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surgery small animal

Se Eun Ha, Lai Wei, Brian G Jorgensen, Moon Young Lee, Paul J Park, Sandra M Poudrier, Seungil Ro
Intestinal obstructions, that impede or block peristaltic movement, can be caused by abdominal adhesions and most gastrointestinal (GI) diseases including tumorous growths. However, the cellular remodeling mechanisms involved in, and caused by, intestinal obstructions are poorly understood. Several animal models of intestinal obstructions have been developed, but the mouse model is the most cost/time effective. The mouse model uses the surgical implantation of an intestinal partial obstruction (PO) that has a high mortality rate if it is not performed correctly...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Marina V Mavromatis, Mauricio Solano, Michael Y Thelen
There are clear differences in the normal radiographic appearance of the abdominal organs between a left lateral vs. a right lateral view. While a few veterinary academic institutions have transitioned to a three-view abdominal radiographic study protocol, obtaining only two views of the canine abdomen remains the current standard in veterinary medicine. In this combined retrospective and prospective, case-controlled study, 48 canine patients presenting with signs of acute abdomen were recruited. Four board-certified veterinary radiologists and four general practice veterinarians with greater than 3 years of experience in small animal practice were asked to determine if 10 predetermined findings were present within the set of images and if surgery was recommended based on those findings...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Shandiz Tehrani, R Katherine Delf, William O Cepurna, Lauren Davis, Elaine C Johnson, John C Morrison
Small molecule delivery to the optic nerve would allow for exploration of molecular and cellular pathways involved in normal physiology and optic neuropathies such as glaucoma, and provide a tool for screening therapeutics in animal models. We report a novel surgical method for small molecule drug delivery to the optic nerve head (ONH) in a rodent model. In proof-of-principle experiments, we delivered cytochalasin D (Cyt D; a filamentous actin inhibitor) to the junction of the superior optic nerve and globe in rats to target the actin-rich astrocytic cytoskeleton of the ONH...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yeji Sung, Konstantina Spagou, Marina Kafeza, Michael Kyriakides, Brahman Dharmarajah, Joseph Shalhoub, Jose A Diaz, Thomas W Wakefield, Elaine Holmes, Alun H Davies
OBJECTIVES: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem, responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of a simple and effective diagnostic biomarker of DVT remains a challenge. Metabolomics have recently emerged as a new powerful scientific tool to characterise metabolic phenotypes of complex diseases and investigate small molecules in biofluids. The aim of the study was to identify the blood and vein wall metabolomic signature of DVT in a murine experimental model...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
John P Kuckelman, Joseph Kononchik, Joshua Smith, Kevin R Kniery, Jeffrey T Kay, Zachary S Hoffer, Scott R Steele, Vance Sohn
BACKGROUND: Complications from adhesions after intra-abdominal surgery accounts for ~6% of hospital admissions. Currently, hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose represents the main option to prevent postoperative adhesion formation. Human amniotic membrane contains inherent anti-inflammatory properties that mitigate adhesion formation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate adhesion generation after surgical trauma with amniotic membranes compared with standard intraperitoneal adhesion barriers...
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Zhuolun Song, Bostjan Humar, Anurag Gupta, Eleonora Maurizio, Nathalie Borgeaud, Rolf Graf, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Yinghua Tian
Defective regeneration of small-for-size (SFS) liver remnants and partial grafts remains a key limiting factor in the application of liver surgery and transplantation. Exogenous melatonin (MLT) has protective effects on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), but its influence on graft regeneration is unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of MLT in IRI and graft regeneration in settings of partial liver transplantation. We established three mouse models to study hepatic IRI and regeneration associated with partial liver transplantation: (I) IR+PH group: 60 min liver ischemia (IR) plus 2/3 hepatectomy (PH); (II) IR+exPH group: 60 min liver IR plus extended hepatectomy (exPH) associated with the SFS syndrome; (III) SFS-LT group: Arterialized 30% SFS liver transplant...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
S García-Martínez, M A Sánchez-Hurtado, H Gutiérrez, F M Sánchez-Margallo, R Romar, R Latorre, P Coy, O López-Albors
STUDY QUESTION: Is O2 tension in the pig oviduct and uterus affected by the estrous cycle stage and the animal's age, and can the outcome of in vitro embryo development be improved by mimicking these physiological values? SUMMARY ANSWER: O2 tension within the pig reproductive organs is affected by the animal's age, and values close to those measured in vivo have a positive impact on embryo development and quality when used during IVF and embryo culture (EC). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: To obtain a healthy embryo in vitro, it is necessary to adopt a culture microenvironment that approximates physiological conditions...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Huijun Wu, Hui Liu, Fengtong Zuo, Lihua Zhang
Cerebral ischemia injury is a clinical, frequently occurring disease, which causes a heavy burden on society and families. It has been demonstrated that cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is significant in neurological injury caused by ischemic brain injury, and inhibition of cPLA2α may reduce stroke injury. In the present study, the role of cPLA2α was investigated in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and/or reperfusion (MCAO/R) using an effective cPLA2α inhibitor and adenoviruses‑mediated RNA interference...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Paul Childress, Alexander Brinker, Cynthia-May S Gong, Jonathan Harris, David J Olivos, Jeffrey D Rytlewski, David C Scofield, Sungshin Y Choi, Yasaman Shirazi-Fard, Todd O McKinley, Tien-Min G Chu, Carolynn L Conley, Nabarun Chakraborty, Rasha Hammamieh, Melissa A Kacena
Segmental bone defects (SBDs) secondary to trauma invariably result in a prolonged recovery with an extended period of limited weight bearing on the affected limb. Soldiers sustaining blast injuries and civilians sustaining high energy trauma typify such a clinical scenario. These patients frequently sustain composite injuries with SBDs in concert with extensive soft tissue damage. For soft tissue injury resolution and skeletal reconstruction a patient may experience limited weight bearing for upwards of 6 months...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
John Eppensteiner, Robert Patrick Davis, Andrew S Barbas, Jean Kwun, Jaewoo Lee
Despite significant improvements in injury prevention and emergency response, injury-related death and morbidity continues to increase in the US and worldwide. Patients with trauma, invasive operations, anti-cancer treatment, and organ transplantation produce a host of danger signals and high levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs). DAMPs (e.g., nucleic acids, histone, high-mobility group box 1 protein, and S100) are molecules released from injured, stressed, or activated cells that act as endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors, whereas EVs (e...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jennie L Hiratzka, Louis G Licari, Lisa K Peters
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of hospital-acquired anemia among dogs and cats hospitalized at a private emergency and referral center and identify possible risk factors. DESIGN Prospective, observational study. ANIMALS 56 patients (46 dogs and 10 cats). PROCEDURES Patients admitted from August 2014 through March 2015 and hospitalized for ≥ 48 hours were eligible for inclusion. Hospital-acquired anemia was defined as a PCV within reference limits on admission with development of anemia during hospitalization...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Maria Chie Niimura Del Barrio, Florent David, J M Lynne Hughes, David Clifford, Hans Wilderjans, Rachel Bennett
Background: The mortality rate of horses undergoing general anaesthesia is high when compared to humans or small animal patients. One of the most critical periods during equine anaesthesia is recovery, as the horse attempts to regain a standing position. This study was performed in a private equine practice in Belgium that uses a purpose-designed one-man (head and tail) rope recovery system to assist the horse during the standing process.The main purpose of the retrospective study was to report and analyse complications and the mortality rate in horses during recovery from anaesthesia using the described recovery system...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
Tom G Hansen, Thomas Engelhardt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Repeated controversial and alarming statements of the potential dangers of anaesthetic agents on neurological outcomes in children continue to be issued based primarily on preclinical studies. This review assesses the current evidence of laboratory and clinical data and identifies areas of concerns. RECENT FINDINGS: Published animal and laboratory data consistently indicate that prolonged and excessive use of anaesthetic agents can lead to morphological changes and neurocognitive impairment in animals without a clear cut-off age or a superiority of one technique over another...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Shira Sheen-Ophir, Mordechai Rosner, Alexander Rubowitz
Background: Polydimethyl silicones (silicone oils) are used in complex retinal surgeries, including difficult or recurrent retinal detachments, severe eye trauma, and other indications for long term tamponade. Two major problems with currently available silicone oils are emulsification and recurrent retinal detachment. The primary endpoint of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and safety of high viscosity silicone oils and second, the feasibility of using them with currently available vitrectomy systems...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Jonathan M Nizar, Nadine Bouby, Lise Bankir, Vivek Bhalla
Many experimental protocols in rodents require the comparison of groups that are fed different diets. Changes in dietary electrolyte and/or fat content can influence food intake, which can potentially introduce bias or confound the results. Unpalatable diets slow growth or cause weight loss, which is exacerbated by housing the animals in individual metabolic cages or by surgery. For balance studies in mice, small body weight and food intake, and low urinary flow can amplify these challenges. Powder food can be administered as a gel with the addition of a desired amount of water, electrolytes, drugs (if any), and a small amount of agar...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jukka Koffert, Mia Ståhle, Henry Karlsson, Patricia Iozzo, Paulina Salminen, Anne Roivainen, Pirjo Nuutila
AIMS: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to tackle morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms of action are still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bariatric surgery on intestinal fatty acid (FA) uptake and blood flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 27 morbidly obese subjects, of whom 10 had type 2 diabetes and 15 were healthy age-matched controls. Intestinal blood flow and fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured during fasting state using positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 20, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Hua-Hui Hu, Xiao-Long Huang, Ren-Fu Quan, Zong-Bao Yang, Jing-Jing Xu
OBJECTIVE: To establish the rat model of acute spinal cord injury, followed by aprimary study on this model with ¹H NMR based on metabonomics and to explore the metabonomics and biomarkers of spinal cord injury rat. METHODS: Twenty eight-week-old adult male SD rats of clean grade, with body weight of (200±10) g, were divided into sham operation group and model group in accordance with the law of random numbers, and every group had 10 rats. The rats of sham operation group were operated without damaging the spinal cord, and rats of model group were made an animal model of spinal cord incomplete injury according to the modified Allen's method...
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Stefan Patrascu, Catalin Andu Copaescu, Valeriu Surlin, Sandu Ramboiu, Alice Nicoleta Dragoescu, Sorin Stanilescu, Dan Cristian, Bogdan Silviu Ungureanu, Daniela Elena Burtea, Ana Maria Patrascu, Florin Turcu, Adrian Saftoiu
BACKGROUND: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) emerged as a new alternative method in minimally invasive techniques. Although a very small number of studies have compared the physiologic response in NOTES to laparoscopy, the results remain controversial. AIM: This experimental animal study aims to evaluate the intraoperative cardiovascular and respiratory effects of pure transluminal natural orifice surgery and conventional laparoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty female pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) equally divided into two study groups were assigned to either pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic techniques (Group 1) or conventional laparoscopic surgery (Group 2) and monitored intraoperatively in terms of heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and O2saturation (SpO2) for 1 h...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Rogério Luizari Guedes, Odd Viking Höglund, Juliana Sperotto Brum, Niklas Borg, Peterson Triches Dornbusch
The aim of this pilot test was to test a new self-locking resorbable implant for hilum occlusion during a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung lobectomy in a surviving pig model. Once the thoracic cavity was assessed and structures identified, the right middle lobe and its respective hilum were exposed. The implant was introduced with a semiclosed loop through a working channel and positioned around the pulmonary lobe. Occlusion was performed with a conventional Crile forceps and a laparoscopic Kelly forceps. Lobe section was done with laparoscopic Metzenbaum scissors and tissue removal through the dorsal access...
January 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Melissa A Bradley-Whitman, Kelly N Roberts, Erin L Abner, Stephen W Scheff, Bert C Lynn, Mark A Lovell
BACKGROUND: Although elevated serum levels of visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1), a neuron-specific calcium sensor protein, are associated with ischaemic stroke, only a single study has evaluated VILIP-1 as a biomarker of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current proof-of-concept study was designed to determine whether serum VILIP-1 levels increase post-injury in a well-characterized rat unilateral cortical contusion model. METHODS: Lateral flow devices (LFDs) rapidly (< 20 min) detected trace serum levels (pg/mL) of VILIP-1 in a small input sample volume (10 µL)...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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