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O J Ziff, A Covic, D Goldsmith
Overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). RAAS antagonists can significantly improve clinical outcomes, but monotherapy blocks but one step of the RAAS and can be bypassed through compensatory mechanisms. Providing more complete RAAS blockade by deploying drugs with complementary actions seemed logical - hence the practice of using dual (or triple) RAAS inhibitors. However, RAAS antagonists also exhibit dose-limiting side effects, including acute kidney injury, hyperkalaemia and hypotension, which blunt their overall effectiveness...
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
C H Chan, P A Rikvold
The Ziff-Gulari-Barshad (ZGB) model, a simplified description of the oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) on a catalyst surface, is widely used to study properties of nonequilibrium phase transitions. In particular, it exhibits a nonequilibrium, discontinuous transition between a reactive and a CO poisoned phase. If one allows a nonzero rate of CO desorption (k), the line of phase transitions terminates at a critical point (k(c)). In this work, instead of restricting the CO and atomic oxygen (O) to react to form carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only when they are adsorbed in close proximity, we consider a modified model that includes an adjustable probability for adsorbed CO and O atoms located far apart on the lattice to react...
January 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
R Pawlick, B Gala-Lopez, A R Pepper, M McCall, O Ziff, A M J Shapiro
Islet transplantation is an effective means of treating severe type 1 diabetes in patients with life-threatening hypoglycemia. Improvements in glycemic control with correction of HbA1C enhance quality of life irrespective of insulin independence. By antagonizing the Natural Killer Group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor expression on NK and CD8+ T cells, in combination with blocking CTLA-4 binding sites, we demonstrate a significant delay of graft rejection in islet allotransplant. Anti-NKG2D combined with CTLA-4 Ig (n = 15) results in prolonged allograft survival, with 84...
October 2014: American Journal of Transplantation
Charlotte M Wincott, Sinedu Abera, Sarah A Vunck, Natasha Tirko, Yoon Choi, Roseann F Titcombe, Shannon O Antoine, David S Tukey, Loren M DeVito, Franz Hofmann, Charles A Hoeffer, Edward B Ziff
Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength...
October 2014: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
G M Buendía, P A Rikvold
We present results of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a modified Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model for the reaction CO+O → CO(2) on a catalytic surface. Our model includes impurities in the gas phase, CO desorption, and a modification known to eliminate the unphysical O poisoned phase. The impurities can adsorb and desorb on the surface, but otherwise remain inert. In a previous work that did not include CO desorption [Buendía and Rikvold, Phys. Rev. E 85, 031143 (2012)], we found that the impurities have very distinctive effects on the phase diagram and greatly diminish the reactivity of the system...
July 2013: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
David S Tukey, Jainne M Ferreira, Shannon O Antoine, James A D'amour, Ipe Ninan, Soledad Cabeza de Vaca, Salvatore Incontro, Charlotte Wincott, Julian K Horwitz, Diana T Hartner, Carlo B Guarini, Latika Khatri, Yossef Goffer, Duo Xu, Roseann F Titcombe, Megna Khatri, Dave S Marzan, Shahana S Mahajan, Jing Wang, Robert C Froemke, Kenneth D Carr, Chiye Aoki, Edward B Ziff
The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPARs containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPARs...
April 3, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
G M Buendía, E Machado, P A Rikvold
We study the effect of coadsorption of CO and O on a Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model with CO desorption for the reaction CO + O --> CO(2) on a catalytic surface. Coadsorption of CO at a surface site already occupied by an O is introduced by an Eley-Rideal-type mechanism that occurs with probability p, 0 < or = p < or = 1. We find that besides the well-known effect of eliminating the second-order phase transition between the reactive state and an O-poisoned state, the coadsorption step has a profound effect on the transition between the reactive state and the CO-poisoned state...
November 14, 2009: Journal of Chemical Physics
Katherine K Ziff, David O Thomas, Patricia M Beamish
This paper examines the role of the village of Athens, Ohio, USA, in the founding and operation of the Athens Lunatic Asylum during the nineteenth century. Taking as its sources official, personal and popular culture documents, the paper focuses on the function of this Asylum as a participant in the economy of its surrounding community. The Athens Lunatic Asylum was deeply connected with its community, functioning as a market for local goods and services as well as an employer. Connections between the Asylum and the community were supported by a physical infrastructure of transportation and utilities as well as a political infrastructure that operated locally and at the state level...
December 2008: History of Psychiatry
Erik Machado, Gloria M Buendía, Per Arne Rikvold
We study by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations the dynamic behavior of a Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model with CO desorption for the reaction CO + O-->CO(2) on a catalytic surface. Finite-size scaling analysis of the fluctuations and the fourth-order order-parameter cumulant show that below a critical CO desorption rate, the model exhibits a nonequilibrium first-order phase transition between low and high CO coverage phases. We calculate several points on the coexistence curve. We also measure the metastable lifetimes associated with the transition from the low CO coverage phase to the high CO coverage phase, and vice versa...
March 2005: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Da-Yin Hua, Yu-Qiang Ma
The hysteresis phenomena in the CO catalytic oxidation system are studied by Monte Carlo simulation in the presence of the inhomogeneities of the catalyst surface. We show that the O-passivated state is destroyed due to the inhomogeneities of the surface, in contrast to the classical Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model. The defects on the surface have a significant effect on the hysteresis transition points. Most importantly, the supercritical nucleation and growth of the O adatom island during the transition from a low reactivity to a high reactivity states are closely related to the inhomogeneities of the catalyst surface...
December 2002: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Da-Yin Hua, Yu-Qiang Ma
We study a monomer-dimer reaction model in two dimensions in which the adsorption process of a dimer on the surface sites is separated into two steps (i.e., B2+*-->B2 *, and B2 * +*-->2B*, where * is an empty site), as first introduced by Evans and co-workers. It is clear that the dissociation of a dimer is dependent on the complicated configuration of the adsorbate. We show that the continuous transition from the reactive state to the O-passivated state and the discontinuous transition to the CO-passivated state both shift toward higher values of the fraction p of the monomer in gas phase but the reaction window decreases compared to the Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model...
September 2002: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
B C S Grandi, W Figueiredo
We study a version of the Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model where we include the diffusion of oxygen atoms between the uppermost layer and the subsurface. When a CO molecule impinges the surface, it occupies a single site, while the O2 molecule needs two neighboring sites to be adsorbed. The oxidation of the CO molecule occurs only at the top layer, and this happens whenever a CO molecule is nearest neighbor of an O atom. Through the pair mean-field approximation we determine the phase diagram of the model for different values of the diffusion rate of oxygen atoms between the subsurface and the top layer...
March 2002: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
D Y Hua, Y Q Ma
The irreversible kinetics of the Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model in the presence of inhomogeneity on a catalyst surface is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation. We assume that only part of catalyst surface sites are active for surface catalytic reaction and randomly distributed on the catalyst surface. The adsorption of a O2 molecule is permitted if one site of a nearest-neighbor vacant pair is active. CO can adsorb on all vacant sites, but the adsorption probability is p(p<1) if the site is not active...
November 2001: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Hoenicke, Figueiredo
A random distribution of inert sites is introduced in the Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model to study the phase transitions between active and poisoned states. The adsorption of CO and O2 molecules is not possible at the position of the inert sites. This model is investigated in the site and pair approximations, as well as through Monte Carlo simulations. We determine the mean coverages of the elements as a function of the dilution and show that the continuous transition between the active and O-poisoned states is slightly affected by moderate values of dilution in the pair approximation and in the simulations...
November 2000: Physical Review. E, Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and related Interdisciplinary Topics
M Ghee, H Baker, J C Miller, E B Ziff
The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines. We have investigated the roles of two elements of the TH promoter, the TH-'Fat Specific Element' (TH-FSE) which binds the Fos-Jun complex, and the cAMP Response Element (CRE), which binds CREB and the co-activator protein, CREB Binding Protein (CBP) in regulating TH gene transcription. In PC12 cells, the TH-FSE was required for induction by NGF while the CRE was required for induction by cAMP. We show that both elements can function independently and contribute strongly to TH promoter basal activity in PC12 cells...
March 30, 1998: Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research
D O Haskard, D Cavender, R M Fleck, R Sontheimer, M Ziff
The adhesion of T lymphocytes to human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (DMVEC) in vitro has been tested after stimulation of the DMVEC with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin 1 (IL-1), or a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These agents enhanced T-cell adhesion in a manner similar to that previously observed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (UVEC). Moreover, phorbol ester stimulation of T cells enhanced T-cell adhesion to both DMVEC and UVEC. Unstimulated and phorbol ester-enhanced T-cell adhesion to both DMVEC and UVEC was strongly inhibited by monoclonal antibody (Mab) 60...
March 1987: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
D Haskard, D Cavender, M Ziff
Phorbol esters have been used to study changes in the adhesiveness of T cells to endothelial cells (EC) after activation. The phorbol esters 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 4-beta-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (P(Bu)2), but not the biologically inert 4-alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, strongly increased the binding of 51Cr-labeled T cells to human umbilical vein EC monolayers in microtiter wells. Binding to fibroblasts and gelatin-coated plastic was also increased, but to a lesser extent. Increased binding was observed at 0...
September 1, 1986: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
D E Cavender, D O Haskard, B Joseph, M Ziff
Lymphocyte binding to specialized high-endothelial venules (HEV) in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches is the first step in normal lymphocyte emigration and recirculation. The development and maintenance of HEV in these lymphoid organs are thought to be immunologically controlled. Because postcapillary venules in chronic inflammatory tissue often resemble the HEV of lymphoid tissue and may also be a site of lymphocyte emigration, examination of the effects of immunologic and inflammatory mediators on endothelial cells (EC) may provide important information about the physiology of both normal lymphocyte recirculation and chronic inflammation...
January 1986: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
D E Cavender, D O Haskard, D Maliakkal, M Ziff
Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that the adhesion of T lymphocytes to endothelial cell (EC) monolayers in vitro can be increased by preincubation of the EC with interferon-gamma, interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or by stimulation of the T cells with phorbol esters. In this report, we have demonstrated that three subpopulations of human peripheral blood T cells can be identified on the basis of their abilities to bind to EC: (1) a strongly binding group which binds to unstimulated EC; (2) an intermediately binding subset which adheres to EC only if these cells have been stimulated with IL-1, TNF, or LPS; and (3) a weakly binding subpopulation which adheres poorly to either unstimulated or stimulated EC...
November 1988: Cellular Immunology
C L Yu, D O Haskard, D Cavender, A R Johnson, M Ziff
Binding of lymphocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) was quantitated by measuring adhesion of 51Cr labelled lymphocytes to endothelial cell monolayers and rosette formation between lymphocytes and EC in suspension. Mitogen stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants and mixed lymphocyte reaction supernatants enhanced the binding of T lymphocytes to EC monolayers or suspensions preincubated with such supernatants. The active component of these supernatants appeared to be gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) since culture supernatants lost activity after heating at 56 degrees C for 60 min, exposure to pH 2...
December 1985: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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