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Aerosol therapy

Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer
Background: Inadequate inhaled aerosol device demonstration and technique by health care professionals can lead to poor disease control. The aims of this study were to develop and validate Knowledge of Aerosol Tool (KAT) among registered and unregistered pharmacists and to assess the pharmaceutical care practice among registered pharmacists. Methods: The KAT and pharmaceutical care practice questionnaires were developed and modified from previous reports, then an observational cross-sectional study with a convenience sample size of 340 was carried out among registered and unregistered pharmacists...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
E Trybus, G Krol, T Obarzanowski, W Trybus, A Kopacz-Bednarska, M Obarzanowski, T Krol
Most studies on the effects of glucocorticosteroid therapy in rhinitis relate to their inhibitory effect on activation and the number of inflowing cells that are involved in the development and maintenance of inflammation. It is also very important to determine the range of effect of budesonide on residing cells (epithelial cells). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of local budesonide therapy on the cytological image of the nasal mucosa, with attention paid to columnar cells in patients with rhinitis...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Andrew G Miller, Michael A Gentle, Lisa M Tyler, Natalie Napolitano
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) use has greatly increased in recent years. In non-neonatal pediatric patients, there are limited data available to guide HFNC use, and clinical practice may vary significantly. The goal of this study was to evaluate current HFNC practice by surveying practicing pediatric respiratory therapists. METHODS: A survey instrument was posted on the American Association for Respiratory Care's AARConnect online social media platform in March 2017...
March 13, 2018: Respiratory Care
Roberto W Dal Negro, Alessandro Zanasi, Paola Turco, Massimiliano Povero
Background: Influenza and influenza-like syndromes (I-LSs) are infectious diseases occurring on a seasonal basis which can lead to upper (URTI) and lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) of different severity. The approach to these disorders is unfortunately not uniform. Aim of the study was to investigate real-life people beliefs, the attitude to their prevention and treatment, and their impact in general population. Methods: A cross-sectional survey via Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) was carried out using a specific questionnaire investigating influenza episode rates, subjects behavior in case of influenza and I-LSs, and prescribed therapy...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Jian-Qiang Huang, Xiao-Yang Chen, Fang Huang, Ji-Min Fan, Xiao-Wei Shi, Yan-Kai Ju
Connexion 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, is expressed abundantly in the airway and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the effects of blocking Cx43 in asthma remain unclear. We investigated the therapeutic effects of two specific Cx43 inhibitors (Gap26 and Gap27) on the development of allergic airway disease in mice. Allergic asthma was induced in BALB/c mice by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). Different doses of Cx43 inhibitors were administered by aerosol inhalation 1 h after OVA challenge on days 21 and 23...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Cedric Van Holsbeke, Jan De Backer, Wim Vos, Jonathan Marshall
BACKGROUND: Functional respiratory imaging (FRI) uses three-dimensional models of human lungs and computational fluid dynamics to simulate functional changes within airways and predict the deposition of inhaled drugs. This study used FRI to model the effects of different patient inhalation and drug formulation factors on lung deposition of an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2 -agonist (ICS/LABA) combination, administered by a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. METHODS: Three-dimensional models of the lungs of six patients with asthma (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 83%), treated with an ICS/LABA, were included...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Gerard M Turino
This article assesses developments in cardiorespiratory medicine since the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1956 for advancements in the study of cardiorespiratory disease. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, advances were accelerated by the discovery of a genetically determined cause for pulmonary emphysema in the genetic abnormality alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. This causes a deficiency of the inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, which results in increased degradation of lung elastin and the development of pulmonary emphysema...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Li Zhang, Guangyin Huang, Long Jin, Shuhua Han
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of tiotropium bromide on asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 patients with moderate persistent asthma were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=40): the 3 control groups were given fluticasone propionate aerosol (group A), salmeterol-fluticasone propionate inhalant (group B), and tiotropium bromide inhalation powder combined with salmeterol-fluticasone propionate inhalant (group C), respectively, and the experimental group received tiotropium bromide inhalation powder combined with fluticasone propionate aerosol (group D) and salbutamol was used to relieve symptoms when necessary...
February 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Reiko Sakurai, Cindy Lee, Humphrey Shen, Alan J Waring, Frans J Walther, Virender K Rehan
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in perinatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants has not decreased. Postnatal surfactant therapy provides symptomatic relief from respiratory distress syndrome, but does not translate into a reduction in BPD. Therefore, the search for effective interventions to prevent BPD continues. OBJECTIVES: Since PPAR-γ agonists have been demonstrated to promote neonatal lung maturation and injury repair, we hypothesized that a formulation of a PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone (PGZ) and a synthetic lung surfactant (a surfactant protein B peptide mimic, B-YL) combined would stimulate lung maturation and block hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury more effectively than either modality alone...
February 9, 2018: Neonatology
Masahiro Onishi, Tetsu Kobayashi, Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Hajime Fujimoto, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi Chelakkot-Govindalayathil, Yoshinori Takahashi, Taro Yasuma, Kota Nishihama, Masaaki Toda, Yoshiyuki Takei, Osamu Taguchi, Esteban C Gabazza
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the major growing cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and it is going to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is pathologically characterized by lung emphysema and small airway inflammation. Animal models are very important to get insights into the disease pathogenesis but current models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease take a long time to develop. The need of a new model is compelling. In the present study we focus on the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypothesized that lung overexpression of latent matrix metalloproteinases-2 would allow the development of emphysema after short-term exposure to cigarette smoke extract inhalation...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yanru Chen, Sha Gao, Yufei Yan, Jihong Qian, Hao Chen
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication in preterm newborns. It occurs due to early exposure to high-oxygen and ventilation therapy. The mechanisms of disrupted alveolarization and vascular development associated with BPD were unclear. Deferoxamine (DFO) has been reported to reduce mortality and lung injury in mice after chlorine exposure. The effect of DFO in the treatment of BPD has not been explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of aerosolized DFO administration in a mouse model of BPD...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Janice M Santiago-O'Farrill, Eugenie S Kleinerman, Mario G Hollomon, Andrew Livingston, Wei-Lien Wang, Jen-Wei Tsai, Nancy B Gordon
Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis. Autophagy is increased above homeostatic levels by chemotherapy, and this can either promote or inhibit tumor growth. We previously demonstrated that aerosol gemcitabine (GCB) has a therapeutic effect against osteosarcoma (OS) lung metastases. However, some tumor cells failed to respond to the treatment and persisted as isolated lung metastasis. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying the dual role of chemotherapy-induced autophagy in OS and sought to identify biomarkers to predict OS response to treatment...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Gary T Ferguson, Anthony J Hickey, Sarvajna Dwivedi
Technologies for long-term delivery of aerosol medications in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have improved over the past 2 decades with advancements in our understanding of the physical chemistry of aerosol formulations, device engineering, aerosol physics, and pulmonary biology. However, substantial challenges remain when a patient is required to use multiple inhaler types, multiple medications, and/or combinations of medications. Combining multiple drugs into a single inhaler while retaining appropriate dosing of the individual agents in the combination may enhance patient adherence to therapy and reduce device errors that occur when patients are using multiple inhalers...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Md Koushikul Islam, Mårten Strand, Michael Saleeb, Richard Svensson, Pawel Baranczewski, Per Artursson, Göran Wadell, Clas Ahlm, Mikael Elofsson, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic fever virus affecting both humans and animals with severe morbidity and mortality and is classified as a potential bioterror agent due to the possible aerosol transmission. At present there is no human vaccine or antiviral therapy available. Thus, there is a great need to develop new antivirals for treatment of RVFV infections. Benzavir-2 was previously identified as potent inhibitor of human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and type 2. Here we assess the anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 together with four structural analogs and determine pre-clinical pharmacokinetic parameters of benzavir-2...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manuela Robella, Marco Vaira, Alice Borsano, Claudio Mossetti, Michele DE Simone
BACKGROUND/AIM: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease characterized by mucinous ascites and widespread peritoneal implants. It usually originates from the rupture of an adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the appendix. Although this tumor is only superficially invasive and does not metastasize, it could be a fatal disease. Extra-abdominal spread of PMP is an unusual occurrence with few reports in medical literature. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old man was diagnosed with PMP according to the findings of thorax and abdomen CT scan and cytologic and histological examinations...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
Miłosz Knura, Jonasz Dragon, Krzysztof Łabuzek, Bogusław Okopień
The exponetial growth in popularity of electronic cigarettes in the world markets intensifies the debate about their health effects. The smoking of traditional tabacoo products is a factor associated with the endothelium damage and progression of atherosclerosis. The elimination of the combustion process in electronic cigarettes allows to conclude that they are less harmful to a vascular endothelium than traditional tobacco products. E-cigarette aerosol contains many compounds that have an influence on initiation and progression of atherosclerosis...
January 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Sharad Mangal, Haichen Nie, Rongkun Xu, Rui Guo, Alex Cavallaro, Dmitry Zemlyanov, Qi Tony Zhou
PURPOSE: Inhalation therapy is popular to treat lower respiratory tract infections. Azithromycin is effective against some bacteria that cause respiratory tract infections; but it has poor water solubility that may limit its efficacy when administrated as inhalation therapy. In this study, dry powder inhaler formulations were developed by co-spray drying azithromycin with L-leucine with a purpose to improve dissolution. METHODS: The produced powder formulations were characterized regarding particle size, morphology, surface composition and in-vitro aerosolization performance...
January 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Gang Xu, Wei Ma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Respiratory Care
Tracy P Trang, Meghan Whalen, Alexandra Hilts-Horeczko, Sarah B Doernberg, Catherine Liu
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of viral infections in immunocompromised hosts and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In January 2015, our institution switched from aerosolized to oral ribavirin (RBV) for primary treatment of RSV infection among high risk immunocompromised adult patients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical and economic outcomes associated with this switch. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients diagnosed with RSV infection and treated with RBV between January 1, 2013 and May 31, 2016...
January 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
A M Dueckelmann, D Fink, P Harter, V Heinzelmann, C Marth, M Mueller, A Reinthaller, K Tamussino, P Wimberger, J Sehouli
BACKGROUND: Ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal carcinomas primarily affect the peritoneal cavity, and they are typically diagnosed at an advanced tumor stage (Foley, Rauh-Hain, del Carmen in Oncology (Williston Park) 27:288-294, 2013). In the course of primary surgery, postoperative tumor residuals are, apart from the tumor stage, the strongest independent factors of prognosis (du Bois, Reuss, Pujade-Lauraine, Harter, Ray-Coquard, Pfisterer in Cancer 115:1234-1244, 2009). Due to improved surgical techniques, including the use of multi-visceral procedures, macroscopic tumor clearance can be achieved in oncological centers, in most cases (Harter, Muallem, Buhrmann et al in Gynecol Oncol 121:615-619, 2011)...
April 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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