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Nicole A Hawkins, Nicole J Zachwieja, Alison R Miller, Lyndsey L Anderson, Jennifer A Kearney
A substantial number of mutations have been identified in voltage-gated sodium channel genes that result in various forms of human epilepsy. SCN1A mutations result in a spectrum of severity ranging from mild febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome, an infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Dravet syndrome patients experience multiple seizures types that are often refractory to treatment, developmental delays, and elevated risk for SUDEP. The same sodium channel mutation can produce epilepsy phenotypes of varying clinical severity...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Renzo Colombo, Hans van Valenberg, Marco Moschini, Johannes A Witjes
OBJECTIVE: An updated review of intravesical radiofrequency (RF)-induced thermo-chemotherapy effect (RITE) for NMIBC with regard to efficacy, adverse events (AEs) and perspectives. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: An extensive and sensitive search for RF-induced chemo-hyperthermia in Medline, Embase, Cochrane and databases was performed. A table of published clinical trials up to 2016 was constructed. No meta-analysis could be performed on the basis of new papers...
October 4, 2016: Urologia
Abdul K Parchur, Qifei Li, Anhong Zhou
We report the synthesis, characterization, and application of Prussian blue (PB) functionalized CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2@Au nanorod hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs), with multimodal capabilities such as fluorescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection and photothermal therapy (PTT). The average size of CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2 NPs was 206 nm. The HNPs are highly dispersible in water for several weeks without settling and show a strong absorption in the near-infrared region, overlapping with the PB absorption between 600 nm and 1000 nm and the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods around 800 nm...
October 21, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Maneea Eizadi Sharifabad, Tim Mercer, Tapas Sen
Liposome-capped core-shell mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles called 'magnetic protocells' were prepared as novel nanocomposites and used for loading anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for cellular toxicity study. Cytotoxicity of the magnetic protocells with or without DOX was tested in vitro on commercial MCF7 and U87 cell lines under alternating magnetic field. MCF7 cell line treated with the DOX-loaded nanoparticles under alternating magnetic field exhibited nearly 20% lower survival rate after 24 h compared with cells treated with free DOX and similarly, it was around 24% when applied to U87...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
David A Winkler
Nanoparticles are finding many applications in medicine and other field like photonics. Magnetic nanoparticles have additional advantages in medicine over non-magnetic hard nanoparticles, as their magnetic properties make them ideal for hyperthermic applications in therapy and for sensitive diagnostic imaging applications. I review the literature on computational models of the magnetic properties of nanoparticles specifically. Such models have the potential to accelerate the design of magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications...
October 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
N R Datta, S Krishnan, D E Speiser, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, H Hofmann
Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Laetitia Piane, Marie-Laure Théron, Marcel Aumann, Catherine Trumel
A 9-year-old, female Maltese dog was referred to the Veterinary School of Toulouse with a 2-day history of anorexia and weakness. On clinical examination, the dog had hyperthermia (39.7°C), abdominal discomfort, and polypnea. Significant laboratory findings included pigmenturia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypercreatininemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, abnormal Snap canine pancreas-specific lipase, and pancytopenia with a nonregenerative anemia. A peripheral blood smear revealed numerous intraerythrocytic large Babesia but no polychromasia...
October 18, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Cristian Iacovita, Adrian Florea, Roxana Dudric, Emoke Pall, Alin Iulian Moldovan, Romulus Tetean, Rares Stiufiuc, Constantin Mihai Lucaciu
Efficient use of magnetic hyperthermia in clinical cancer treatment requires biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), with improved heating capabilities. Small (~34 nm) and large (~270 nm) Fe₃O₄-MNPs were synthesized by means of a polyol method in polyethylene-glycol (PEG) and ethylene-glycol (EG), respectively. They were systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. Hyperthermia measurements showed that Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) dependence on the external alternating magnetic field amplitude (up to 65 kA/m, 355 kHz) presented a sigmoidal shape, with remarkable SAR saturation values of ~1400 W/gMNP for the small monocrystalline MNPs and only 400 W/gMNP for the large polycrystalline MNPs, in water...
October 13, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Meghan MacKenzie, Richard Hall
PURPOSE: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. SOURCE: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Cristina Munoz-Menendez, Ivan Conde-Leboran, David Serantes, Roy Chantrell, Oksana Chubykalo-Fesenko, Daniel Baldomir
In the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) research field, it is usually assumed that achieving a uniform temperature enhancement (ΔT) of the entire tumour is a key-point for treatment. However, various experimental works reported successful cell apoptosis via MFH without a noticeable ΔT of the system. A possible explanation of the success of these negligible-ΔT experiments is that a local ΔT restricted to the particle nanoenvironment (i.e. with no significant effect on the global temperature T) could be enough to trigger cell death...
October 18, 2016: Soft Matter
Wafaa Abdou Mohamed Mohamed, Tamer Ismail, Sameh Farouk
OBJECTIVES: Hyperthermia is one of the most common environmental stressors that affect multi-biological systems in the body including the central nervous system as well as the hematopoietic organs. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective role of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on some selective stress markers, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes in rats subjected to hyperthermia (40 °C/12 hr). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experimental groups (10 rats each) were classified as follows; Group A; control, (C), was kept at a controlled room temperature (25±5 °C)...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Azadeh Kheirolomoom, Elizabeth S Ingham, Joel Commisso, Neveen Abushaban, Katherine W Ferrara
We previously developed a pH-responsive copper-doxorubicin (CuDox) cargo in lysolipid-based temperature-sensitive liposomes (LTSLs). The CuDox complex is released from the particle by elevated temperature; however, full release of doxorubicin from CuDox requires a reduced pH, such as that expected in lysosomes. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of the drug-metal complex in comparison with intact liposomes and free drug. We found that the CuDox complex was efficiently internalized by mammary carcinoma cells after release from LTSLs...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
C M van Leeuwen, J Crezee, A L Oei, N A P Franken, L J A Stalpers, A Bel, H P Kok
PURPOSE: Currently, clinical decisions regarding thermoradiotherapy treatments are based on clinical experience. Quantification of the radiosensitising effect of hyperthermia allows comparison of different treatment strategies, and can support clinical decision-making regarding the optimal treatment. The software presented here enables biological evaluation of thermoradiotherapy plans through calculation of equivalent 3D dose distributions. METHODS: Our in-house developed software (X-Term) uses an extended version of the linear-quadratic model to calculate equivalent radiation dose, i...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Farah Benyettou, Jaen Alonso Ocadiz Flores, Florent Ravaux, Rachid Rezgui, Mustapha Jouiad, Samer I Nehme, Rajesh Kumar Parsapur, John-Carl Olsen, Parasuraman Selvam, Ali Trabolsi
Mesoporous iron-oxide nanoparticles (mNPs) were prepared by using a modified nanocasting approach with mesoporous carbon as a hard template. mNPs were first loaded with doxorubicin (Dox), an anticancer drug, and then coated with the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F108 to prevent the leakage of Dox molecules from the pores that would otherwise occur under physiological conditions. The Dox-loaded, Pluronic F108-coated system (Dox@F108-mNPs) was stable at room temperature and physiological pH and released its Dox cargo slowly under acidic conditions or in a sudden burst with magnetic heating...
October 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Louis T Curtis, Hermann B Frieboes
Although extensive research effort and resources have been dedicated to the development of nanotherapeutics to treat cancer, few formulations have reached clinical application. A major reason is that the large number of parameters available to tune nanotherapy characteristics coupled with the variability in tumor tissue precludes evaluation of complex interactions through experimentation alone. In order to optimize the nanotechnology design and gain further insight into these phenomena, mathematical modeling and computational simulation have been applied to complement empirical work...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Faisal Inayat, Hafeez Ul Hasan Virk
Exertional heatstroke (EHS) is a life-threatening disease characterized clinically by central nervous system dysfunction and severe hyperthermia. It frequently occurs among athletes, soldiers, and laborers. While cardiopulmonary symptoms are common in patients undergoing EHS, irreversible acute liver failure is a rarely described phenomenon. When managing cases of EHS complicated by acute liver failure, it is crucial to act promptly with aggressive total body cooling in order to prevent progression of the clinical syndrome...
September 6, 2016: Curēus
Xianxian Yao, Xingxing Niu, Kexin Ma, Ping Huang, Julia Grothe, Stefan Kaskel, Yufang Zhu
A multifunctional platform is reported for synergistic therapy with controlled drug release, magnetic hyperthermia, and photothermal therapy, which is composed of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as caps and local photothermal generators and magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSN) as drug carriers and magnetic thermoseeds. The structure, drug release behavior, magnetic hyperthermia capacity, photothermal effect, and synergistic therapeutic efficiency of the MMSN/GQDs nanoparticles are investigated. The results show that monodisperse MMSN/GQDs nanoparticles with the particle size of 100 nm can load doxorubicin (DOX) and trigger DOX release by low pH environment...
October 13, 2016: Small
Gokce Dundar, Gokhan Gokce, Kaan Gokcen, Esat Korgali, Aydemir Asdemir, Kenan Kaygusuz
PURPOSE: Pediatric stone disease is an important clinical problem in pediatric urology practice. We aimed to compare mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (miniperc) and micro-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (microperc) in pediatric patients who underwent unsuccesful SWL procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A number of 43 pediatric patients, aged 17 years or younger, were treated with miniperc or microperc procedures due to renal calculi by a single surgeon. In group 1, there were 27 patients who underwent miniperc procedure...
October 10, 2016: Urology Journal
Fiona Brigid McDonald, Kumaran Chandrasekharan, Richard J A Wilson, Shabih U Hasan
Maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure exhibits a strong epidemiological association with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome but other environmental stressors, including infection, hyperthermia and hypoxia have also been postulated as important risk factors. This study examines if maternal CS exposure causes maladaptations within homeostatic control networks by influencing the response to lipopolysaccharide, heat stress and/or hypoxia in neonatal rats. Pregnant dams were exposed to CS or parallel sham treatments daily for the length of gestation...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Zvi Roth
Among the components of the female reproductive tract, the ovarian pool of follicles and their enclosed oocytes are highly sensitive to hyperthermia. Heat-induced alterations in small antral follicles can be expressed later as compromised maturation and developmental capacity of the ovulating oocyte. This review summarizes the most up-to-date information on the effects of heat stress on the oocyte with an emphasis on unclear points and open questions, some of which might involve new research directions, for instance, whether preantral follicles are heat resistant...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
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