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Aerosol therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087469/tofacitinib-ameliorates-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-airway-neutrophilia-induced-by-inhaled-lps
#1
Elena Calama, Isabel Ramis, Anna Domènech, Cristina Carreño, Jorge De Alba, Neus Prats, Montserrat Miralpeix
BACKGROUND: and purpose: The Janus Kinase (JAK) family mediates the cytokine receptor-induced signalling pathways involved in inflammatory processes. The activation of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) by JAK kinases is a key point in these pathways. Four JAK proteins, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) associate with the intracellular domains of surface cytokine receptors are phosphorylating STATs and modulating gene expression. The aim of this study was to explore the role of JAK inhibition in an acute model of inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation in rats through evaluating the effects of tofacitinib, a marketed pan-JAK inhibitor...
January 10, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075193/workshop-report-aerosol-delivery-to-spontaneously-breathing-tracheostomized-patients
#2
Ariel Berlinski, Arzu Ari, Phil Davies, Jim Fink, Carina Majaesic, Gregory Reychler, Taran Tatla, Israel Amirav
The number of pediatric and adult patients requiring tracheostomy has increased. Many of them require aerosol therapy as part of their treatment. Practitioners have little guidance on how to optimize drug delivery in this population. The following is a report of a workshop dedicated to review the current status of aerosol delivery to spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients and to provide practice recommendations.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062365/assessment-of-new-generation-high-power-electronic-nicotine-delivery-system-as-thermal-aerosol-generation-device-for-inhaled-bronchodilators
#3
Jérémie Pourchez, Fabien de Oliveira, Sophie Perinel-Ragey, Thierry Basset, Jean-Michel Vergnon, Nathalie Prévôt
PURPOSE: A need remains for alternative devices for aerosol drug delivery that are low cost, convenient and easy to use for the patient, but also capable of producing small-sized aerosol particles. This study investigated the potential of recent high power electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) as aerosol generation devices for inhaled bronchodilators. METHODS: The particle size distribution was measured using a cascade impactor. The delivery of terbutaline sulfate, a current bronchodilator used for asthma or COPD therapy by inhalation, was studied...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061769/intraperitoneal-cisplatin-and-doxorubicin-as-maintenance-chemotherapy-for-unresectable-ovarian-cancer-a-case-report
#4
Clemens B Tempfer, Franziska Hartmann, Ziad Hilal, Günther A Rezniczek
BACKGROUND: Primary advanced, unresectable ovarian cancer (OC) is treated with palliative systemic chemotherapy. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy may be an alternative local maintenance therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75 year old woman with laparoscopically and histologically confirmed unresectable OC was treated with 13 cycles of intraperitoneal cisplatin 7.5 mg/m(2) and doxorubicin 1.5 mg/m(2) over 2 years using laparoscopic pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC)...
January 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008779/the-effect-of-undaria-pinnatifida-fucoidan-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-letrozole-and-tamoxifen-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#5
Shreya Tocaciu, Lesley J Oliver, Ray M Lowenthal, Gregory M Peterson, Rahul Patel, Madhur Shastri, Georgia McGuinness, Inger Olesen, J Helen Fitton
BACKGROUND: Although the use of complementary and alternative medicines is widespread in cancer patients, clinical evidence of their benefits is sparse. Furthermore, while they are often assumed to be safe with regard to concurrent use of anticancer therapies, few studies have been carried out to investigate possible interactions. Fucoidans are a group of sulfated carbohydrates, derived from marine brown algae, which have long been used as dietary supplements due to their reported medicinal properties, including anticancer activity...
December 1, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999750/reprogramming-the-lung-microenvironment-by-inhaled-immunotherapy-fosters-immune-destruction-of-tumor
#6
Valentino Le Noci, Michele Sommariva, Monica Tortoreto, Nadia Zaffaroni, Manuela Campiglio, Elda Tagliabue, Andrea Balsari, Lucia Sfondrini
Due to their constant exposure to inhaled antigens, lungs represent a particularly immunosuppressive environment that limits excessive immune responses; however, cancer cells can exploit this unique environment for their growth. We previously described the ability of aerosolized CpG-ODN combined with Poly(I:C) (TLR9 and TLR3 agonists, respectively) to promote antitumor immunity in a B16 melanoma lung metastasis model. Here, we explored the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of TLR9/TLR3 agonist combinations by including in the inhalant either an antibody directed to both Ly6G and Ly6C markers to locally deplete myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) or IFNα to directly activate the natural killer (NK) and macrophage innate immune cells in the lung...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982547/back-to-the-future-a-new-topical-approach-for-mild-to-moderate-psoriasis
#7
Giampiero Girolomoni, Piergiacomo Calzavara Pinton, Antonio Cristaudo, Americo Cicchetti
Psoriasis is a chronic-relapsing skin disorder which requires long-term treatments. Therapeutic options for psoriasis include topical treatments, phototherapy and systemic therapy. However, those treatments, and particularly the topical drug therapies, may present some limitations, including poor efficacy/tolerability ratio and lack of adherence. Recently, the supersaturated aerosol foam formulation of the fixed combination calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate (Cal/BD) has gained major attention because it overcomes some of the limitations associated with other topical treatments...
December 16, 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942511/local-lung-deposition-of-ultrafine-particles-in-healthy-adults-experimental-results-and-theoretical-predictions
#8
Robert Sturm
BACKGROUND: Ultrafine particles (UFP) of biogenic and anthropogenic origin occur in high numbers in the ambient atmosphere. In addition, aerosols containing ultrafine powders are used for the inhalation therapy of various diseases. All these facts make it necessary to obtain comprehensive knowledge regarding the exact behavior of UFP in the respiratory tract. METHODS: Theoretical simulations of local UFP deposition are based on previously conducted inhalation experiments, where particles with various sizes (0...
November 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936972/fixed-combination-calcipotriol-plus-betamethasone-dipropionate-aerosol-foam-in-the-treatment-of-psoriasis-vulgaris-rationale-for-development-and-clinical-profile
#9
Carle Paul, Bo Bang, Mark Lebwohl
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder with a significant negative impact on quality of life. Most patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis manage their disease with topical therapies; the most commonly used formulations contain corticosteroids and/or vitamin D3 analogues. However, adherence to topical treatment remains a significant issue as the daily treatment regimen can be cumbersome and time consuming and many patients do not obtain complete/almost complete clearance. Areas covered: Published pre-clinical and clinical data evaluating calcipotriol 50 µg/g (Cal) and betamethasone 0...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936238/trehalose-6-phosphate-mediated-toxicity-determines-essentiality-of-otsb2-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-vitro-and-in-mice
#10
Jan Korte, Marina Alber, Carolina M Trujillo, Karl Syson, Hendrik Koliwer-Brandl, René Deenen, Karl Köhrer, Michael A DeJesus, Travis Hartman, William R Jacobs, Stephen Bornemann, Thomas R Ioerger, Sabine Ehrt, Rainer Kalscheuer
Trehalose biosynthesis is considered an attractive target for the development of antimicrobials against fungal, helminthic and bacterial pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most common biosynthetic route involves trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) synthase OtsA and T6P phosphatase OtsB that generate trehalose from ADP/UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate. In order to assess the drug target potential of T6P phosphatase, we generated a conditional mutant of M. tuberculosis allowing the regulated gene silencing of the T6P phosphatase gene otsB2...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933955/biphenyl-pyridazinone-derivatives-as-inhaled-pde4-inhibitors-structural-biology-and-structure-activity-relationships
#11
Jordi Gràcia, Maria Antonia Buil, Jordi Castro, Peter Eichhorn, Manel Ferrer, Amadeu Gavaldà, Begoña Hernández, Victor Segarra, Martin D Lehner, Imma Moreno, Lluís Pagès, Richard S Roberts, Jordi Serrat, Sara Sevilla, Joan Taltavull, Miriam Andrés, Judit Cabedo, Dolors Vilella, Elena Calama, Carla Carcasona, Montserrat Miralpeix
Cyclic nucleotide cAMP is a ubiquitous secondary messenger involved in a plethora of cellular responses to biological agents involving activation of adenylyl cyclase. Its intracellular levels are tightly controlled by a family of cyclic nucleotide degrading enzymes, the PDEs. In recent years, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) has aroused scientific attention as a suitable target for anti-inflammatory therapy in respiratory diseases, particularly in the management of asthma and COPD. Here we describe our efforts to discover novel, highly potent inhaled inhibitors of PDE4...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916621/point-should-inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-be-routinely-used-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-icu-setting-yes
#12
EDITORIAL
Richard G Wunderink
Routine use of aerosolized antibiotics is the most rational approach to the current treatment dilemmas for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) requiring endotracheal intubation or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The two main issues for HAP/VAP are inappropriate initial therapy and ineffective therapy for multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly gram negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have made even common pathogens such as Escherichia coli difficult to treat...
November 22, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898235/postexposure-prophylaxis-after-possible-anthrax-exposure-adherence-and-adverse-events
#13
Leisha D Nolen, Rita M Traxler, Grishma A Kharod, Pallavi A Kache, Stefan Katharios-Lanwermeyer, Katherine A Hendricks, Sean V Shadomy, William A Bower, Dana Meaney-Delman, Henry T Walke
Anthrax postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was recommended to 42 people after a laboratory incident that involved potential aerosolization of Bacillus anthracis spores in 2 laboratories at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2014. At least 31 (74%) individuals who initiated PEP did not complete either the recommended 60 days of antimicrobial therapy or the 3-dose vaccine regimen. Among the 29 that discontinued the antimicrobial component of PEP, most (38%) individuals discontinued PEP because of their low perceived risk of infection; 9 (31%) individuals discontinued prophylaxis due to PEP-related minor adverse events, and 10% cited both low risk and adverse events as their reason for discontinuation...
November 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890714/a-randomized-trial-of-the-amikacin-fosfomycin-inhalation-system-for-the-adjunctive-therapy-of-gram-negative-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-iasis-trial
#14
Marin H Kollef, Jean-Damien Ricard, Damien Roux, Bruno Francois, Eleni Ischaki, Zsolt Rozgonyi, Thierry Boulain, Zsolt Ivanyi, Gál János, Denis Garot, Firas Koura, Epaminondas Zakynthinos, George Dimopoulos, Antonio Torres, Wayne Danker, A Bruce Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Clinical failures in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Gram-negative bacteria are common and associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. METHODS: We assessed the safety and efficacy of the amikacin fosfomycin inhalation system (AFIS) for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial VAP in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 2 study between May 2013 and March 2016. We compared standard of care in each arm plus 300 mg amikacin/120 mg fosfomycin or placebo (saline), delivered by aerosol twice daily for 10 days (or to extubation if <10 days) via the investigational eFlow Inline System (PARI GmbH, Germany)...
November 24, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866986/modelling-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-performance-of-aerosol-emitted-from-different-vibrating-mesh-nebulisers-in-non-invasive-ventilation-circuit
#15
Hoda Rabea, Ahmed M A Ali, Randa Salah Eldin, Maha M Abdelrahman, Amira S A Said, Mohamed E Abdelrahim
Substituting nebulisers by another in non-invasive ventilation circuit (NIV) involves many process variables which must be adjusted to ensure patient optimum therapy. However, there is a doubt when nebulisers use the same technology. Data mining technology based on artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms were used here to model in-vitro inhalation process and predict bioavailability from inhaled doses delivered by three different vibrating mesh nebulisers (VMNs) in NIV. Modelling of data indicated that in-vitro performance of VMNs was dependent mainly on fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), total emitted dose (TED) and to lesser extent on nebuliser type...
January 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866296/intranasal-curcumin-inhibits-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-modulating-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-mmp-9-in-ovalbumin-induced-chronic-asthma
#16
Preeti S Chauhan, D Dash, Rashmi Singh
Pulmonary fibrosis is associated with irreversible, or partially reversible, airflow obstruction and ultimately unresponsiveness to asthma therapies such as corticosteroids. Intranasal curcumin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, has been found effective in allergic asthma. To study the effect of intranasal curcumin on airway remodeling and fibrosis in murine model of chronic asthma, BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and exposed to OVA aerosol (2%) from day 21 (after sensitization) for 5 weeks (twice/week)...
November 19, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863827/-assessment-of-physicians-and-nurses-knowledge-and-practices-of-aerosol-therapy
#17
N Eychenne, A Jaouadi, D Macquart de Terline, A Fratta, S Laribe-Caget, O Steichen, C Fernandez, M Antignac
INTRODUCTION: Aerosol therapy is an efficient, but complex procedure. National and international practice guidelines are regularly updated. However, only a few studies have assessed the application of guidelines by users. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and practices of physicians and nurses regarding these guidelines. METHODS: Two self-administered questionnaires were designed by a working team and presented to physicians and nurses of four university hospitals in Paris...
November 15, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852893/philip-morris-research-on-precursors-to-the-modern-e-cigarette-since-1990
#18
Lauren M Dutra, Rachel Grana, Stanton A Glantz
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing rapidly. Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik is frequently cited as inventing the modern e-cigarette in 2003. However, tobacco companies have developed electronic nicotine delivery systems since at least 1963. METHODS: We searched the University of California San Francisco Truth (formerly Legacy) Tobacco Industry Documents beginning with the terms 'electric cigarette' and 'electronic cigarettes', 'e-cigarette', 'smokeless cigarettes', 'nicotine aerosol', 'tobacco aerosol', and 'vaping' and then expanded the search using snowball sampling...
November 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850320/681-aerosolized-amikacin-as-adjunctive-therapy-of-vap-caused-by-mdr-gnb
#19
Chang Liu, Jianguo Li, Zhiyong Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846726/-new-technologies-for-in-vivo-cancer-diagnostics
#20
L Hernychova, D Coufalová, E Michalova, R Nenutil, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: The treatment of oncological diseases is based on the combination of surgery, representing the key step for the removal of the tumor tissue, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. However, the surgery is often accompanied by issue of determining the boundaries of the tumor. Prior the operation, the surgeon has information on preoperative findings, which indicate the location and extent of the tumor, but does not specify a clear boundary between the tumor and healthy tissue...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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