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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185226/memory-and-learning-for-visual-signals-in-time-and-space
#1
Sujala Maharjan, Jason M Gold, Robert Sekuler
Vision is often characterized as a spatial sense, but what does that characterization imply about the relative ease of processing visual information distributed over time rather than over space? Three experiments addressed this question, using stimuli comprising random luminances. For some stimuli, individual items were presented sequentially, at 8 Hz; for other stimuli, individual items were presented simultaneously, as horizontal spatial arrays. For temporal sequences, subjects judged whether each of the last four luminances matched the corresponding luminance in the first four; for spatial arrays, they judged whether each of the right-hand four luminances matched the corresponding left-hand luminance...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169874/impact-of-hiv-and-atiretroviral-therapy-on-neurocognitive-outcomes-among-school-aged-children
#2
Heena Brahmbhatt, Michael Boivin, Victor Ssempijja, Joseph Kagaayi, Godfrey Kigozi, David Serwadda, Avy Violari, Ronald H Gray
INTRODUCTION: The impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on neurocognitive outcomes among children aged 7 to 14 years was assessed. We hypothesized that ART would ameliorate neurocognitive sequelae of HIV infection. METHODS: HIV-positive and negative mother-child pairs from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) and ART clinics in Rakai, Uganda were followed prospectively over 4 years. Exposures were stratified as: Perinatally HIV Infected (PHIV), Perinatally HIV Exposed but Uninfected (PHEU), and HIV Unexposed and Uninfected (HUU)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157612/remediation-of-hexavalent-chromium-contamination-in-chromite-ore-processing-residue-by-sodium-dithionite-and-sodium-phosphate-addition-and-its-mechanism
#3
Yunyi Li, Andrew B Cundy, Jingxuan Feng, Hang Fu, Xiaojing Wang, Yangsheng Liu
Large amounts of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) wastes have been deposited in many countries worldwide, generating significant contamination issues from the highly mobile and toxic hexavalent chromium species (Cr(VI)). In this study, sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) was used to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in COPR containing high available Fe, and then sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) was utilized to further immobilize Cr(III), via a two-step procedure (TSP). Remediation and immobilization processes and mechanisms were systematically investigated using batch experiments, sequential extraction studies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155178/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-facilitate-differentiation-and-proliferation-of-tendon-derived-stem-cells-in-vitro
#4
Peilin Han, Qingbo Cui, Shulong Yang, Hao Wang, Peng Gao, Zhaozhu Li
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on the proliferation and differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSC). RESULTS: TNF-α inhibits the proliferation and tenogenic/osteogenic differentiation of TDSC but, after simultaneous or sequential treatment with TGF-β1 and TNF-α, the expression of tenogenic/osteogenic-related marker and proliferation of TDSC was significantly increased...
February 2, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151950/eye-movements-during-silent-and-oral-reading-in-a-regular-orthography-basic-characteristics-and-correlations-with-childhood-cognitive-abilities-and-adolescent-reading-skills
#5
Magdalena Krieber, Katrin D Bartl-Pokorny, Florian B Pokorny, Dajie Zhang, Karin Landerl, Christof Körner, Franz Pernkopf, Thomas Pock, Christa Einspieler, Peter B Marschik
The present study aimed to define differences between silent and oral reading with respect to spatial and temporal eye movement parameters. Eye movements of 22 German-speaking adolescents (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were recorded while reading an age-appropriate text silently and orally. Preschool cognitive abilities were assessed at the participants' age of 5;7 (years;months) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The participants' reading speed and reading comprehension at the age of 13;6 (years;months) were determined using a standardized inventory to evaluate silent reading skills in German readers (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119226/enhanced-bioethanol-production-by-fed-batch-simultaneous-saccharification-and-co-fermentation-at-high-solid-loading-of-fenton-reaction-and-sodium-hydroxide-sequentially-pretreated-sugarcane-bagasse
#6
Teng Zhang, Ming-Jun Zhu
A study on the fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of Fenton reaction combined with NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) at a high solid loading of 10-30% (w/v) was investigated. Enzyme feeding mode, substrate feeding mode and combination of both were compared with the batch mode under respective solid loadings. Ethanol concentrations of above 80g/L were obtained in batch and enzyme feeding modes at a solid loading of 30% (w/v). Enzyme feeding mode was found to increase ethanol productivity and reduce enzyme loading to a value of 1...
April 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113730/probe-machine
#7
Jin Xu
In this paper, we present a novel computing model, called probe machine (PM). Unlike the turing machine (TM), PM is a fully parallel computing model in the sense that it can simultaneously process multiple pairs of data, rather than sequentially process every pair of linearly adjacent data. We establish the mathematical model of PM as a nine-tuple consisting of data library, probe library, data controller, probe controller, probe operation, computing platform, detector, true solution storage, and residue collector...
May 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074384/microfluidic-gut-liver-chip-for-reproducing-the-first-pass-metabolism
#8
Aerim Choe, Sang Keun Ha, Inwook Choi, Nakwon Choi, Jong Hwan Sung
After oral intake of drugs, drugs go through the first pass metabolism in the gut and the liver, which greatly affects the final outcome of the drugs' efficacy and side effects. The first pass metabolism is a complex process involving the gut and the liver tissue, with transport and reaction occurring simultaneously at various locations, which makes it difficult to be reproduced in vitro with conventional cell culture systems. In an effort to tackle this challenge, here we have developed a microfluidic gut-liver chip that can reproduce the dynamics of the first pass metabolism...
March 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069780/a-chlorophyll-fluorescence-based-method-for-the-integrated-characterization-of-the-photophysiological-response-to-light-stress
#9
João Serôdio, William Schmidt, Silja Frankenbach
This work introduces a new experimental method for the comprehensive description of the physiological responses to light of photosynthetic organisms. It allows the integration in a single experiment of the main established manipulative chlorophyll fluorescence-based protocols. It enables the integrated characterization of the photophysiology of samples regarding photoacclimation state (generating non-sequential light-response curves of effective PSII quantum yield, electron transport rate or non-photochemical quenching), photoprotection capacity (running light stress-recovery experiments, quantifying non-photochemical quenching components) and the operation of photoinactivation and photorepair processes (measuring rate constants of photoinactivation and repair for different light levels and the relative quantum yield of photoinactivation)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048463/th-c-brc-02-a-review-of-emerging-technologies-in-robotic-srs-sbrt-delivery
#10
L Wang
: The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047808/th-c-brc-03-emerging-linac-based-srs-sbrt-technologies-with-modulated-arc-delivery
#11
L Ren
: The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047049/th-c-brc-00-emerging-technologies-in-srs-sbrt-delivery
#12
Lei Ren
: The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046393/th-c-brc-01-an-overview-of-emerging-technologies-in-srs-sbrt-delivery
#13
L Ma
: The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043075/an-integrated-rotary-microfluidic-system-with-dna-extraction-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-and-lateral-flow-strip-based-detection-for-point-of-care-pathogen-diagnostics
#14
Byung Hyun Park, Seung Jun Oh, Jae Hwan Jung, Goro Choi, Ji Hyun Seo, Do Hyun Kim, Eun Yeol Lee, Tae Seok Seo
Point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnostics plays a pivotal role for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. In spite of recent advancement in microfluidic based POC devices, there are still rooms for development to realize rapid, automatic and cost-effective sample-to-result genetic analysis. In this study, we propose an integrated rotary microfluidic system that is capable of performing glass microbead based DNA extraction, loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and colorimetric lateral flow strip based detection in a sequential manner with an optimized microfluidic design and a rotational speed control...
December 14, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028114/distinct-gata1-point-mutations-in-monozygotic-twins-with-down-syndrome-and-transient-abnormal-myelopoiesis-from-a-triplet-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#15
Liqun Yin, Mark A Lovell, Michael L Wilson, Qi Wei, Xiayuan Liang
OBJECTIVES: Down syndrome (DS)-associated transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) or acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) in monozygotic twins is exceedingly rare and has not been well characterized. METHODS: We describe a unique case of monozygotic twins with simultaneous TAM from a triplet pregnancy at 34 weeks' gestation. Previously reported cases of TAM and DS-AMKL in monozygotic twins have been reviewed to compare with our cases. The current concept of a sequential multistep process in leukemogenesis and disease evolution of TAM into DS-AMKL through the collaboration among trisomy 21, GATA1, and other gene mutations is also reviewed...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018133/multi-objective-markov-decision-processes-for-data-driven-decision-support
#16
Daniel J Lizotte, Eric B Laber
We present new methodology based on Multi-Objective Markov Decision Processes for developing sequential decision support systems from data. Our approach uses sequential decision-making data to provide support that is useful to many different decision-makers, each with different, potentially time-varying preference. To accomplish this, we develop an extension of fitted-Q iteration for multiple objectives that computes policies for all scalarization functions, i.e. preference functions, simultaneously from continuous-state, finite-horizon data...
2016: Journal of Machine Learning Research: JMLR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009504/multifunctionalization-of-poly-vinylidene-fluoride-reactive-copolymer-blend-membranes-for-broad-spectrum-applications
#17
Dixit V Bhalani, Anupam Bera, Arvind K Singh Chandel, Sweta B Kumar, Suresh K Jewrajka
Simultaneous immobilization and cross-linking of antifouling/low toxic polymers, e.g., poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), dextran (Dex), agarose (Agr), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), PEI-Dex, and PEI-PEG conjugates, and stimuli-responsive copolymers on a porous membrane surface in mild reaction conditions is desirable for the enhancement of hydrophilicity, antifouling character, cytocompatibility, and inducing stimuli-responsive behavior. Grafting to technique is required since the precursors of most of these macromolecules are not amenable to surface-initiated polymerization...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009468/simultaneous-automatic-scoring-and-co-registration-of-hormone-receptors-in-tumor-areas-in-whole-slide-images-of-breast-cancer-tissue-slides
#18
Nicholas Trahearn, Yee Wah Tsang, Ian A Cree, David Snead, David Epstein, Nasir Rajpoot
Automation of downstream analysis may offer many potential benefits to routine histopathology. One area of interest for automation is in the scoring of multiple immunohistochemical markers to predict the patient's response to targeted therapies. Automated serial slide analysis of this kind requires robust registration to identify common tissue regions across sections. We present an automated method for co-localized scoring of Estrogen Receptor and Progesterone Receptor (ER/PR) in breast cancer core biopsies using whole slide images...
December 23, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987890/fabrication-of-chitosan-polycaprolactone-composite-nanofibrous-scaffold-for-simultaneous-delivery-of-ferulic-acid-and-resveratrol
#19
Balan Poornima, Purna Sai Korrapati
Wound healing is a complex cellular process involving various mechanisms making it intricate for designing a scaffold for therapeutic use. This study deals with the designing and development of coaxial electrospun Chitosan-Polycaprolactone nanofiber wound dressings for efficient simultaneous drug delivery. Ferulic acid and resveratrol were chosen for incorporation into core-shell nanofibers for their efficacy in anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic activities respectively. Structural and physico-chemical characterization of the scaffold confirmed the encapsulation of both the molecules...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987680/mediating-bone-regeneration-by-means-of-drug-eluting-implants-from-passive-to-smart-strategies
#20
REVIEW
Sara Bagherifard
In addition to excellent biocompatibility and mechanical performance, the new generation of bone and craniofacial implants are expected to proactively contribute to the regeneration process and dynamically interact with the host tissue. To this end, integration and sustained delivery of therapeutic agents has become a rapidly expanding area. The incorporated active molecules can offer supplementary features including promoting oteoconduction and angiogenesis, impeding bacterial infection and modulating host body reaction...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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