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Oxytocin dosing

Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Oxytocin (OT) at acting central nuclei decreases meal size and reduces intake of palatable sweet solutions. It remains largely unclear as to which brain sites mediate OT's effect on palatability versus energy or the combination of those aspects of consumption. Here, we expanded the search for sites that mediate anorexigenic properties of OT by focusing on two subdivisions of the amygdala, its central (CNA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei. We injected OT directly into the BLA or CNA in rats and assessed intake of standard chow induced by energy deprivation and intake of sweet solutions in nondeprived animals...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
Youl-Ri Kim, Jin-Sup Eom, Jennie Leppanen, Monica Leslie, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by binge eating and emotional dysregulation including increased negative affectivity (anger, anxiety). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oxytocin on attentional processes towards anger in patients with BN. METHOD: The study design consisted of a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject crossover, single dose experiment. Sixty-four women (31 patients with BN and 33 healthy comparisons) completed self-reported measures to evaluate emotional difficulties and were administered a single dose of intranasal oxytocin (40IU) or placebo followed by a visual probe detection task to examine attentional orienting to angry or happy faces...
March 3, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Kimberly R Warren, Heidi J Wehring, Fang Liu, Robert P McMahon, Shuo Chen, Charlene Chester, Deanna L Kelly
Overweight and obesity in schizophrenia are prevalent, affecting half to three-quarters of people with schizophrenia. Hyperphagia and increased meal size have also been implicated as significant contributors to the weight gain problem. Oxytocin has shown to play a role in appetite control in humans and is considered an anorexigenic peptide. This two-day, within-subjects, challenge study involved the examination of satiety after administration of 24 IU oxytocin (intranasal) vs. placebo in participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 16)...
March 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Marina Gomes, Vera Trocado, Mariana Carlos-Alves, Diana Arteiro, Paula Pinheiro
Non-pulsatile oxytocin given during labour can negatively affect breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess whether intrapartum oxytocin administration has any effect on breastfeeding. Secondly, to assess whether some maternal or neonatal variables influence breastfeeding. A retrospective cohort study was done, comparing two groups: women exposed (n = 101) and not exposed to oxytocin (n = 100) during labour. Women with caesarean section, vacuum extraction/forceps, twin pregnancy, breech presentation, premature neonates and with an Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes were excluded...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Jellina Prinsen, Stephanie Brams, Kaat Alaerts
The eyes constitute a highly salient cue to communicate social intent. Previous research showed that direct eye contact between two individuals can readily evoke an increased propensity to 'mirror' other peoples' actions. Considering the implicated role of the prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in enhancing the saliency of social cues and modulating approach/avoidance motivational tendencies, the current study adopted the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore whether a single dose of intranasal OXT (24 IU) modulated (enhanced) a person's propensity to show heightened mirroring or motor resonance upon salient social cues, such as eye contact...
February 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Courtney Sundin, Lauren Mazac, Kathleen Ellis, Candon Garbo
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is one of the most common drugs administered in obstetrics. Since its designation as a high-alert medication by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices in 2007, there has been much attention to oxytocin administration during labor. Oxytocin is generally safe when administered correctly, but adverse perinatal outcomes can occur during uterine tachysystole. PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to evaluate and compare results of maternal and fetal outcomes of induction of labor for women at term prior to and after implementation of a newly developed oxytocin checklist...
February 27, 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Jaime S Ide, Sanja Nedic, Kin F Wong, Shmuel L Strey, Elizabeth A Lawson, Bradford C Dickerson, Lawrence L Wald, Giancarlo La Camera, L R Mujica-Parodi
Oxytocin (OT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that, while originally thought to promote trust, has more recently been found to be context-dependent. Here we extend experimental paradigms previously restricted to de novo decision-to-trust, to a more realistic environment in which social relationships evolve in response to iterative feedback over twenty interactions. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled within-subject/crossover experiment of human adult males, we investigated the effects of a single dose of intranasal OT (40 IU) on Bayesian expectation updating and reinforcement learning within a social context, with associated brain circuit dynamics...
February 24, 2018: NeuroImage
Monica Leslie, Paulo Silva, Yannis Paloyelis, James Blevins, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE: Oxytocin's anorexigenic effects have been widely documented and accepted; however, no paper has yet used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to compile previous findings in a single systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis. The current paper aimed to identify published and unpublished studies examining the effects of oxytocin on energy intake in animals and humans, and the factors that moderate this effect. METHODS: Web of Science, Pub Med, and Ovid were searched for published and unpublished studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on energy intake in wild-type animals and in humans, when administered in the absence of other active drugs or surgery...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Sarah N Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
Changcheng Zhu, Marcus Estrada, Jessica White, Manjari Lal
Postpartum hemorrhage is a major cause of mortality and morbidity related to childbirth in developing countries. The recommended treatment includes administration of oxytocin; however, oxytocin is a heat-labile protein, and it must be given as an intramuscular injection by skilled health care providers. To address these challenges, we developed a freeze-dried oxytocin fast-dissolving tablet (FDT) for sublingual (SL) needle-free administration. Using methods developed previously, we produced a robust FDT that maintained oxytocin stability at 40 °C, 75% relative humidity for 12 months...
February 12, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Michael Hubert Wrobel, Jaroslaw Mlynarczuk
We examined the direct effects of toxaphene and endrin, chlorinated insecticides that are widespread in the environment, on myometrial contractions and on the secretion of hormones involved in regulating these contractions. Granulosa, luteal, endometrial and myometrial cells, and myometrial strips from non-pregnant cows were incubated with both insecticides at environmentally relevant doses. Toxaphene inhibited and endrin stimulated the secretion of testosterone and oestradiol from granulosa cells. Toxaphene also inhibited and endrin stimulated the expression of the mRNA encoding the precursor of oxytocin (OT), as well OT secretion in luteal cell cultures...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Tessa M Raams, Joyce L Browne, Verena J M M Festen-Schrier, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Marcus J Rijken
BACKGROUND: Active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL) describes interventions with the common goal to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In low- and middle-income countries, implementation of AMTSL is hampered by shortage of skilled birth attendants and a high percentage of home deliveries. Task shifting of specific AMTSL components to unskilled birth attendants or self-administration could be a strategy to increase access to potentially life-saving interventions. This study was designed to evaluate the effect, acceptance and safety of task shifting of specific aspects of AMTSL to unskilled birth attendants...
February 6, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Megan Galbally, Joanne Ryan, Marinus van IJzendoorn, Stuart J Watson, Olav Spigset, Martha Lappas, Richard Saffery, Ron de Kloet, Andrew James Lewis
The aim of this study was to investigate placental DNA methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in women with depression in pregnancy. We also explored the role of antidepressant medication in pregnancy on placental OXTR methylation. Data were obtained from 239 women in the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study (MPEWS), a selected pregnancy cohort. Current depressive disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID-IV)...
January 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Blanca Bolea-Alamanac, Sarah J Bailey, Thelma A Lovick, Dirk Scheele, Rita Valentino
There is increasing recognition that women have a higher prevalence of certain psychiatric illnesses, and a differential treatment response and course of illness compared to men. Additionally, clinicians deal with a number of disorders like premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and postpartum depression, which affect women specifically and for which treatment and biological pathways are still unclear. In this article we highlight recent research which suggests that different biological mechanisms may underlie sex differences in responsiveness to stress...
February 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Chiraag Talati, Jose C A Carvalho, Alice Luca, Mrinalini Balki
BACKGROUND: Prolonged continuous oxytocin administration during labor may induce oxytocin receptor desensitization, which attenuates the response of the myometrium to further oxytocin, increasing the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The literature comparing pulsatile (intermittent) versus continuous oxytocin administration for induction and augmentation of labor is inconsistent with regard to maternal outcomes. We aimed to determine the effect of intermittent versus continuous oxytocin preexposure on myometrial responsiveness to subsequent oxytocin...
February 2, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Lok-Hi Chow, Yuan-Hao Chen, Chun-Fu Lai, Tsu-You Lin, Ying-Jie Chen, Jen-Hsin Kao, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang
BACKGROUND: We demonstrated previously that angiotensin IV (Ang IV) and LVV-hemorphin 7 (LVV-H7) act through the blockade of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase to decrease oxytocin degradation, thereby causing antihyperalgesia at the spinal level in rats. We determined that intrathecal oxytocin can induce significant antihyperalgesia in male rats with inflammation but not in female rats. Thus, we speculate that Ang IV, LVV-H7, and oxytocin can induce antiallodynia, which could be of great therapeutic potential...
January 29, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
S Anjum, A Anuradha, A Krishna
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vivo and in vitro treatments of oxytocin (OT) on the testis of pre-pubertal mice. The OT treatment produced significant changes in the spermatogenic and steroidogenic activity by increasing expression of OT-receptor in the testis of pre-pubertal mice. Treatment with OT showed increased proliferation of germ cells as indicated by increased number of spermatocytes and round spermatids. Dose-dependent increase in expression of PCNA, Bcl-2 and AR proteins was observed in the testis of OT-treated mice as compared with the control and further supports the role of OT in germ cell proliferation and survival...
January 23, 2018: Andrologia
Paraskevi K Matsota, Kalliopi H Drachtidi, Chrysanthi Z Batistaki, Agathi V Karakosta, Ioanna C Koukopoulou, Eugenia I Koursoumi, Georgia G Kostopanagiotou
BACKGROUND: Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia (PCEA) is a common practice for labour pain relief. This study aimed to compare two different settings of a PCEA device using the same solution to obtain labour analgesia. METHODS: Fifty two parturients were randomly allocated to receive ropivacaine 0.15% and fentanyl 2γ/mL via a PCEA device either as a background infusion of 5mL/h plus 5mL demand bolus doses with 10 min lockout (group B/D, n=26) or as only demand bolus doses of 5mL with 10 min lockout (group D, n=26)...
January 16, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
Oscar René Hernández-Pérez, Minerva Crespo-Ramírez, Yordanka Cuza-Ferrer, José Anias-Calderón, Limei Zhang, Gabriel Roldan-Roldan, Raúl Aguilar-Roblero, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Kjell Fuxe, Miguel Perez de la Mora
RATIONALE: The amygdala plays a paramount role in the modulation of anxiety and numerous studies have shown that arginine vasopressin (AVP) elicits anxiogenic effects following either its systemic or septal administration. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to study the involvement of vasopressinergic neurotransmission in the amygdaloid modulation of unconditioned anxiety and to ascertain whether or not AVP receptor subtypes may have a differential role in this modulation...
January 7, 2018: Psychopharmacology
A Acharjee, R Chaube, K P Joy
In the present study, in vitroeffects of synthetic vasotocin (VT), isotocin (4Ser, 8Ile- oxytocin; ITb) and the recently cloned IT gene paralog product (8Val-Isotocin, ITa) were studied onthe expression of pituitary gonadotropin (GtH) subunit mRNA levels. In male pituitaries of early (preparatory phase) and late (prespawning phase) recrudescing catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis, VT (10 nM, 100 nM and 1000 nM) stimulated fshβ expression dose-dependently. But in females, the dose-dependent effect was found only in the preparatory phase...
January 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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