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Swambabu Varanasi, Leeav Henzel, Scot Sharman, Warren Batchelor, Gil Garnier
The production of nanofibres (NF) from fresh carrots residue was investigated with a mechanical process without using any pulping or bleaching chemicals. Refining with a PFI mill followed by mechanical fibrillation with a homogenizer was used to produce fine NF. Blanching with hot water was carried out to leach the extractives from carrot fibres prior to refining. The energy required to prepare carrot pulp is one order of magnitude lower than for wood pulp and the fibrillation of nanofibres from carrot residue is four times lower in energy than using wood pulp as feedstock...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xianlin Xu, Rui Li, Chenxiao Tang, Hang Wang, Xupin Zhuang, Ya Liu, Weimin Kang, Lei Shi
Cellulose nanofibers were embedded into sulfonated poly (ether sulfone) matrix to heighten the water retention and proton conductivity of proton exchange membranes (PEMs). Cellulose nanofibers were obtained by hydrolyzing cellulose acetate nanofibers, which were prepared via electrostatic-induction-assisted solution blow spinning. Morphology, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the PEMs were investigated. The results showed that proton conductivity, water uptake, and methanol permeability of the composite membranes were improved...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kai Zhang, Zongjie Li, Weimin Kang, Nanping Deng, Jing Yan, Jingge Ju, Yong Liu, Bowen Cheng
A novel tree-like cellulose nanofiber membrane was controllably fabricated via the electrospinning method by adding certain amount of tetra butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) into the cellulose acetate solution followed by a deacetylation treatment process. The morphological structure, material structure and air filtration performance of both the cellulose and the cellulose acetate tree-like nanofiber membranes were characterized. Water contact angles, mechanical properties, and air filtration properties were also evaluated...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Eduardo Robles, Javier Fernández-Rodríguez, Ananda M Barbosa, Oihana Gordobil, Neftali L V Carreño, Jalel Labidi
Tequila elaboration leaves two main byproducts that are undervalued (bagasse and leaves). Organosolv pulping and Total Chlorine Free bleaching were integrated to obtain cellulose fibers from agricultural waste which consisted of blue agave bagasse and leaf fibers; together they represent a green process which valorizes biomass waste. The obtained celluloses were characterized by FT-IR, colorimetry, and SEM and their extraction yields were evaluated. These celluloses were used to produce cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibers...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Wei-Wen Hu, Yun-Chung Wu, Zhe-Chen Hu
Alginate and polycaprolactone (PCL) were coelectrospun using a dual-jet system to prepare composite nanofibers in defined ratios, and hence both chemical properties and hydrophobicity of scaffolds can be manipulated. These nanofibers were applied in gene immobilization: positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI)/DNA polyplexes were adsorbed onto anionic alginate fibers, and the higher ratios of alginate resulted in the more immobilized nonviral vectors. Through the incorporation of PCL, biocompatibility of scaffolds was highly improved...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Quim Tarrés, Helena Oliver-Ortega, Manel Alcalà, Noemí Merayo, Ana Balea, Ángeles Blanco, Pere Mutjé, Marc Delgado-Aguilar
The present work shows the suitability of using recovered cardboard boxes for the development of high-performance papers through the use of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). CNF were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using bleached kraft hardwood pulp, while a commercial grade of CMC-Na was used. Both were added in bulk together with polyethylenimine (PEI) as wet-end additive to improve pulp drainability. The combination of 3 wt% CNF and 7.5 wt% CMC-Na double the breaking length of paper...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xun Niu, Yating Liu, Yang Song, Jinquan Han, Hui Pan
Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) was modified by rosin and used as a reinforcement filler within a polylactic acid (PLA) matrix. The resulting film was then coated with chitosan (CHT) to prepare a two-layer composite film for antimicrobial food packaging. The FT-IR spectra of rosin modified CNF (R-CNF) displayed a clear peak at 1730cm-1, which confirmed the successful esterification of CNF by rosin. The R-CNF showed a better dispersion in PLA matrix than CNF and the loading of R-CNF had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the resulting film...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Surendra Kumar Verma, Akshay Modi, Jayesh Bellare
The development of a cell-growth substrate that provides a nature-like microenvironment, promotes cell adhesion, and maintains the cells' functional activities is a research focus in the field of tissue engineering. In the present study, three-dimensional micro-nano multiscale fiber-based substrates were developed by depositing biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL)/PCL-Chitosan (C)/PCL-C-Gelatin (G) electrospun nanofibers (NFs) on the outer surface of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) in one step. A comparison study with regard to physico-chemical characterization, hemocompatibility, cytotoxicity, and cellular functionality was performed with the developed matrices...
January 19, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Jie Zhang, Ruixia Chu, Yanli Chen, Heng Jiang, Ying Zhang, Nay Ming Huang, Hang Guo
Binder-free nickle cobaltite on carbon nanofiber (NiCo2O4@CNF) anode for lithium ion batteries was prepared via a two-step procedure of electrospinning and electrodeposition. The CNF was obtained by annealing the electrospun poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) in the nitrogen (N2). The NiCo2O4 nanostructures were then grown on the CNF by electrodeposition, followed by annealing in the air. Experimental results showed vertically aligned NiCo2O4 nanosheets were uniformly grown on the surface of CNF, forming an interconnected network...
January 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yubing Zhou, Bharath Natarajan, Yanchen Fan, Hua Xie, Chunpeng Yang, Shaomao Xu, Yonggang Yao, Feng Jiang, Qianfan Zhang, Jeffrey W Gilman, Liangbing Hu
The interaction between the metal nanoparticles and their substrate plays a critical role in determining the particle morphology, distribution, and properties. Here we present the pronounced impact of a thin oxide coating to the dispersion of metal nanoparticles on a carbon matrix. We employ Al2O3-supported Pt nanoparticles in comparison with direct synthesis of Pt nanoparticles on bare carbon surfaces. Pt nanoparticles with an average size of ≈2 nm and a size distribution ranging between 0.5 nm and 4.0 nm are synthesized on the Al2O3 coated carbon nanofiber, significantly improved compared to those directly synthesized on bare carbon surface...
January 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Midhun Harilal, Syam G Krishnan, Bhupender Pal, Mogalahalli Venkatashamy Reddy, Mohd Hasbi Ab Rahim, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Rajan Jose
This article reports synthesis of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and cupric oxide (CuO) nanowires by controlling calcination environment of electrospun polymeric nanofibers and their charge storage properties. The Cu2O nanowires showed higher surface area (86 m2 g-1) and pore size than the CuO nanowires (36 m2 g-1). Electrochemical analysis was carried out in 6 M KOH and both the electrodes showed battery-type charge storage mechanism. The electrospun Cu2O electrodes delivered high discharge capacity (126 mA h g-1) than CuO (72 mA h g-1) at a current density of 2...
January 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
T Paulraj, A V Riazanova, A J Svagan
Materials based on renewable biopolymers, selective permeability and stimuli-responsive release/loading properties play an important role in biomedical applications. Here, in order to mimic the plant primary cell-wall, microcapsules have been fabricated using cell wall polysaccharides, namely pectin, xyloglucan and cellulose nanofibers. For the first time, a large amount of xyloglucan was successfully included in such capsules. These capsules demonstrated stimuli-responsive (ON/OFF) permeability and biocompatibility...
January 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Matthew M Dahm, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Douglas E Evans, M Eileen Birch, Stephen Bertke, John D Beard, Aaron Erdely, Joseph E Fernback, Robert R Mercer, Sergey A Grinshpun
BACKGROUND: Recent animal studies have suggested the potential for wide-ranging health effects resulting from exposure to carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/F). To date, no studies in the US have directly examined the relationship between occupational exposure and potential human health effects. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to measure CNT/F exposures among US workers with representative job types, from non-exposed to highly exposed, for an epidemiologic study relating exposure to early biologic effects...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Ying Qu, BeiYu Wang, Bingyang Chu, Chenlu Liu, Xin Rong, Hua Chen, JinRong Peng, Zhiyong Qian
Spinal fusion is the classic treatment to achieve spinal stability for the treatment of the spinal disease. Generally, spinal fusion still has to combine a certain of bone matrix for promoting bone formation to achieve the desired fusion effect based on the surgery, including the traditional bone matrix, such as the autologous bone, allografts and xenografts. Nevertheless, some problems still existed such as the immunogenic problems, the secondary wound, and pathogenic transfer and so on. Here the injectable thermosensitive hydrogel could substitute to avoid the problems as a potential biological scaffold for tissue engineering...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Naoya Nishi, Ikumi Yajima, Ken-Ichi Amano, Tetsuo Sakka
Janus-type Au/polythiophene (PT) composites have been prepared by utilizing the liquid/liquid interface between water (W) and a hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL) as the redox reaction site. AuCl4- are reductively deposited and terthiophene are oxidatively polymerized spacio-selectively at the IL|W interface, leading to the formation of the Au/PT composites. The composites are Janus-type Au-attached PT plates with two surface morphologies, flat surface and flower-like surface at the W and IL sides of the plates at the IL|W interface, respectively...
January 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kaerdun Liu, Shihao Zang, Rongrong Xue, Jinghui Yang, Lizhi Wang, Jianbin Huang, Yun Yan
Printable hydrogels desired in bioengineering have extremely high demands on biocompatibility and mechanic strength, which can hardly be achieved in conventional hydrogels made with biopolymers. Here we show that on employment of the strategy of coordination triggered hierarchical self-assembly of naturally occurred small molecule folic acid, supramolecular hydrogels with robust mechanical elastic modulus comparable to synthetic double network (DN) polymer gels can be made at concentrations below 1 %. A sequence of hierarchical steps are involved in the formation of this extraordinary hydrogel: petrin rings on folate form tetramers through hydrogen bonding, tetramers stack into nanofibers by π-π stacking, zinc ions cross-link the nanofibers into larger scale fibrils, and further crosslink the fibril network to gel water...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hemalatha Parangusan, Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Mariam Al Ali Al-Maadeed
Herein, we investigate the morphology, structure and piezoelectric performances of neat polyvinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) and PVDF-HFP/Co-ZnO nanofibers, fabricated by electrospinning. An increase in the amount of crystalline β-phase of PVDF-HFP has been observed with the increase in Co-doped ZnO nanofiller concentration in the PVDF-HFP matrix. The dielectric constants of the neat PVDF-HFP and PVDF-HFP/2 wt.% Co-ZnO nanofibers are derived as 8 and 38 respectively. The flexible nanogenerator manipulated from the polymer nanocomposite (PVDF-HFP/Co-ZnO) exhibits an output voltage as high as 2...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jingjing Luo, Haitao Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Xiaokang Cui, Junjiu Gao, Xin Wang, Jie Xiong
In the field of bone tissue engineering, an ideal three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold should not only structurally mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) in large tissues but also mechanically support the bone healing process and provide biochemical cues to induce osteogenesis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of functionalisation of scaffolds by coupling polyglutamate acid conjugated with BMP-2 peptide onto silk fibroin (SF)/polycaprolactone (PCL) (SF/PCL) blend nanofibers. The morphology, composition, and mineralisation, were confirmed by FE-SEM, XRD, and FT-IR spectroscopy...
December 28, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Chun-Nan Wu, Shih-Chang Fuh, Shin-Ping Lin, Yen-Yi Lin, Hung-Yueh Chen, Jui-Ming Liu, Kuan-Chen Cheng
Biocompatible bacterial cellulose pellicle (BCP) is a candidate for biomedical material such as wound dressing. However, due to lack of antibacterial activity, to grant BCP with the property is crucial for its biomedical application. In the present study, BCP was modified by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation using TEMPO/NaClO/NaBr system at pH 10 to form TEMPO-oxidized BCP (TOBCP) with anionic C6 carboxylate groups. The TOBCP was subsequently ion-exchanged in AgNO3 solution and silver nanoparticles (AgNP) with diameter of ~16...
January 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Arup Choudhury, Baban Dey, Susanta Sinha Mahapatra, Doo-Won Kim, Kap-Seung Yang, Duck J Yang
Nanostructured poly(m-aminophenol) (PmAP) coated freestanding carbon nanofiber (CNF) mats were fabricated through simple in-situ rapid-mixing polymerization of m-aminophenol in presence of CNF mat for flexible solid-state supercapacitors. The surface compositions, morphology and pore structure of the hybrid mats were characterized by using different techniques, e.g., FTIR, Raman, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and N2 absorption. The results show that the PmAP nanoparticles homogeneously deposited on CNF surfaces and formed a thin flexible hybrid mat, which were directly used to made electrodes for electrochemical analysis without using any binders and conductive additives...
January 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
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