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Taniya Mitra, Ivana Bilic, Michael Hess, Dieter Liebhart
Evaluation of reference genes for expression studies in chickens and turkeys is very much limited and unavailable for various infectious models. In this study, eight candidate reference genes HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, VIM, TFRC, RPLP0, RPL13 and RPS7 were evaluated by five different algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper©, delta CT, RefFinder) to assess their stability. In order to analyze a broad variation of tissues, spleen, liver, caecum and caecal tonsil of different aged specific pathogen free (SPF) layer chickens and commercial turkeys, uninfected or infected with the extracellular pathogen Histomonas meleagridis, were included...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
Elisabet Cuyàs, Almudena Pérez-Sánchez, Vicente Micol, Javier A Menendez, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera
The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been suggested to play a prominent role in mediating non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistance to some tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-mediated therapies. Using a model of anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK)-translocated NSCLC with acquired resistance to the ALK TKI crizotinib, but lacking amplifications or mutations in the kinase domain of ALK, we herein present evidence that STAT3 activation is a novel mechanism of crizotinib resistance that involves the upregulation of immune escape and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling pathways...
October 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Tomasz Wołkowicz, Jan Andrzej Patzer, Wanda Kamińska, Rafał Gierczyński, Danuta Dzierżanowska
This study aimed to analyse the distribution of carbapenem resistance mechanisms among Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. Fifty-five P. aeruginosa isolates, resistant both to imipenem and meropenem, from children hospitalised in 2009-2010 were studied. All strains were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Mutations in the oprD gene and the occurrence of insertion sequences (ISs) were determined by DNA sequencing. Mex efflux systems were determined by analysis using the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg β-naphthylamide...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
John Osei Sekyere
A review of the literature was undertaken to delineate the current level and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline in South Africa. Thirty-two English publications and 32 National Institute of Communicable Diseases communiqués identified between early January 2000 and 20 May, 2016 showed substantial reports of NDM (n = 860), OXA-48 (n = 584), VIM (n = 131), and IMP (n = 45) carbapenemases within this period, mainly in Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1138), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 332), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 201), and Serratia marcescens (n = 108)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Isabelle Beaulieu-Boire, Camila C Aquino, Alfonso Fasano, Yu-Yan Poon, Melanie Fallis, Antony E Lang, Mojgan Hodaie, Suneil K Kalia, Andres Lozano, Elena Moro
BACKGROUND: Rare causes of inherited movement disorders often present with a debilitating phenotype of dystonia, sometimes combined with parkinsonism and other neurological signs. Since these disorders are often resistant to medications, DBS may be considered as a possible treatment. METHODS: Patients with identified genetic diseases (ataxia-telangiectasia, chorea-achantocytosis, dopa-responsive dystonia, congenital nemaline myopathy, methylmalonic aciduria, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, spinocerebellar ataxia types 2 and 3, Wilson's disease, Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome, methylmalonic aciduria, and X trisomy) and disabling dystonia underwent bilateral GPi DBS (bilateral thalamic Vim nucleus in 1 case)...
October 4, 2016: Brain Stimulation
R Krishnan Kutty, William Samuel, Kaifa Boyce, Aswini Cherukuri, Todd Duncan, Cynthia Jaworski, Chandrasekharam N Nagineni, T Michael Redmond
PURPOSE: Proinflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secreted by infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages may play a role in triggering RPE dysfunction associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Binding of these proinflammatory cytokines to their specific receptors residing on the RPE cell surface can activate signaling pathways that, in turn, may dysregulate cellular gene expression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β have an adverse effect on the expression of genes essential for RPE function, employing the RPE cell line ARPE-19 as a model system...
2016: Molecular Vision
Ashika Singh-Moodley, Olga Perovic
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a concern in South Africa and worldwide. It is therefore important that these organisms be accurately identified for infection prevention control purposes. METHOD: In this study 1193 suspected CREs from 46 laboratories from seven provinces in South Africa were assessed to confirm the prevalence of carbapenemase genes from our referral diagnostic isolates for the period 2012 to 2015. We compared the antimicrobial susceptibility testing method used in the reference laboratory to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which is used as the gold standard...
October 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sergio García-Fernández, María-Isabel Morosini, Marta Cobo, José Ramón Foruny, Antonio López-Sanromán, Javier Cobo, José Romero, Rafael Cantón, Rosa Del Campo
We report the fecal carriage eradication of a VIM-1-producing ST9 Klebsiella oxytoca strain in a pluripathological 84-year-old woman after fecal microbiota transplantation to control relapsing R027 hypervirulent Clostridium difficile infections. The donor was her son, in which the absence of fecal carbapenemase-producing bacteria was corroborated.
September 16, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Marion J Skalweit, Mei Li
Genetic screening of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSDA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) reveals genes that confer increased susceptibility to β-lactams when disrupted, suggesting novel drug targets. One such target is lytic transglycosylase. Bulgecin A (BlgA) is a natural product of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila and a lytic transglycosolase inhibitor that works synergistically with β-lactams targeting PBP3 for Enterobacteriaceae. BlgA also weakly inhibits di-Zn(2+) metallo-β-lactamases like L1 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Michael T Barbe, Jeremy Franklin, Daria Kraus, Paul Reker, Till A Dembek, Niels Allert, Jochen Wirths, Jürgen Voges, Lars Timmermann, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is effective in medication refractory essential tremor (ET). In recent years, evidence has accumulated that the region ventral to the VIM, the posterior subthalamic area (PSA), might be an equally or even more effective target for electrode implantation. However, this evidence is primarily based on case series, cross-sectional observations, and retrospective data. METHODS/DESIGN: A prospective crossover pilot study investigating the effects of PSA stimulation in medication refractory ET patients was designed...
September 29, 2016: Trials
B Banco, G Grilli, C Giudice, A Tomas Marques, S Cotti Cometti, G Visigalli, V Grieco
During testicular maturation, both Sertoli cells (SCs) and germ cells (GCs) switch from an immature to a mature immunophenotype. The reexpression of markers of immaturity in adults has been reported in cancer and in other testicular pathologies, in men as well as in animal species. Naturally affected with testicular cancer, rabbits have long been used in human reproductive research, but reports on the expression of testicular cell markers in this species are few and data about the immunophenotype of normal postnatal SCs and GCs are lacking...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Akinobu Kamei, Geli Gao, Geoffrey Neale, Lip Nam Loh, Peter Vogel, Paul G Thomas, Elaine I Tuomanen, Peter J Murray
Infection is the single greatest threat to survival during cancer chemotherapy because of depletion of bone marrow-derived immune cells. Phagocytes, especially neutrophils, are key effectors in immunity to extracellular pathogens, which has limited the development of new approaches to protect patients with cancer and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Using a model of vaccine-induced protection against lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in the setting of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, we found a population of resident lung macrophages in the immunized lung that mediated protection in the absence of neutrophils, bone marrow-derived monocytes, or antibodies...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jun Sung Hong, Eun-Jeong Yoon, Hyukmin Lee, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee
A total of 431 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) clinical isolates were collected from 29 general hospitals in Korea in 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk diffusion method and MICs of carbapenems were determined by agar dilution method. Carbapenemase genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced and the structures of class 1 integrons surrounding the carbapenemase gene cassettes were analyzed by PCR mapping. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed for strain typing...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hannes O Tiedt, Felicitas Ehlen, Lea K Krugel, Andreas Horn, Andrea A Kühn, Fabian Klostermann
Subcortical functions for language capacities are poorly defined, but may be investigated in the context of deep brain stimulation. Here, we studied event-related potentials recorded from electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) together with surface-EEG. Participants completed a lexical decision task (LDT), which required the differentiation of acoustically presented words from pseudo-words by button press. Target stimuli were preceded by prime-words. In recordings from VIM, a slow potential shift apparent at the lower electrode contacts persisted during target stimulus presentation (equally for words and pseudo-words)...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Jeanette W P Teo, My-Van La, Raymond T P Lin
A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of clinically prevalent IMP, VIM, and OXA-23 gene families. The assay was designed to work on the BD MAX open platform which is a fully automated system for all PCR processes including sample extraction to PCR resulting. A total of 107 well-characterized carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae were evaluated and the results were 100% concordant with the reference test isolates. This assay will serve to complement PCR screens that detect the major carbapenemase families of NDM, KPC, and OXA-48-like...
August 26, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Zuhal Yolcu, Serkan Demir, Ömer Andaç, Orhan Büyükgüngör
A novel trinuclear copper(II) complex [Cu3(μ-Cl)2Cl4(1-Vim)6] with monodentate 1-vinylimidazole (1-Vim) and chloro ligands has been prepared and experimentally characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry (TGA, DTG, DTA), X-ray single crystal diffractometry, TOF-MS and FT-IR spectroscopies. The electronic and structural properties of the complex were further investigated by DFT/TD-DFT methods. Density functional hybrid method (B3LYP) was applied throughout the calculations. The calculated UV-Vis results based on TD-DFT approach were simulated and compared with experimental spectrum...
2016: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Silvia A Albu, Kalinka Koteva, Andrew M King, Salma Al-Karmi, Gerard D Wright, Alfredo Capretta
The fungal secondary metabolite aspergillomarasmine A (AMA) has recently been identified as an inhibitor of metallo-β-lactamases NDM-1 and VIM-2. Described herein is an efficient and practical route to AMA and its related compounds by a sulfamidate approach. In addition, a series of derivatives has been prepared and tested for biological activity in an effort to explore preliminary structure activity relationships. While it was determined that natural LLL isomer of AMA remains the most effective inactivator of NDM-1 enzyme activity both in vitro and in cells, the structure is highly tolerant of the changes in the stereochemistry at positions 3, 6, and 9...
October 10, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Tobias M Gorges, Andra Kuske, Katharina Röck, Oliver Mauermann, Volkmar Müller, Sven Peine, Karl Verpoort, Vendula Novosadova, Mikael Kubista, Sabine Riethdorf, Klaus Pantel
BACKGROUND: Transcriptome analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise to unravel the biology of cancer cell dissemination and identify expressed genes and signaling pathways relevant to therapeutic interventions. METHODS: CTCs were enriched based on their EpCAM expression (CellSearch®) or by size and deformability (Parsortix™), identified by EpCAM and/or pan-keratin-specific antibodies, and isolated for single cell multiplex RNA profiling. RESULTS: Distinct breast and prostate CTC expression signatures could be discriminated from RNA profiles of leukocytes...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Kazuya Arai, Takanori Eguchi, M Mamunur Rahman, Ruriko Sakamoto, Norio Masuda, Tetsuya Nakatsura, Stuart K Calderwood, Ken-Ichi Kozaki, Manabu Itoh
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial pathological event in cancer, particularly in tumor cell budding and metastasis. Therefore, control of EMT can represent a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer. Here, we introduce an innovative three-dimensional (3D) high-throughput screening (HTS) system that leads to an identification of EMT inhibitors. For the establishment of the novel 3D-HTS system, we chose NanoCulture Plates (NCP) that provided a gel-free micro-patterned scaffold for cells and were independent of other spheroid formation systems using soft-agar...
2016: PloS One
Mitali Bidkar, Robert Vassallo, David Luckey, Michele Smart, Kelly Mouapi, Veena Taneja
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease marked by chronic synovial inflammation and both, genetic and environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1*0401 is associated with susceptibility to develop RA, while cigarette smoke (CS) exposure promotes seropositive disease with increased severity in DRB1*0401+ individuals. Smokers have higher levels of antibodies against citrullinated peptides. In this study, we determined whether the response to a known autoantigen, Vimentin (Vim) is shared epitope specific and how CS influences this response using transgenic-mice carrying RA-susceptible,*0401, and -resistant, *0402, genes...
2016: PloS One
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