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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198810/short-duration-ocular-iontophoresis-of-ionizable-aciclovir-prodrugs-a-new-approach-to-treat-herpes-simplex-infections-in-the-anterior-and-posterior-segments-of-the-eye
#1
Yong Chen, Yogeshvar N Kalia
The objective was to investigate (trans)corneal and transscleral iontophoresis of biolabile amino acid ester prodrugs of aciclovir (ACV-X, X = Arg, Gly and Trp) as a means to increase ocular bioavailability of ACV. Prodrugs displayed tissue-dependent susceptibility to hydrolysis. Iontophoresis of ACV-Arg, ACV-Gly and ACV-Trp (5 mM, 0.5 mA/cm2) for 5 min followed by 55 min passive diffusion resulted in appreciable corneal deposition (21.5 ± 5.1, 14.1 ± 2.0 and 5.3 ± 0.6 nmol/cm2, respectively) and transcorneal permeation (13...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174884/preoperative-progressive-pneumoperitoneum-in-obese-patients-with-loss-of-domain-hernias
#2
Antonio Carlos Valezi, Barbara Godinho Ferreira de Melo, Antonio Cesar Marson, Mario Liberatti, Ascencio Garcia Lopes
BACKGROUND: Repair of hernias with loss of domain in obese patients can lead to acute respiratory failure. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to analyze preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP) in increasing abdominal cavity volume and its impact on respiratory function. SETTING: The study was conducted at the University Hospital, State University of Londrina, Brazil, which is a referral center for the treatment of obesity...
October 16, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155164/a-new-promising-candidate-to-overcome-drug-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#3
Elisabeth Zinser, Adalbert Krawczyk, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Ulrich Aufderhorst, Lena Stich, Mirko Zaja, Stefan Strobl, Alexander Steinkasserer, Christiane Silke Heilingloh
Infections with Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) belong to the most common human diseases worldwide, resulting in symptoms ranging from painful, but commonly self-limiting lesions of the orofacial or genital tract to severe infections of the eye or life-threatening generalized infections. Frequent HSV-reactivations at the eye may lead to the development of herpetic stromal keratitis, which is one of the major causes of infectious blindness in developed countries. The vast majority of life-threatening generalized infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients or patients suffering from advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with concurrent HSV-reactivation...
November 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113080/biophysical-and-in-silico-studies-of-the-interaction-between-the-anti-viral-agents-acyclovir-and-penciclovir-and-human-serum-albumin
#4
Ali S Abdelhameed, Ahmed H Bakheit, Fahad M Almutairi, Haitham AlRabiah, Adnan A Kadi
Acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PNV) have been commonly used during the last few decades as potent antiviral agents, especially for the treatment of herpes virus infections. In the present research their binding properties with human serum albumin (HSA) were studied using different advanced spectroscopic and in-silico methods. The interactions between ACV/PNV and HSA at the three investigated temperatures revealed a static type of binding. Extraction of the thermodynamic parameters of the ACV-HSA and PNV-HSA systems from the measured spectrofluorimetric data demonstrated spontaneous interactions with an enthalpy change (∆H⁰) of -1...
November 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111864/development-of-acyclovir-loaded-albumin-nanoparticles-and-improvement-of-acyclovir-permeation-across-human-corneal-epithelial-t-cells
#5
Panita Suwannoi, Mullika Chomnawang, Narong Sarisuta, Stephan Reichl, Christel C Müller-Goymann
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to develop acyclovir (ACV) ocular drug delivery systems of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles as well as to assess their in vitro transcorneal permeation across human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cell multilayers. METHODS: The ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method along with physicochemical characterization, cytotoxicity, as well as in vitro transcorneal permeation studies across HCE-T cell multilayers...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111821/correlations-of-corneal-optical-densitometry-endothelial-hexagonality-percentage-and-epithelium-thickness
#6
Gökhan Pekel, Fatih Özbakış, Alperen Bahar, Evre Pekel, Ebru Nevin Çetin
PURPOSE: Our aim was to examine the associations between the cornea morphological parameters, endothelial cell density, and anterior chamber measurements. METHODS: This observational study included 50 eyes of 50 healthy volunteers. The thicknesses of corneal epithelium, Bowman's layer, stroma, Descemet's membrane-endothelium complex, and pre-ocular tear film were measured by means of anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The keratometry (K), corneal volume (CV), corneal optical densitometry (COD), iridocorneal angle (ICA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anterior chamber volume (ACV) measurements were taken by the Scheimpflug anterior segment imaging...
November 7, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091513/apple-cider-vinegar-attenuates-oxidative-stress-and-reduces-the-risk-of-obesity-in-high-fat-fed-male-wistar-rats
#7
Ben Hmad Halima, Gara Sonia, Khlifi Sarra, Ben Jemaa Houda, Ben Slama Fethi, Aouidet Abdallah
Metabolic syndrome is a serious consequence of obesity characterized by increased cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance. While diets enriched with natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested, in this study, whether a daily dosage of Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) would affect cardiovascular risk factor associated with obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081071/herpes-zoster-meningitis-in-immunocompetent-children-two-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#8
Naohiro Itoh, Kouji Motokura, Akira Kumakura, Daisuke Hata, Atsuko Hata
We encountered two cases of Herpes zoster (HZ) meningitis, a rarely occurring complication of HZ, in previously healthy children. One patient treated with i.v. acyclovir (ACV, 31 mg/kg/day) did not recover. His symptoms were relieved somewhat by increased ACV dosage, but it caused transient renal dysfunction. Another patient treated with i.v. ACV (30 mg/kg/day) recovered. Treatment for HZ meningitis in immunocompetent children has not been established. In a literature review, 80% of 20 patients were treated with the usual dose of ACV 15-30 mg/kg/day...
October 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077984/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-compared-to-other-forms-of-triggered-ventilation-for-neonatal-respiratory-support
#9
REVIEW
Thomas E Rossor, Katie A Hunt, Sandeep Shetty, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Effective synchronisation of infant respiratory effort with mechanical ventilation may allow adequate gas exchange to occur at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing barotrauma and volutrauma and development of air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA), respiratory support is initiated upon detection of an electrical signal from the diaphragm muscle, and pressure is provided in proportion to and synchronous with electrical activity of the diaphragm (EADi)...
October 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074089/application-of-next-generation-sequencing-to-detect-acyclovir-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-variants-at-low-frequency-in-thymidine-kinase-gene-of-the-isolates-recovered-from-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
Hikaru Fujii, Satsuki Kakiuchi, Masanori Tsuji, Hidekazu Nishimura, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Souichi Yamada, Natsumi Omura, Takuya Inagaki, Miho Shibamura, Shizuko Harada, Shuichi Taniguchi, Masayuki Saijo
Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology was applied to study the mode of emergence of acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACVr) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by quantitatively detecting mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (vTK) gene in the HSV-1 isolates recovered from HSCT patients. All of the mutations detected with the Sanger sequencing method in the vTK genes of HSV-1 isolates were also detected with the NGS assay. Furthermore, different mutations, which conferred ACV resistance and were not detected with the Sanger sequencing method, were also detected in a quantitative manner by using the NGS assay...
January 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065051/relationship-of-a-metopic-ridge-and-anterior-cranial-volume-measured-by-a-noninvasive-laser-shape-digitizer
#11
Nathan D Applegren, Leslie A Shock, Kristina J Aldridge, Chase D Derrick, Tomoko Tanaka, C Lynette Baker, Arshad R Muzaffar
Cranial dysmorphology observed in patients with metopic craniosynostosis varies along a spectrum of severity including varying degrees of metopic ridging, bitemporal narrowing, and trigonocephaly. Management has been based upon the subjective clinical impression of presence and severity of trigonocephaly. Severity of cranial dysmorphology does not predict the occurrence or severity of associated abnormal neurodevelopment, as children with mild-to-moderate trigonocephaly may also experience developmental delays...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064187/posterior-corneal-surface-differences-between-non-laser-in%C3%A2-situ-keratomileusis-lasik-and-10-year-post-lasik-myopic-eyes
#12
Ma-Li Dai, Qin-Mei Wang, Zu-Shun Lin, Ye Yu, Jin-Hai Huang, Giacomo Savini, Jia Zhang, Ling Wang, Chen-Chen Xu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the posterior corneal surface differences between non-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and 10-year post-LASIK myopic eyes. METHODS: The study included 130 eyes from 65 patients, who were treated with myopic LASIK 10 years ago. In addition, 130 eyes from 65 unoperated myopic patients of matching present age and preoperative refraction were divided into control group. Data on the posterior corneal surface and anterior chamber were obtained from Pentacam software and compared between the groups...
October 24, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061324/acyclovir-chemical-kinetics-with-the-discovery-and-identification-of-newly-reported-degradants-and-degradation-pathways-involving-formaldehyde-as-a-degradant-and-reactant-intermediate
#13
Bhanu C Bejgum, Paul R Johnson, William C Stagner
The purpose of this research was to determine acyclovir (ACV) acidic degradation kinetics which is relevant to gastric retentive device product design. A stability-indicating method revealed two unknown degradation products which have been identified by mass spectrometry as ACV and guanine formaldehyde adducts. In addition to the formation of these adducts, a proposed degradation scheme identifies the formation of methyl acetal ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, ethylene glycol, and guanine as additional ACV degradation products...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043497/characterization-of-actinidia-virus-1-a-new-member-of-the-family-closteroviridae-encoding-a-thaumatin-like-protein
#14
A G Blouin, R Biccheri, M E Khalifa, M N Pearson, C Poggi Pollini, C Hamiaux, D Cohen, C Ratti
A new member of the family Closteroviridae was detected in Actinidia chinensis grown in Italy, using next generation sequencing of double-stranded RNA. The virus isolate, named Actinidia virus 1 (AcV-1) has a genome of 18,848 nts in length, a structure similar to the unclassified persimmon virus B (PeVB) and contains 12 open reading frames (ORFs) greater than 6 KDa, one carrying two papain-like leader proteases, a methyltransferase, a helicase and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain. Additional ORFs code for homologs of heat shock protein 70, heat shock protein 90 and a coat protein...
October 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034838/formulation-optimization-and-evaluation-of-organogel-for-topical-delivery-of-acyclovir
#15
Smita Bonde, Chandrakant Bonde, Nisarg Mavani
BACKGROUND: The conventional acyclovir topical therapy has a low efficacy, due to the lack of penetration of a sufficient amount of drug to the target site. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to formulate and optimize organogel containing acyclovir to enhance the penetration and retention time of acyclovir in the basal epidermis, site of Herpes simplex virus infections. METHODS: Microemulsion based organogel containing acyclovir was developed using the combination of surfactants, polar and nonpolar solvents...
October 13, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985573/antibody-based-immunotherapy-of-aciclovir-resistant-ocular-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#16
Dirk Bauer, Jessica Keller, Mira Alt, Axel Schubert, Ulrich Wilhelm Aufderhorst, Vivien Palapys, Maren Kasper, Christiane Silke Heilingloh, Ulf Dittmer, Björn Laffer, Anna Maria Eis-Hübinger, Georges M Verjans, Arnd Heiligenhaus, Michael Roggendorf, Adalbert Krawczyk
The increasing incidence of aciclovir- (ACV) resistant strains in patients with ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections is a major health problem in industrialized countries. In the present study, the humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) hu2c targeting the HSV-1/2 glycoprotein B was examined for its efficacy towards ACV-resistant infections of the eye in the mouse model of acute retinal necrosis (ARN). BALB/c mice were infected by microinjection of an ACV-resistant clinical isolate into the anterior eye chamber to induce ARN and systemically treated with mAb hu2c at 24h prior (pre-exposure prophylaxis) or at 24, 40, and 56h after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy)...
December 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982161/novel-multipurpose-pod-intravaginal-ring-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-hsv-and-unintended-pregnancy-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-in-a-macaque-model
#17
James M Smith, John A Moss, Priya Srinivasan, Irina Butkyavichene, Manjula Gunawardana, Rob Fanter, Christine S Miller, Debbie Sanchez, Flora Yang, Shanon Ellis, Jining Zhang, Mark A Marzinke, Craig W Hendrix, Amita Kapoor, Marc M Baum
Globally, women bear an uneven burden for sexual HIV acquisition. Results from two clinical trials evaluating intravaginal rings (IVRs) delivering the antiretroviral agent dapivirine have shown that protection from HIV infection can be achieved with this modality, but high adherence is essential. Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) can potentially increase product adherence by offering protection against multiple vaginally transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. Here we describe a coitally independent, long-acting pod-IVR MPT that could potentially prevent HIV and HSV infection as well as unintended pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965164/does-the-disruption-of-horizontal-anterior-ciliary-vessels-affect-the-blood-aqueous-barrier-function
#18
Meihua Pan, Mei Yang, Renyi Xie, Zhimin Zhao, Xingxing Huang
PURPOSE: To investigate the significance of the anterior ciliary vessels (ACVs) preservation during the conventional horizontal strabismus surgery. METHODS: Patients (≥ 8 years) with horizontal strabismus were randomly allocated into group 1 (with ACV preservation) and group 2 (without ACV preservation). The surgical eyes in group 1 were further divided into group A (one rectus muscle operated) and group B (two rectus muscles operated). Similarly, eyes in group 2 were divided into group C (one rectus muscle operated) and group D (two rectus muscles operated)...
September 30, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939476/recurrent-herpetic-keratitis-despite-antiviral-prophylaxis-a-virological-and-pharmacological-study
#19
Antoine Rousseau, David Boutolleau, Karine Titier, Tristan Bourcier, Christophe Chiquet, Michel Weber, Joseph Colin, Julie Gueudry, Mohamed M'Garrech, Bahram Bodaghi, Sonia Burrel, Henri Agut, Claire Deback, Marc Labetoulle
Recurrent herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is a leading infectious cause of blindness in industrialized countries. Antiviral prophylaxis (AVP) may fail to prevent recurrence of HSK due to viral resistance, inadequate dosing, or poor patient compliance. In this prospective multicenter study, we enrolled immunocompetent patients with recurrent HSK despite AVP. Ocular samples were tested by PCR for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 drug resistance was assessed with a genotypic assay based on UL23 and UL30 gene sequencing...
October 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933042/anterior-chamber-changes-after-implantable-collamer-lens-implantation-in-high-myopia-using-pentacam-a-prospective-study
#20
Mohamed Nagy Elmohamady, Walid Abdelghaffar
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye after implantable Collamer lens (ICL) implantation in high myopia by using the Pentacam. METHODS: The prospective study included 34 high myopic patients (34 eyes). All patients were treated with Visian implantable Collamer lens (ICL) (Staar Surgical Co.) implantation. The Pentacam (Oculus) was used for all cases preoperatively and 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively...
December 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
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