkiewicz, Michal Binczarski, Izabela Witonska, Anna Otlewska, Dorota Kregiel
Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Faiyaz Notta, Michelle Chan-Seng-Yue, Mathieu Lemire, Yilong Li, Gavin W Wilson, Ashton A Connor, Robert E Denroche, Sheng-Ben Liang, Andrew M K Brown, Jaeseung C Kim, Tao Wang, Jared T Simpson, Timothy Beck, Ayelet Borgida, Nicholas Buchner, Dianne Chadwick, Sara Hafezi-Bakhtiari, John E Dick, Lawrence Heisler, Michael A Hollingsworth, Emin Ibrahimov, Gun Ho Jang, Jeremy Johns, Lars G T Jorgensen, Calvin Law, Olga Ludkovski, Ilinca Lungu, Karen Ng, Danielle Pasternack, Gloria M Petersen, Liran I Shlush, Lee Timms, Ming-Sound Tsao, Julie M Wilson, Christina K Yung, George Zogopoulos, John M S Bartlett, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Francisco X Real, Sean P Cleary, Michael H Roehrl, John D McPherson, Lincoln D Stein, Thomas J Hudson, Peter J Campbell, Steven Gallinger
Pancreatic cancer, a highly aggressive tumour type with uniformly poor prognosis, exemplifies the classically held view of stepwise cancer development. The current model of tumorigenesis, based on analyses of precursor lesions, termed pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanINs) lesions, makes two predictions: first, that pancreatic cancer develops through a particular sequence of genetic alterations (KRAS, followed by CDKN2A, then TP53 and SMAD4); and second, that the evolutionary trajectory of pancreatic cancer progression is gradual because each alteration is acquired independently...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Joanna Berłowska, Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska, Maria Balcerek, Urszula Dziekońska-Kubczak, Piotr Patelski, Piotr Dziugan, Dorota Kręgiel
Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter...
2016: BioMed Research International
Bhargab Chattopadhyay, Ken Kelley
The coefficient of variation is an effect size measure with many potential uses in psychology and related disciplines. We propose a general theory for a sequential estimation of the population coefficient of variation that considers both the sampling error and the study cost, importantly without specific distributional assumptions. Fixed sample size planning methods, commonly used in psychology and related fields, cannot simultaneously minimize both the sampling error and the study cost. The sequential procedure we develop is the first sequential sampling procedure developed for estimating the coefficient of variation...
August 11, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Chia-Wei Hsu, Ognjen Š Miljanić
Kinetically controlled self-sorting processes in complex synthetic mixtures represent an important model for behaviours of biological networks, which operate far from equilibrium and without interference among simultaneous metabolic pathways. However, most of the previously reported kinetic self-sorting protocols dealt with small dynamic libraries and a single external stimulus. Here, we report the iterative simplification of a large imine dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) constructed from 10 aldehydes and 10 anilines, under the sequential influence of an oxidant, an adsorbent, and an increase in temperature...
October 11, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Iyo Shiraishi, Naoya Shikazono, Masao Suzuki, Kentaro Fujii, Akinari Yokoya
PURPOSE: To clarify whether initial base excision repair processes at clustered DNA damage sites comprising multiple base lesions affect subsequent excision processes via the formation of additional strand breaks by glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease base excision enzymes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasmid DNA (pUC18) as a model DNA molecule was exposed to high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) ionizing radiation (He(2+) or C(6+) ions) or low-LET ionizing radiation (X-rays) under various conditions to produce varied radical-scavenging effects...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Rifat Akbar, Minati Baral, B K Kanungo
Photophysical properties of a multidentate tripodal ligand, 5,5'-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl) methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl) bis (azanediyl)bis (methylene)diquinolin-8-ol, (TAME5OX), with La(3+) and Er(3+) ions have been examined for photonics applications. The change in behavior in electronic spectra of these complexes reveals the use of TAME5OX as a sensitive optical pH based sensor to detect Ln(3+) ions whereas indication of strong green fluorescence allows simultaneous sensing within the visible region in competitive medium...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
Pierre Mangeol, Erwin J G Peterman
Most methods to observe three-dimensional processes in living samples are based on imaging a single plane that is sequentially scanned through the sample. Sequential scanning is inherently slow, which can make it difficult to capture objects moving quickly in three dimensions. Here we present a novel method, multiple point-of-view microscopy (MPoVM), that allows simultaneous capturing of the front and side views of a sample with high resolution. MPoVM can be implemented in most fluorescence microscopes, offering new opportunities in the study of dynamic biological processes in three dimensions...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Christine H Feng, Yasmin Hasan, Malgorzata Kopec, Hania A Al-Hallaq
We performed a dosimetric comparison of sequential IMRT (sIMRT) and simul-taneously integrated boost (SIB) IMRT to boost PET-avid lymph nodes while concurrently treating pelvic targets to determine the potential of SIB IMRT to reduce overall treatment duration in locally advanced cervical cancer. Ten patients receiving definitive radiation therapy were identified retrospectively. RTOG consensus guidelines were followed to delineate the clinical target volume and organs at risk (OAR), which were then expanded per IMRT consortium guidelines to yield the planning target volume (PTV)...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Christos Pliatsikas, Vincent DeLuca, Elisavet Moschopoulou, James Douglas Saddy
Bilingualism has been shown to affect the structure of the brain, including cortical regions related to language. Less is known about subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia, which underlie speech monitoring and language selection, processes that are crucial for bilinguals, as well as other linguistic functions, such as grammatical and phonological acquisition and processing. Simultaneous bilinguals have demonstrated significant reshaping of the basal ganglia and the thalamus compared to monolinguals...
September 27, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Hyung-Jin Kim, Pil Un Kim, Min Gyu Hyeon, Youngwoon Choi, Jeehyun Kim, Beop-Min Kim
Dual-depth spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) enables high-resolution in vivo whole-eye imaging. Two orthogonally polarized beams from a source are focused simultaneously on two axial positions of the anterior segment and the retina. For the detector arm, a 1×2 ultrafast optical switch sequentially delivers two spectral interference signals to a single spectrometer, which extends the in-air axial depth range up to 9.44 mm. An off-pivot complex conjugate removal technique doubles the depth range for all anterior segment imaging...
September 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Emily A Bayer, Morgan Fedorchak, Steven Little
A three-dimensional in vitro Matrigel plug was used as a model to explore delivery patterns of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) to a co-culture of human mesenchymal and endothelial cells. While BMP-2 is well-recognized for its role in promoting fracture healing though proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors, it is not a growth factor known to promote the process of angiogenesis (1), which is also critical for complete bone tissue repair. PDGF, in contrast, is a known regulator of angiogenesis, and also a powerful chemoattractant for osteoblast precursor cells...
September 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Alexander Clout, Asma B M Buanz, Timothy J Prior, Christina Reinhard, Yue Wu, Dermot O'Hare, Gareth R Williams, Simon Gaisford
We report a powerful new technique: hyphenating synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This is achieved with a simple modification to a standard laboratory DSC instrument, in contrast to previous reports which have involved extensive and complex modifications to a DSC to mount it in the synchrotron beam. The high-energy X-rays of the synchrotron permit the recording of powder diffraction patterns in as little as 2 s, meaning that thermally induced phase changes can be accurately quantified and additional insight on the nature of phase transitions obtained...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jeremy Marozeau, Colette M McKay
It has been argued that a main limitation of the cochlear implant is the spread of current induced by each electrode, which activates an inappropriately large range of sensory neurons. To reduce this spread, an alternative stimulation mode, the all-polar mode, was tested with five participants. It was designed to activate all the electrodes simultaneously with appropriate current levels and polarities to recruit narrower regions of auditory nerves at specific intracochlear electrode positions (denoted all-polar electrodes)...
2016: Trends in Hearing
David Parker, Xueqing Liu, Qolamreza R Razlighi
Due to the nature of fMRI acquisition protocols, slices in the plane of acquisition are not acquired simultaneously or sequentially, and therefore are temporally misaligned with each other. Slice timing correction (STC) is a critical preprocessing step that corrects for this temporal misalignment. Interpolation-based STC is implemented in all major fMRI processing software packages. To date, little effort has gone towards assessing the optimal method of STC. Delineating the benefits of STC can be challenging because of its slice-dependent gain as well as its interaction with other fMRI artifacts...
August 24, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Jonghun Lim, Hyejin Kim, Pedro J J Alvarez, Jaesang Lee, Wonyong Choi
Fullerenes and their derivatives are known to photosensitize the production of singlet oxygen ((1)O2), but their role in generating hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) under visible light has not been reported. Here, we demonstrate that fullerol can mediate the electron transfer from Rhodamine B dye to O2 under visible light irradiation, achieving simultaneous dye decolorization and (•)OH-induced degradation of 4-chlorophenol. The hydroxyl radical is proposed to be produced via a consecutive reduction of molecular oxygen by fullerol anion radical, which is formed through the electron transfer from the dye to the triplet state of fullerol...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Jessica Taubert, David Alais, David Burr
Perceptual systems face competing requirements: improving signal-to-noise ratios of noisy images, by integration; and maximising sensitivity to change, by differentiation. Both processes occur in human vision, under different circumstances: they have been termed priming, or serial dependencies, leading to positive sequential effects; and adaptation or habituation, which leads to negative sequential effects. We reasoned that for stable attributes, such as the identity and gender of faces, the system should integrate: while for changeable attributes like facial expression, it should also engage contrast mechanisms to maximise sensitivity to change...
2016: Scientific Reports
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