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Subcortical white matter abnormalities of the brain

G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
J Zhang, M Liu, L Zhou, Z B Zhang, J M Wang, Y W Jiang, Y Wu
Objective: To analyze the clinical and imaging features of hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) due to mutations in DARS, and to identify DARS mutations responsible for HBSL. Methods: Data on 2 HBSL patients who were admitted to the pediatric department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2009 through December 2016 were reviewed and the 2 patients were followed up. Targeted next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were employed to identify potential genetic variations of the children and their parents...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Weixingzi Xu, Jianbo Wen, Chong Sun, Jiawen Cao, Yuxin Li, Daoying Geng
PURPOSES: The aims of the study were to analyze the conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and to investigate underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Features of 58 acute and 68 chronic stroke-like lesions as well as global brain abnormalities of 40 Chinese MELAS patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Gyriform DWI hyperintensity with decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and patchy DWI hyperintensity with normal ADC were noted in 56 of 58 and 2 of 58 cortical regions of acute lesions, respectively...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Maurizio Corbetta, Joshua S Siegel, Gordon L Shulman
Traditional neuropsychological approaches emphasize the specificity of behavioral deficits and the modular organization of the brain. At the population level, however, there is emerging evidence that deficits are correlated resulting in a low dimensional structure of post-stroke neurological impairments. Here we consider the implications of low dimensionality for the three-way mapping between structural damage, altered physiology, and behavioral deficits. Understanding this mapping will be aided by large-sample studies that apply multivariate models and focus on explained percentage of variance, as opposed to univariate lesion-symptom techniques that report statistical significance...
January 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Nabi Zorlu, Necip Çapraz, Esra Oztekin, Başak Bagci, Maria A Di Biase, Andrew Zalesky, Fazıl Gelal, Emre Bora, Ercan Durmaz, Lütfullah Beşiroğlu, Aybala Sarıçiçek
We aimed to examine the whole-brain white matter connectivity and local topology of reward system nodes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and unaffected siblings, relative to healthy comparison individuals. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 18 patients with AUD, 15 unaffected siblings of AUD patients and 15 healthy controls. Structural networks were examined using network-based statistic and connectomic analysis. Connectomic analysis showed a significant ordered difference in normalized rich club organization (AUD < Siblings < Controls)...
December 27, 2017: Addiction Biology
Meghan Romba, Yujie Wang, Shu-Ching Hu, Sandeep Khot
Dystonia as a manifestation of neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is uncommon. We report a 25-year-old woman who experienced progressive confusion, reduced speech, and difficulty opening her mouth approximately 2 weeks after development of a facial rash. Brain imaging showed bilateral, symmetric signal abnormalities within the basal ganglia and subcortical white matter. Despite treatment with high-dose steroids, she continued to have difficulty speaking with evidence of jaw dystonia on examination...
January 2018: Neurohospitalist
Raj N Kalaria
Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event...
December 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Pedro Pires, Patricia Jungmann, Jully Moura Galvão, Adriano Hazin, Luiza Menezes, Ricardo Ximenes, Gabriele Tonni, Edward Araujo Júnior
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging and clinical findings in a clinical series following congenital Zika virus syndrome during the first epidemic Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: We (the authors) conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected case series of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly born to mothers with presumed/confirmed congenital ZIKV syndrome. Prenatal ultrasound findings were reviewed to identify potential central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities...
December 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Caterina Galandra, Gianpaolo Basso, Stefano Cappa, Nicola Canessa
Neuroeconomics is providing insights into the neural bases of decision-making in normal and pathological conditions. In the neuropsychiatric domain, this discipline investigates how abnormal functioning of neural systems associated with reward processing and cognitive control promotes different disorders, and whether such evidence may inform treatments. This endeavor is crucial when studying different types of addiction, which share a core promoting mechanism in the imbalance between impulsive subcortical neural signals associated with immediate pleasurable outcomes and inhibitory signals mediated by a prefrontal reflective system...
November 29, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Sara De Simoni, Peter O Jenkins, Niall J Bourke, Jessica J Fleminger, Peter J Hellyer, Amy E Jolly, Maneesh C Patel, James H Cole, Robert Leech, David J Sharp
Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated...
January 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Marcello Rossi, Daniela Saverioni, Michele Di Bari, Simone Baiardi, Afina Willemina Lemstra, Laura Pirisinu, Sabina Capellari, Annemieke Rozemuller, Romolo Nonno, Piero Parchi
Amyloid plaques formed by abnormal prion protein (PrPSc ) aggregates occur with low frequency in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but represent a pathological hallmark of three relatively rare disease histotypes, namely variant CJD, sporadic CJDMV2K (methionine/valine at PRNP codon 129, PrPSc type 2 and kuru-type amyloid plaques) and iatrogenic CJDMMiK (MM at codon 129, PrPSc of intermediate type and kuru plaques). According to recent studies, however, PrP-amyloid plaques involving the subcortical and deep nuclei white matter may also rarely occur in CJDMM1 (MM at codon 129 and PrPSc type 1), the most common CJD histotype...
November 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Licia Pacheco Pereira, Daniel Aguiar Dias, Lindenberg Barbosa Aguiar, Joanira Costa Nogueira Maia, Jesus Irajacy Fernandes da Costa, Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro, Francisco Edson de Lucena Feitosa, Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: The new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection...
October 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed neural reorganization between injured cingula and the brainstem cholinergic nuclei following cerebral concussion. PATIENT CONCERNS: The main concern of the patient is memory impairment. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral concussion. OUTCOMES: When she visited our hospital at 2 years after onset, cognitive function was evaluated using 2 scales; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and the Seoul neuropsychological screening battery: total IQ 97, verbal immediate recall 5...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yi Lu, Zonglin Shen, Yuqi Cheng, Hui Yang, Bo He, Yue Xie, Liang Wen, Zhenguang Zhang, Xuejin Sun, Wei Zhao, Xiufeng Xu, Dan Han
It is crucial to explore the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at the early stage for the better diagnostic and treatment strategies. It was suggested that MDD might be involving in functional or structural alternations at the brain network level. However, at the onset of MDD, whether the whole brain white matter (WM) alterations at network level are already evident still remains unclear. In the present study, diffusion MRI scanning was adopt to depict the unique WM structural network topology across the entire brain at the early stage of MDD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Angela Jochim, Yong Li, Michael Zech, Daniel Lam, Nadine Gross, Kathrin Koch, Claus Zimmer, Juliane Winkelmann, Bernhard Haslinger
INTRODUCTION: Recently, mutations in the collagen gene COL6A3 have been reported in patients with autosomal-recessive, isolated dystonia (DYT27). Zebrafish models of COL6A3 mutations showed deficits in axonal targeting mechanisms. Therefore, COL6A3 mutations have been considered to contribute to irregular sensorimotor circuit formation. To test this hypothesis, we examined structural abnormalities in cerebral fiber tracts of dystonia patients with COL6A3 mutations using diffusion tensor imaging...
October 14, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Inge H Palm-Meinders, Enrico B Arkink, Hille Koppen, Souad Amlal, Gisela M Terwindt, Lenore J Launer, Mark A van Buchem, Michel D Ferrari, Mark C Kruit
OBJECTIVE: To assess volumetric brain changes in migraineurs from the general population compared with controls. METHODS: Structural brain changes in migraineurs from the general population-based MRI Cerebral Abnormalities in Migraine, an Epidemiologic Risk Analysis (CAMERA)-2 observational cohort study were assessed by state-of-the-art voxel-based morphometry. T1-weighted MRIs of 84 migraineurs (52 with aura, 32 without aura) and 35 headache-free controls were evaluated...
November 14, 2017: Neurology
Frances Theisen, Rebecca Leda, Vincent Pozorski, Jennifer M Oh, Nagesh Adluru, Rachel Wong, Ozioma Okonkwo, Douglas C Dean, Barbara B Bendlin, Sterling C Johnson, Andrew L Alexander, Catherine L Gallagher
The cardinal movement abnormalities of Parkinson's disease (PD), including tremor, muscle rigidity, and reduced speed and frequency of movements, are caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that project to the putamen, compromising information flow through frontal-subcortical circuits. Typically, the nigrostriatal pathway is more severely affected on the side of the brain opposite (contralateral) to the side of the body that manifests initial symptoms. Several studies have suggested that PD is also associated with changes in white matter microstructural integrity...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ruixia Zhu, Xu Liu, Zhiyi He
Brain abnormalities have frequently been reported in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients, but corticospinal tract involvement has rarely been described. Here we review the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with unusual MRI features involving the whole corticospinal tract, and summarize the clinical features, neuroimaging, and prognosis of the case. The patient presented with bilateral visual loss and developed progressive weakness in both lower limbs, and urinary incontinence 12days later. Brain MRI revealed T2-hyperintensities in the bilateral corticospinal tract (posterior limb of the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle), callosal lesions, and subcortical white matter lesions...
October 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Atticus H Hainsworth, Thais Minett, Joycelyn Andoh, Gillian Forster, Ishaan Bhide, Thomas R Barrick, Kay Elderfield, Jamuna Jeevahan, Hugh S Markus, Leslie R Bridges
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We tested whether blood-brain barrier dysfunction in subcortical white matter is associated with white matter abnormalities or risk of clinical dementia in older people (n=126; mean age 86.4, SD: 7.7 years) in the MRC CFAS (Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study). METHODS: Using digital pathology, we quantified blood-brain barrier dysfunction (defined by immunohistochemical labeling for the plasma marker fibrinogen)...
October 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Fang Ji, Ofer Pasternak, Siwei Liu, Yng Miin Loke, Boon Linn Choo, Saima Hilal, Xin Xu, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) with concomitant cerebrovascular disease, has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. The brain white matter (WM) microstructural changes in neurodegeneration well-documented by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can originate from brain tissue or extracellular free water changes. The differential microstructural and free water changes in AD with and without cerebrovascular disease, especially in normal-appearing WM, remain largely unknown...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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