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Christopher J Palestro
There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis...
September 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Walter Jentzen, Femke Verschure, Annelie van Zon, Rudie van de Kolk, Roel Wierts, Jochen Schmitz, Andreas Bockisch, Ina Binse
: Iodine-positive bone metastases (BMs) are often resistant after initial radioiodine therapy applying the standard activity approach. A comprehensive lesion-based response study for BMs has not yet been performed. Pre-therapy and follow-up (124)I PET/CT data on BMs from differentiated thyroid cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed to assess the relationship between absorbed radiation dose (AD) and response after initial radioiodine treatment. METHODS: Before and after initial radioiodine therapy, patients received serial PET/CT scans after administration of 20-40 MBq (124)I...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Ravinder K Grewal, Mark Lubberink, Keith S Pentlow, Steven M Larson
Molecular imaging is the visualization, characterization, and measurement of biologic processes at the molecular and cellular levels in human beings and other living systems. In thyroid cancer, this includes imaging iodine transport, which is active in about 80% of well-differentiated thyroid malignancies. Iodine-124 imaging with positron emission tomography (I-124-PET) is ideal for this purpose because PET provides tomographic images with spatial and contrast resolution. Because iodine-131 is the mainstay for therapy in thyroid cancer, and because success or failure of therapy depends on the degree of iodine uptake by the tumor cells, I-124-PET imaging will increasingly act as a surrogate for this treatment...
July 2007: PET Clinics
Víctor M Blanco, Zhengtao Chu, Kathleen LaSance, Brian D Gray, Koon Yan Pak, Therese Rider, Kenneth D Greis, Xiaoyang Qi
Multimodal tumor imaging with targeted nanoparticles potentially offers both enhanced specificity and sensitivity, leading to more precise cancer diagnosis and monitoring. We describe the synthesis and characterization of phenol-substituted, lipophilic orange and far-red fluorescent dyes and a simple radioiodination procedure to generate a dual (optical and nuclear) imaging probe. MALDI-ToF analyses revealed high iodination efficiency of the lipophilic reporters, achieved by electrophilic aromatic substitution using the chloramide 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α,6α-diphenyl glycoluril (Iodogen) as the oxidizing agent in an organic/aqueous co-solvent mixture...
May 31, 2016: Oncotarget
C Love, C J Palestro
Osteomyelitis is a broad group of infectious diseases that involve the bone and/or bone marrow. It can arise haematogenously, via extension from a contiguous infection, or by direct inoculation during surgery or trauma. The diagnosis is not always obvious and imaging tests are frequently performed as part of the diagnostic work-up. Commonly performed radionuclide tests include technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy (bone), and gallium-67 ((67)Ga) and in vitro labelled leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) imaging...
July 2016: Clinical Radiology
Tony Taldone, Danuta Zatorska, Stefan O Ochiana, Peter Smith-Jones, Jacek Koziorowski, Mark P Dunphy, Pat Zanzonico, Alexander Bolaender, Jason S Lewis, Steven M Larson, Gabriela Chiosis, Naga Vara Kishore Pillarsetty
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an ATP dependent molecular chaperone protein whose function is critical for maintaining several key proteins involved in survival and proliferation of cancer cells. PU-H71 (1), is a potent purine-scaffold based ATP pocket binding Hsp90 inhibitor which has been shown to have potent activity in a broad range of in vivo cancer models and is currently in Phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced solid malignancies, lymphomas, and myeloproliferative neoplasms. In this report, we describe the radiosynthesis of [(124)I]-PU-H71(5); this was synthesized from the corresponding Boc-protected stannane precursor 3 by iododestannylation with [(124)I]-NaI using chloramine-T as an oxidant for 2 min, followed by Boc deprotection with 6 N HCl at 50 °C for 30 min to yield the final compound...
March 2016: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
M Moreau, I Buvat, L Ammour, N Chouin, F Kraeber-Bodéré, M Chérel, T Carlier
Iodine-124 is a radionuclide well suited to the labeling of intact monoclonal antibodies. Yet, accurate quantification in preclinical imaging with I-124 is challenging due to the large positron range and a complex decay scheme including high-energy gammas. The aim of this work was to assess the quantitative performance of a fully 3D Monte Carlo (MC) reconstruction for preclinical I-124 PET. The high-resolution small animal PET Inveon (Siemens) was simulated using GATE 6.1. Three system matrices (SM) of different complexity were calculated in addition to a Siddon-based ray tracing approach for comparison purpose...
March 21, 2015: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré, Caroline Rousseau, Caroline Bodet-Milin, Cédric Mathieu, François Guérard, Eric Frampas, Thomas Carlier, Nicolas Chouin, Ferid Haddad, Jean-François Chatal, Alain Faivre-Chauvet, Michel Chérel, Jacques Barbet
This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christopher J Palestro
Radionuclide procedures frequently are performed as part of the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. Degenerative joint disease, fracture, and orthopedic hardware decrease the specificity of the bone scan, making it less useful in these situations. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was often used as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy for diagnosing osteomyelitis. However, now it is used primarily for spinal infections when (18)F-FDG imaging cannot be performed...
January 2015: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Bradley J Beattie, Keith S Pentlow, Joseph O'Donoghue, John L Humm
Because of their chemical properties and multiday half lives, iodine-124 and zirconium-89 are being used in a growing number of PET imaging studies. Some aspects of their quantitation, however, still need attention. For (89)Zr the PET images should, in principle, be as quantitatively accurate as similarly reconstructed 18F measurements. We found, however, that images of a 20 cm well calibration phantom containing (89)Zr underestimated the activity by approximately 10% relative to a dose calibrator measurement (Capintec CRC-15R) using a published calibration setting number of 465...
2014: PloS One
Emily B Martin, Stephen J Kennel, Tina Richey, Craig Wooliver, Dustin Osborne, Angela Williams, Alan Stuckey, Jonathan S Wall
Dynamic molecular imaging provides bio-kinetic data that is used to characterize novel radiolabeled tracers for the detection of disease. Amyloidosis is a rare protein misfolding disease that can affect many organs. It is characterized by extracellular deposits composed principally of fibrillar proteins and hypersulfated proteoglycans. We have previously described a peptide, p5, which binds preferentially to amyloid deposits in a murine model of reactive (AA) amyloidosis. We have determined the whole body distribution of amyloid by molecular imaging techniques using radioiodinated p5...
October 2014: Peptides
Jakob W Kist, Bart de Keizer, Marcel P M Stokkel, Otto S Hoekstra, Wouter V Vogel
BACKGROUND: After initial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients are followed with thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements to detect recurrences. In case of elevated levels of Tg and negative neck ultrasonography, patients are treated 'blindly' with Iodine-131 (131I). However, in up to 50% of patients, the post-therapy scan reveals no 131I-targeting of tumor lesions. Such patients derive no benefit from the blind therapy but are exposed to its toxicity. Alternatively, iodine-124 (124I) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has become available to visualize DTC lesions and without toxicity...
2014: BMC Cancer
Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Artor Niccoli Asabella, Antonio Notaristefano, Antonino Restuccia, Cristina Ferrari, Domenico Rubini, Corinna Altini, Giuseppe Rubini
(124)Iodine ((124)I) with its 4.2 d half-life is particularly attractive for in vivo detection and quantification of longer-term biological and physiological processes; the long half-life of (124)I is especially suited for prolonged time in vivo studies of high molecular weight compounds uptake. Numerous small molecules and larger compounds like proteins and antibodies have been successfully labeled with (124)I. Advances in radionuclide production allow the effective availability of sufficient quantities of (124)I on small biomedical cyclotrons for molecular imaging purposes...
2014: BioMed Research International
Gian Luca Poli, Claudia Bianchi, Giorgio Virotta, Anna Bettini, Renzo Moretti, Eveline Trachsel, Giuliano Elia, Leonardo Giovannoni, Dario Neri, Andrea Bruno
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with (131)I-labeled L19SIP (radretumab; a small immunoprotein format antibody directed against the ED-B domain of fibronectin; ∼ 80 kDa molecular weight) has been investigated in several clinical trials. Here, we describe the use of immuno-PET imaging with iodine-124 ((124)I)-labeled L19SIP to predict doses delivered to tumor lesions and healthy organs by a subsequent radretumab RIT in patients with brain metastases from solid cancer. Bone marrow doses were evaluated both during the diagnostic phase and posttherapy, measuring activities in blood (germanium detector) and whole body (lanthanum bromide detector)...
August 2013: Cancer Immunology Research
Ana Maria S Braghirolli, William Waissmann, Juliana Batista da Silva, Gonçalo R dos Santos
Until recently, iodine-124 was not considered to be an attractive isotope for medical applications owing to its complex radioactive decay scheme, which includes several high-energy gamma rays. However, its unique chemical properties, and convenient half-life of 4.2 days indicated it would be only a matter of time for its frequent application to become a reality. The development of new medical imaging techniques, especially improvements in the technology of positron emission tomography (PET), such as the development of new detectors and signal processing electronics, has opened up new prospects for its application...
August 2014: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Matthew M Rochefort, Mark D Girgis, Scott M Knowles, Jacob S Ankeny, Felix Salazar, Anna M Wu, James S Tomlinson
PURPOSE: Intact antibodies have a long serum persistence resulting in high background signal that inhibits their direct translation as imaging agents. Engineering of antibody fragments through the introduction of mutations in the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region can dramatically reduce serum persistence. We sought to develop a Fc-mutated, anti-CA19-9 antibody fragment (anti-CA 19-9 scFv-Fc H310A) to provide micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) imaging of pancreatic cancer xenografts...
October 2014: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Jason H Stafford, Guiyang Hao, Anne M Best, Xiankai Sun, Philip E Thorpe
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an attractive target for imaging agents that identify tumors and assess their response to therapy. PS is absent from the surface of most cell types, but becomes exposed on tumor cells and tumor vasculature in response to oxidative stresses in the tumor microenvironment and increases in response to therapy. To image exposed PS, we used a fully human PS-targeting antibody fragment, PGN635 F(ab')2, that binds to complexes of PS and β2-glycoprotein I. PGN635 F(ab')2 was labeled with the positron-emitting isotope iodine-124 ((124)I) and the resulting probe was injected into nude mice bearing subcutaneous or orthotopic human PC3 prostate tumors...
2013: PloS One
Haiming Ding, Michelle M Carlton, Stephen P Povoski, Keisha Milum, Krishan Kumar, Shankaran Kothandaraman, George H Hinkle, David Colcher, Rich Brody, Paul D Davis, Alex Pokora, Mitchell Phelps, Edward W Martin, Michael F Tweedle
The tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) antigen is highly overexpressed in various human adenocarcinomas and anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibodies, and fragments are therefore useful as pharmaceutical targeting vectors. In this study, we investigated the effects of site-specific PEGylation with MW 2-4 kDa discrete, branched PEGylation reagents on mCC49 Fab' (MW 50 kDa) via in vitro TAG72 binding, and in vivo blood clearance kinetics, biodistribution, and mouse tumor microPET/CT imaging. mCC49Fab' (Fab'-NEM) was conjugated at a hinge region cysteine with maleimide-dPEG 12-(dPEG24COOH)3 acid (Mal-dPEG-A), maleimide-dPEG12-(dPEG12COOH)3 acid (Mal-dPEG-B), or maleimide-dPEG12-(m-dPEG24)3 (Mal-dPEG-C), and then radiolabeled with iodine-124 ((124)I) in vitro radioligand binding assays and in vivo studies used TAG-72 expressing LS174T human colon carcinoma cells and xenograft mouse tumors...
November 20, 2013: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Herbert Kvaternik, Thomas Wanek, Friedrich Hammerschmidt, Ilse Zolle, Reingard Aigner, Claudia Kuntner
PURPOSE: The application of radiolabelled inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes is a novel approach for molecular imaging of adrenocortical masses to detect adrenal tumours. One potential tracer is radiolabelled iodometomidate (IMTO) with a common option for scintigraphic diagnosis and therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to radiolabel iodometomidate with the positron-emitting radionuclide iodine-124 ((124)I) for the investigation of the biological behaviour and pharmacokinetics with positron emission tomography (PET)...
June 2014: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Jonathan S Wall, Alan Solomon, Stephen J Kennel
Wall, JS, Solomon A, Kennel, SJ. Development and evaluation of agents for targeting visceral amyloid. Visceral amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by the deposition in organs and tissues of protein fibrils, heparan sulfate proteoglycan as well as serum amyloid P component and other serum proteins. Imaging these pathologic deposits aids in the clinical management of patients with amyloidosis. Whole body scintigraphic imaging of amyloid load as well as organ specific anatomic imaging provides information that can inform prognosis and can be used to monitor disease progression or response to therapy...
December 2011: Tijdschrift Voor Nu[c]leaire Geneeskunde
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