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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152227/promising-neuroprotective-strategies-for-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-with-a-focus-on-the-differential-effects-among-anatomical-levels-of-injury
#1
REVIEW
Antigona Ulndreaj, Anna Badner, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition of motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. The significant cost associated with the management and lifetime care of patients with SCI also presents a major economic burden. For these reasons, there is a need to develop and translate strategies that can improve outcomes following SCI. Given the challenges in achieving regeneration of the injured spinal cord, neuroprotection has been at the forefront of clinical translation. Yet, despite many preclinical advances, there has been limited translation into the clinic apart from methylprednisolone (which remains controversial), hypertensive therapy to maintain spinal cord perfusion, and early decompressive surgery...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131572/in-vivo-optical-detection-and-spectral-triangulation-of-carbon-nanotubes
#2
Ching-Wei Lin, Hailing Yang, Stephen R Sanchez, Weiqun Mao, Lan Pang, Kathleen Mary Beckingham, Robert C Bast, R Bruce Weisman
Biocompatible composites of single-walled carbon nanotubes in Matrigel have been surgically implanted into mouse ovaries and then noninvasively detected and located in the first in vivo demonstration of spectral triangulation. This optical method deduces the three-dimensional position of a short-wave IR emission source from the wavelength-dependent attenuation of fluorescence in tissues. Measurements were performed with a second-generation optical scanner that uses an LED matrix emitting at 736 nm for diffuse specimen excitation...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108655/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-distribution-and-expression-in-equine-small-intestine-tracts-following-herniation-through-the-epiploic-foramen
#3
Noemi Romagnoli, Augusta Zannoni, Chiara Bernardini, Thomas Gobbetti, Cristiano Bombardi, Anna Maria Rambaldi, Maria Morini, Francesco Dondi, Riccardo Rinnovati, Carlotta Lambertini, Alessandro Spadari
Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for trypsin and mast cell tryptase; it is highly expressed at the intestinal level with multiple functions, such as epithelial permeability and intestinal motility. The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution and expression of proteinase-activated receptor 2 in the small intestine during herniation through epiploic foramen. In this prospective clinical study, eight horses admitted for colic and which underwent exploratory laparotomy were considered...
October 31, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107695/contrast-enhanced-%C3%AE-ct-imaging-of-early-articular-changes-in-a-pre-clinical-model-of-osteoarthritis
#4
D S Reece, T Thote, A S P Lin, N J Willett, R E Guldberg
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize early osteoarthritis (OA) development in cartilage and bone tissues in the rat medial meniscus transection (MMT) model using non-destructive equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent micro-computed tomography (EPIC-μCT) imaging. Cartilage fibrillation, one of the first physiological developments in OA, was quantified in the rat tibial plateau as three-dimensional (3D) cartilage surface roughness using a custom surface-rendering algorithm...
October 28, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090479/utility-of-lung-ultrasonography-for-detection-of-pleural-adhesions-in-dogs
#5
Akiko Uemura, Toshiharu Fukayama, Takashi Tanaka, Ryou Tanaka
OBJECTIVES: To assess lung respiratory movement ("lung sliding") in dogs using B-mode ultrasonography (US) and to develop a method that assesses adhesions between the parietal pleura and the lung. METHODS: Seventeen male beagles were anesthetized, and respiratory management was performed with intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Lung-sliding assessments and adhesion examinations were performed with lung US under general anesthesia before and 2 weeks after thoracotomy...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079364/assessment-of-metal-sensitizer-potency-with-the-reconstructed-human-epidermis-il-18-assay
#6
Susan Gibbs, Ilona Kosten, Rosalien Veldhuizen, Sander Spiekstra, Emanuela Corsini, Erwin Roggen, Thomas Rustemeyer, Albert J Feilzer, Cees J Kleverlaan
According to the new EU Medical Devices (MDR) legislation coming into effect in 2017, manufactures will have to comply with higher standards of quality and safety for medical devices in order to meet common safety concerns regarding such products. Metal alloys are extensively used in dentistry and medicine (e.g. orthopedic surgery and cardiology) even though clinical experience suggests that many metals are sensitizers. The aim of this study was to further test the applicability domain of the in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) IL-18 assay developed to identify contact allergens and in doing so: i) determine whether different metal salts, representing leachables from metal alloys used in medical devices, could be correctly labelled and classified; and ii) assess the ability of different salts for the same metal to penetrate the skin stratum corneum...
October 25, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078624/the-role-of-wet-lab-in-thoracic-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Benedetta Bedetti, Philipp Schnorr, Joachim Schmidt, Marco Scarci
During the last three decades, minimally invasive surgery has become common practice in all kinds of surgical disciplines and, in Thoracic Surgery, the minimally invasive approach is recommended as the treatment of choice for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Nevertheless, all over the world a large number of lobectomies is still performed by conventional open thoracotomy and not as video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which shows the need of a proper training for this technique. Development and improvement of surgical skills are not only challenging and time-consuming components of the training curriculum for resident or fellow surgeons, but also for more experienced consultants learning new techniques...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068480/phlpp-inhibitors-block-pain-and-cartilage-degradation-associated-with-osteoarthritis
#8
Soyun M Hwang, Marina Feigenson, Dana L Begun, Lomeli Carpio Shull, Kirsty L Culley, Miguel Otero, Mary B Goldring, Lauren E Ta, Sanjeev Kakar, Elizabeth W Bradley, Jennifer J Westendorf
Phlpp protein phosphatases are abnormally abundant within human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes and may contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. Mice lacking Phlpp1 were previously shown to be resistant to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Here a small molecule with therapeutic properties that inhibits Phlpp1 and Phlpp2 was tested for its ability to slow post-traumatic OA in mice and to stimulate anabolic pathways in human articular cartilage from OA joints. PTOA was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice by surgically destabilizing the meniscus...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064155/assessing-inflammation-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-with-pk11195-pet-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#9
Kamran A Abid, Oluwaseun A Sobowale, Laura M Parkes, Josephine Naish, Geoff J M Parker, Daniel du Plessis, David Brough, Jack Barrington, Stuart M Allan, Rainer Hinz, Adrian R Parry-Jones
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies in animal models suggest that inflammation is a major contributor to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Direct, noninvasive monitoring of inflammation in the human brain after ICH will facilitate early-phase development of anti-inflammatory treatments. We sought to investigate the feasibility of multimodality brain imaging in subacute ICH. METHODS: Acute ICH patients were recruited to undergo multiparametric MRI (including dynamic contrast-enhanced measurement of blood-brain barrier transfer constant (K(trans) ) and PET with [(11) C]-(R)-PK11195)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056698/correlation-between-preoperative-ultrasonographic-findings-and-clinical-intraoperative-cytopathological-and-histopathological-diagnosis-of-acute-abdomen-syndrome-in-50-dogs-and-cats
#10
Ahmed Abdellatif, Martin Kramer, Klaus Failing, Kerstin von Pückler
Acute abdomen syndrome is an emergency in small animal practice that requires rapid diagnosis to determine the appropriate treatment. No studies have correlated the preoperative abdominal ultrasonography (US) findings with the clinical, surgical, cytopathologic, and histopathologic findings. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate abdominal US in the diagnosis of acute abdomen syndrome using surgery as a "criterion standard". The most frequently misinterpreted lesions with US were also identified...
August 8, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053682/implantation-of-chronic-silicon-probes-and-recording-of-hippocampal-place-cells-in-an-enriched-treadmill-apparatus
#11
Anvar Sariev, Jinho Chung, Dajung Jung, Farnaz Sharif, Ju-Young Lee, Soyoun Kim, Sebastien Royer
An important requisite for understanding brain function is the identification of behavior and cell activity correlates. Silicon probes are advanced electrodes for large-scale electrophysiological recording of neuronal activity, but the procedures for their chronic implantation are still underdeveloped. The activity of hippocampal place cells is known to correlate with an animal's position in the environment, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. To investigate place cells, here we describe a set of techniques which range from the fabrication of devices for chronic silicon probe implants to the monitoring of place field activity in a cue-enriched treadmill apparatus...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049549/transapical-cardioscopic-mitral-annuloplasty-a-short-term-survival-study-in-a-porcine-model
#12
Thang Duc Vu, Min Zin Oo, Duc-Viet Nguyen, Ervin Marquez Ocampo, Yilin Ong, Suganya Cheyyatraivendran-Arularasu, Lian-Kah Ti, Mark A Richards, Theo Kofidis
OBJECTIVES: The transapical approach provides concurrent surgical access to the mitral and the aortic valves, the root of the aorta and the left atrium. We previously showed the feasibility of transapical cardioscopic (TAC) surgery in a non-survival porcine model. However, reproducibility and feasibility of ring implantation using TAC have not been reported. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that implantation of a mitral annuloplasty ring can be feasibly and safely carried out endoscopically via the apex of the heart...
August 30, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037433/minimally-invasive-spine-surgery-in-small-animals
#13
REVIEW
Bianca F Hettlich
Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) seems to have many benefits for human patients and is currently used for various minor and major spine procedures. For MISS, a change in access strategy to the target location is necessary and it requires intraoperative imaging, special instrumentation, and magnification. Few veterinary studies have evaluated MISS for canine patients for spinal decompression procedures. This article discusses the general requirements for MISS and how these can be applied to veterinary spinal surgery...
October 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988704/fungal-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-small-animals-clinical-features-diagnosis-and-management
#14
REVIEW
R Timothy Bentley, Amanda R Taylor, Stephanie A Thomovsky
Small animal mycoses vary geographically. Different clinical presentations are seen in animals with infection of the central nervous system (CNS), including multifocal meningoencephalomyelitis, intracranial lesions that accompany sinonasal lesions, rapidly progressive ventriculitis, or solitary granuloma of the brain or spinal cord. Systemic, nasal, or extraneural clinical signs are common but, especially in granuloma cases, do not always occur. Surgery may have a diagnostic and therapeutic role in CNS granuloma...
October 5, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985840/near-infrared-conjugated-humanized-anti-carcinoembryonic-antigen-antibody-targets-colon-cancer-in-an-orthotopic-nude-mouse-model
#15
Jonathan C DeLong, Takashi Murakami, Paul J Yazaki, Robert M Hoffman, Michael Bouvet
BACKGROUND: The success of a curative surgery for cancer is dependent on the complete removal of all cancer cells. Tumor visualization by the surgeon can be enhanced through fluorescent-antibody targeting. To further develop such technology, we selected humanized anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) conjugated to a near-infrared dye to target orthotopically-implanted human colon cancer in nude mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The HT-29 human colon cancer cell line was grown in culture and subcutaneously injected in mice...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980297/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-of-human-myocardium-ripe-study-protocol-for-a-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Marek A Deja, Ryszard Wiaderkiewicz, Piotr Czekaj, Ewa Czech, Marcin Malinowski, Leszek Machej, Andrzej Węglarzy, Adam Kowalówka, Magda Piekarska, Bartosz Szurlej, Tomasz Latusek
BACKGROUND: Remote preconditioning was showed to be a potent protective phenomenon in many animals. Several studies aimed to demonstrate it was feasible in humans by trying to show its protective effect during cardiac surgery. Of these studies some small studies and one bigger trial were positive while two other bigger studies showed no effectiveness of remote preconditioning as assessed by levels of postoperatively released cardiac markers. Recently two large clinical trials also failed to prove the benefit of remote preconditioning in cardiac surgery...
October 5, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970723/high-yield-reproducible-rat-model-recapitulating-human-barrett-s-carcinogenesis
#17
Daisuke Matsui, Ashten N Omstead, Juliann E Kosovec, Yoshihiro Komatsu, Emily J Lloyd, Hailey Raphael, Ronan J Kelly, Ali H Zaidi, Blair A Jobe
AIM: To efficiently replicate the biology and pathogenesis of human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) using the modified Levrat model of end-to-side esophagojejunostomy. METHODS: End-to-side esophagojejunostomy was performed on rats to induce gastroduodenoesophageal reflux to develop EAC. Animals were randomly selected and serially euthanized at 10 (n = 6), 17 (n = 8), 24 (n = 9), 31 (n = 6), 38 (n = 6), and 40 (n = 6) wk postoperatively. The esophagi were harvested for downstream histopathology and gene expression...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962658/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-as-cellular-drug-delivery-vectors-for-glioblastoma-therapy-a-good-deal
#18
Anne Clavreul, Milad Pourbaghi-Masouleh, Emilie Roger, Nolwenn Lautram, Claudia N Montero-Menei, Philippe Menei
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most malignant brain tumor in adults. It is characterized by angiogenesis and a high proliferative and invasive capacity. Standard therapy (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide) is of limited efficacy. Innovative anticancer drugs targeting both tumor cells and angiogenesis are urgently required, together with effective systems for their delivery to the brain. We assessed the ability of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to uptake the multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib (SFN), and to carry this drug to a brain tumor following intranasal administration...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952820/a-novel-laparoscopic-surgery-model-with-a-device-to-expand-the-abdominal-working-space-in-rats-the-influence-of-pneumoperitoneum-and-skin-incision-length-on-postoperative-inflammatory-cytokines
#19
Naruhiko Murase, Takahisa Tainaka, Hiroo Uchida, Akinari Hinoki, Chiyoe Shirota, Kazuki Yokota, Kazuo Oshima, Ryo Shirotsuki, Kosuke Chiba, Yujiro Tanaka
PURPOSE: Experimental models of laparoscopic surgery generally use large animals owing to a sufficient abdominal working space. We developed a novel laparoscopic surgery model in rats. We performed intestinal anastomosis to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of this model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a device for rats that expanded the abdominal working space and allowed us to manipulate the intraperitoneal organs by hand under direct vision with pneumoperitoneum...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951864/establishing-a-porcine-model-of-small-for-size-syndrome-following-liver-resection
#20
Mohammad Golriz, Maryam Ashrafi, Elias Khajeh, Ali Majlesara, Christa Flechtenmacher, Arianeb Mehrabi
BACKGROUND: Small for size syndrome (SFSS) is responsible for a high proportion of mortalities and morbidities following extended liver resection. AIM: The aim of this study was to establish a porcine model of SFSS. METHODS: Twenty-four Landrace pigs underwent liver resection with a remnant liver volume of 50% (group A, n = 8), 25% (group B, n = 8), and 15% (group C, n = 8). After resection, the animals were followed up for 8 days and clinical, laboratory, and histopathological outcomes were evaluated...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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