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Subcortical white matter abnormalities of the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913960/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-clade-c-hiv-are-independent-of-tat-genetic-diversity
#1
Robert H Paul, Sarah Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, David H Laidlaw, Ryan Cabeen, Gayla R Olbricht, Yuqing Su, Dan J Stein, Susan Engelbrecht, Soraya Seedat, Lauren E Salminen, Laurie M Baker, Jodi Heaps, John Joska
Controversy remains regarding the neurotoxicity of clade C human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-C). When examined in preclinical studies, a cysteine to serine substitution in the C31 dicysteine motif of the HIV-C Tat protein (C31S) results in less severe brain injury compared to other viral clades. By contrast, patient cohort studies identify significant neuropsychological impairment among HIV-C individuals independent of Tat variability. The present study clarified this discrepancy by examining neuroimaging markers of brain integrity among HIV-C individuals with and without the Tat substitution...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899912/specific-mri-abnormalities-reveal-severe-perrault-syndrome-due-to-clpp-defects
#2
Tom E J Theunissen, Radek Szklarczyk, Mike Gerards, Debby M E I Hellebrekers, Elvira N M Mulder-Den Hartog, Jo Vanoevelen, Rick Kamps, Bart de Koning, S Lane Rutledge, Thomas Schmitt-Mechelke, Carola G M van Berkel, Marjo S van der Knaap, Irenaeus F M de Coo, Hubert J M Smeets
In establishing a genetic diagnosis in heterogeneous neurological disease, clinical characterization and whole exome sequencing (WES) go hand-in-hand. Clinical data are essential, not only to guide WES variant selection and define the clinical severity of a genetic defect but also to identify other patients with defects in the same gene. In an infant patient with sensorineural hearing loss, psychomotor retardation, and epilepsy, WES resulted in identification of a novel homozygous CLPP frameshift mutation (c...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862544/brain-morphology-and-cortical-thickness-variations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-differences-among-neurological-psychiatric-and-nonneuropsychiatric-manifestations
#3
Nicolle Zimmermann, Diogo Goulart Corrêa, Gustavo Tukamoto, Tania Netto, Denis Batista Pereira, Rochele Paz Fonseca, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto
PURPOSE: To determine whether systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affecting subcortical white matter volumes, deep gray matter volumes, and cortical thickness differ between groups of SLE patients with psychiatric (P-SLE), neurological (N-SLE), or nonneuropsychiatric (non-NPSLE) presentations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven participants were divided into three groups (P-SLE [n = 19], N-SLE [n = 12], and non-NPSLE [n = 36]) and examined with a 1.5T MRI scanner...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829078/sex-specific-alterations-of-white-matter-developmental-trajectories-in-infants-with-prenatal-exposure-to-methamphetamine-and-tobacco
#4
Linda Chang, Kenichi Oishi, Jon Skranes, Steven Buchthal, Eric Cunningham, Robyn Yamakawa, Sara Hayama, Caroline S Jiang, Daniel Alicata, Antonette Hernandez, Christine Cloak, Tricia Wright, Thomas Ernst
Importance: Methamphetamine is a common illicit drug used worldwide. Methamphetamine and/or tobacco use by pregnant women remains prevalent. However, little is known about the effect of comorbid methamphetamine and tobacco use on human fetal brain development. Objective: To investigate whether microstructural brain abnormalities reported in children with prenatal methamphetamine and/or tobacco exposure are present at birth before childhood environmental influences...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815774/the-topological-organization-of-white-matter-network-in-internet-gaming-disorder-individuals
#5
Jinquan Zhai, Lin Luo, Lijun Qiu, Yongqiang Kang, Bo Liu, Dahua Yu, Xiaoqi Lu, Kai Yuan
White matter (WM) integrity abnormalities had been reported in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography allows identification of WM tracts, potentially providing information about the integrity and organization of relevant underlying WM fiber tracts' architectures, which has been used to investigate the connectivity of cortical and subcortical structures in several brain disorders. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about the thoroughly circuit-level characterization of topological property changes of WM network with IGD...
November 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807409/structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging-can-identify-trigeminal-system-abnormalities-in-classical-trigeminal-neuralgia
#6
REVIEW
Danielle D DeSouza, Mojgan Hodaie, Karen D Davis
Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a chronic pain disorder that has been described as one of the most severe pains one can suffer. The most prevalent theory of TN etiology is that the trigeminal nerve is compressed at the root entry zone (REZ) by blood vessels. However, there is significant evidence showing a lack of neurovascular compression (NVC) for many cases of classical TN. Furthermore, a considerable number of patients who are asymptomatic have MR evidence of NVC. Since there is no validated animal model that reproduces the clinical features of TN, our understanding of TN pathology mainly comes from biopsy studies that have limitations...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798653/progression-of-regional-microstructural-degeneration-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-multicenter-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#7
Yu Zhang, I-Wei Wu, Duygu Tosun, Eric Foster, Norbert Schuff
This study aimed to identify the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in measuring the regional distribution of abnormal microstructural progression in patients with Parkinson's disease who were enrolled in the Parkinson's progression marker initiative (PPMI). One hundred and twenty two de-novo PD patients (age = 60.5±9) and 50 healthy controls (age = 60.6±11) had DTI scans at baseline and 12.6±1 months later. Automated image processing included an intra-subject registration of all time points and an inter-subjects registration to a brain atlas...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785698/association-between-falls-and-brain-subvolumes-results-from-a-cross-sectional-analysis-in-healthy-older-adults
#8
Olivier Beauchet, Cyrille P Launay, John Barden, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Victoria L Chester, Tony Szturm, Sébastien Grenier, Guillaume Léonard, Louis Bherer, Cédric Annweiler, Jorunn L Helbostad, Joe Verghese, Gilles Allali
Falls are a consequence of gait instability. Cortical and subcortical abnormalities have been associated with gait instability but not yet with falls. This study aims to compare the global and regional brain subvolumes between healthy older fallers and non-fallers. A total of 77 healthy older individuals (23 fallers and 54 non-fallers, 69.8 ± 3.5 years; 45.5 % female) were included in this study using a cross-sectional design. Based on an a priori hypothesis, the following brain subvolumes were quantified from three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI using FreeSurfer software: total white matter abnormalities, total white matter, total cortical and subcortical gray matter, hippocampus, motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex volumes...
October 26, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748972/astrocyte-mediated-infantile-onset-leukoencephalopathy-mouse-model
#9
Shouta Sugio, Koujiro Tohyama, Shinichiro Oku, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Takeshi Yoshimura, Keigo Hikishima, Ryutaro Yano, Takahiro Fukuda, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Masahiko Watanabe, Masaki Fukata, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Kenji F Tanaka
Astrocytes have recently been shown to provide physiological support for various brain functions, although little is known about their involvement in white matter integrity. Several inherited infantile-onset leukoencephalopathies, such as Alexander disease and megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), implicate astrocytic involvement in the formation of white matter. Several mouse models of MLC had been generated by knocking out the Mlc1 gene; however, none of those models was reported to show myelin abnormalities prior to formation of the myelin sheath...
October 17, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747153/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-a-single-gene-disorder-associated-with-epilepsy-language-impairment-and-intellectual-disability
#10
Joe Bathelt, Duncan Astle, Jessica Barnes, F Lucy Raymond, Kate Baker
Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672727/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression-re-establishing-connections
#11
Rodney J Anderson, Kate E Hoy, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Paul B Fitzgerald
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a relatively recent addition to the neurostimulation armamentarium for treating individuals suffering from treatment refractory depression and has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. One of the proposed mechanisms of action underlying the therapeutic effects of rTMS for depression involves the modulation of depression-associated dysfunctional activity in distributed brain networks involving frontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions, via changes to aberrant functional and structural connectivity...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662320/quantitative-magnetic-resonance-abnormalities-in-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-and-fatal-insomnia
#12
Oriol Grau-Rivera, Anna Calvo, Núria Bargalló, Gemma C Monté, Carlos Nos, Albert Lladó, José Luis Molinuevo, Ellen Gelpi, Raquel Sánchez-Valle
BACKGROUND: Quantitative neuroimaging might unveil abnormalities in prion diseases that are not perceivable at visual inspection. On the other hand, scarce studies have quantified volumetric changes in prion diseases. OBJECTIVES: We aim to characterize volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes in patients with prion diseases who presented with either Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or fatal insomnia (FI) phenotype. METHODS: Twenty patients with prion diseases- 15 with CJD and 5 with fatal insomnia (FI)- and 40 healthy controls were examined with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638926/progressive-solitary-sclerosis-gradual-motor-impairment-from-a-single-cns-demyelinating-lesion
#13
B Mark Keegan, Timothy J Kaufmann, Brian G Weinshenker, Orhun H Kantarci, William F Schmalstieg, M Mateo Paz Soldan, Eoin P Flanagan
OBJECTIVE: To report patients with progressive motor impairment resulting from an isolated CNS demyelinating lesion in cerebral, brainstem, or spinal cord white matter that we call progressive solitary sclerosis. METHODS: Thirty patients were identified with (1) progressive motor impairment for over 1 year with a single radiologically identified CNS demyelinating lesion along corticospinal tracts, (2) absence of other demyelinating CNS lesions, and (3) no history of relapses affecting other CNS pathways...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617779/abnormal-white-matter-integrity-in-synthetic-cannabinoid-users
#14
Nabi Zorlu, Maria Angelique Di Biase, Çiğdem Çolak Kalaycı, Andrew Zalesky, Başak Bağcı, Nihan Oğuz, Fazıl Gelal, Lütfullah Beşiroğlu, Şeref Gülseren, Aybala Sarıçiçek, Emre Bora, Christos Pantelis
Synthetic cannabinoids have become increasingly popular in the last few years especially among adolescents and young adults. However, no previous studies have assessed the effects of synthetic cannabinoids on the structure of the human brain. Understanding the harms of synthetic cannabinoid use on brain structure is therefore crucial given its increasing use. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 22 patients who used synthetic cannabinoids more than five times a week for at least 1 year and 18 healthy controls...
September 8, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603353/abnormal-functional-connectivity-density-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions-an-observational-study
#15
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Qingsong Wang, Huafu Chen
White matter lesions (WMLs) are frequently detected in elderly people. Previous structural and functional studies have demonstrated that WMLs are associated with cognitive and motor decline. However, the underlying mechanism of how WMLs lead to cognitive decline and motor disturbance remains unclear. We used functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM) to investigate changes in brain functional connectivity in 16 patients with ischemic WMLs and 13 controls. Both short- and long-range FCD maps were computed, and group comparisons were performed between the 2 groups...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602098/reversible-posterior-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-late-onset-postpartum-eclampsia-a-case-report
#16
Qi-Yu Bo, Xiu-He Zhao, Xue Yang, Sheng-Jun Wang
Late onset postpartum eclampsia (LPE) is defined by its onset at >48 h after delivery. Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome (RPES) associated with LPE is uncommon, with the majority of RPES cases having a late postpartum onset within 4 weeks after childbirth. The present study reported the case of a 15-year old female presenting with convulsions that began 5 weeks after delivery. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed multiple lesions in the cortex, subcortical region and deep white matter of the bilateral cerebellum, and occipital, frontal and parietal lobes...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535082/white-matter-disruptions-in-schizophrenia-are-spatially-widespread-and-topologically-converge-on-brain-network-hubs
#17
Paul Klauser, Simon T Baker, Vanessa L Cropley, Chad Bousman, Alex Fornito, Luca Cocchi, Janice M Fullerton, Paul Rasser, Ulrich Schall, Frans Henskens, Patricia T Michie, Carmel Loughland, Stanley V Catts, Bryan Mowry, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Vaughan Carr, Rhoshel Lenroot, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
White matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have been widely reported, although the consistency of findings across studies is moderate. In this study, neuroimaging was used to investigate white matter pathology and its impact on whole-brain white matter connectivity in one of the largest samples of patients with schizophrenia. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were compared between patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 326) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 197)...
August 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521741/the-fornix-provides-multiple-biomarkers-to-characterize-circuit-disruption-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Alexandra Badea, Lauren Kane, Robert J Anderson, Yi Qi, Mark Foster, Gary P Cofer, Neil Medvitz, Anne F Buckley, Andreas K Badea, William C Wetsel, Carol A Colton
Multivariate biomarkers are needed for detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD), understanding its etiology, and quantifying the effect of therapies. Mouse models provide opportunities to study characteristics of AD in well-controlled environments that can help facilitate development of early interventions. The CVN-AD mouse model replicates multiple AD hallmark pathologies, and we identified multivariate biomarkers characterizing a brain circuit disruption predictive of cognitive decline. In vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that CVN-AD mice replicate the hippocampal atrophy (6%), characteristic of humans with AD, and also present changes in subcortical areas...
August 10, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509902/congenital-zika-syndrome-with-arthrogryposis-retrospective-case-series-study
#19
Vanessa van der Linden, Epitacio Leite Rolim Filho, Otavio Gomes Lins, Ana van der Linden, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco Aragão, Alessandra Mertens Brainer-Lima, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa Cruz, Maria Angela Wanderley Rocha, Paula Fabiana Sobral da Silva, Maria Durce Costa Gomes Carvalho, Fernando José do Amaral, Joelma Arruda Gomes, Igor Colaço Ribeiro de Medeiros, Camila V Ventura, Regina Coeli Ramos
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. SETTING: Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic...
August 9, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494375/motor-versus-body-awareness-voxel-based-lesion-analysis-in-anosognosia-for-hemiplegia-and-somatoparaphrenia-following-right-hemisphere-stroke
#20
Valentina Moro, Simone Pernigo, Manos Tsakiris, Renato Avesani, Nicola M J Edelstyn, Paul M Jenkinson, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
Anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP) is informative about the neurocognitive basis of motor awareness. However, it is frequently associated with concomitant symptoms, such as hemispatial neglect and disturbances in the sense of body ownership (DSO). Although double dissociations between these symptoms have been reported, there is ongoing debate about whether they are manifestations of independent abnormalities, or a single neurocognitive deficit. We aimed to investigate the specificity of lesions associated with AHP by surpassing four, existing methodological limitations: (a) recruit a relatively large sample of patients (total N = 70) in a multi-centre study; (b) identify lesions associated with AHP in grey and white matter using voxel-based methods; (c) take into account the duration of AHP and concomitant neglect symptoms; and (d) compare lesions against a control hemiplegic group, patients suffering from AHP and DSO, and a few, rare patients with selective DSO...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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