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Subcortical white matter abnormalities of the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782307/cutaneous-manifestations-of-tuberous-sclerosis
#1
Mirjana Bakić, Marina Ratković, Branka Gledović, Balsa Vujović, Danilo Radunović, Vera Babić, Vladimir Prelević
Dear Editor, Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease, which occurs due to genetically determined hyperplasia of ectodermal and mesodermal cells. Clinical manifestations present on the skin and in the nervous system, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Recent studies estimate the incidence of TS at 1/6000 to 1/10,000 live births, and a prevalence in the general population of approximately 1 in 20,000 (1). There are two different genetic loci responsible for TS: 9q34 (TSC1-hamartin) and 16p13...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781369/contralateral-extensive-cerebral-hemorrhagic-venous-infarction-caused-by-retrograde-venous-reflux-into-the-opposite-basal-vein-of-rosenthal-in-posttraumatic-carotid-cavernous-fistula-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Prasert Iampreechakul, Adisak Tanpun, Punjama Lertbusayanukul, Somkiet Siriwimonmas
We describe a patient with traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF), subsequently developing contralateral extensive hemorrhagic venous infarction from retrograde venous reflux into the opposite basal vein of Rosenthal. A 54-year-old woman was involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustained severe traumatic brain injury. Two months later, she developed bilateral proptosis and audible bruit. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brain demonstrated the right direct CCF...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734487/cortical-thickness-and-white-matter-integrity-abnormalities-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-combined-multimodal-surface-based-morphometry-and-tract-based-spatial-statistics-study
#3
Cong Zhou, Jian Xu, Liangliang Ping, Fengrui Zhang, Wei Chen, Zonglin Shen, Linling Jiang, Xiufeng Xu, Yuqi Cheng
BACKGROUND: Cerebral morphological abnormalities may play a key role in pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have used multimodal imaging strategies to investigate alterations of cortical morphometry and white matter (WM) integrity. This study aimed to evaluate cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume, and WM integrity characteristics in OCD patients comprehensively. METHODS: We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 52 OCD patients and 46 well-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
May 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706150/neurosyphilis-mighty-imitator-forays-with-benign-presentation-and-unique-neuroimaging-findings
#4
Harmanpreet Tiwana, Aiesha Ahmed
Background: Common causes of temporal lobe hyper intensities are central nervous system infections like herpes simplex encephalitis, Lyme disease, limbic encephalitis and vascular pathology like Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy. Methods: Personal assessment, laboratory data analysis and neuroimaging for the patient who was admitted to a central Pennsylvania tertiary care referral centre were conducted. Results: A 52-year-old male presented with a 1-year history of diffuse dysesthesia in upper and lower extremities with associated intermittent headaches and neck stiffness...
April 30, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660514/early-life-predictors-of-brain-development-at-term-equivalent-age-in-infants-born-across-the-gestational-age-spectrum
#5
REVIEW
Deanne K Thompson, Claire E Kelly, Jian Chen, Richard Beare, Bonnie Alexander, Marc L Seal, Katherine Lee, Lillian G Matthews, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong
BACKGROUND: It is well established that preterm infants have altered brain development compared with full-term (FT; ≥37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) infants, however the perinatal factors associated with brain development in preterm infants have not been fully elucidated. In particular, perinatal predictors of brain development may differ between very preterm infants (VP; <32 weeks' GA) and infants born moderate (MP; 32-33 weeks' GA) and late (LP; 34-36 weeks' GA) preterm, but this has not been studied...
April 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604325/characteristic-phase-distribution-in-the-white-matter-of-infants-on-phase-difference-enhanced-imaging
#6
Tesu Niwa, Tetsuya Yoneda, Masaharu Hayashi, Keiji Suzuki, Shuhei Shibukawa, Takashi Okazaki, Yutaka Imai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The infantile brain is continuously undergoing development. Non-invasive methods to assess the neurological development of infants are important for the early detection of abnormalities. Some microstructures in the brain have been demonstrated via phase difference-enhanced imaging (PADRE), which may reflect myelin-related microstructures. We aimed to assess the white matter (WM) signal distribution in infants using PADRE and compared it with that using T1-weighted images (T1WI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573408/classic-infantile-pompe-patients-approaching-adulthood-a-cohort-study-on-consequences-for-the-brain
#7
Berendine J Ebbink, Esther Poelman, Femke K Aarsen, Iris Plug, Luc Régal, Carsten Muentjes, Nadine A M E van der Beek, Maarten H Lequin, Ans T van der Ploeg, Johanna M P van den Hout
AIM: To examine the long-term consequences of glycogen storage in the central nervous system (CNS) for classic infantile Pompe disease using enzyme replacement therapy. METHOD: Using neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we prospectively assessed a cohort of 11 classic infantile Pompe patients aged up to 17 years. RESULTS: From approximately age 2 years onwards, brain MRI showed involvement of the periventricular white matter and centrum semiovale...
March 24, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536563/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-neuroimaging-in-hepatitis-c-chronic-infection
#8
REVIEW
G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
May 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518832/-dars-mutations-responsible-for-hypomyelination-with-brain-stem-and-spinal-cord-involvement-and-leg-spasticity-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#9
J Zhang, M Liu, L Zhou, Z B Zhang, J M Wang, Y W Jiang, Y Wu
Objective: To analyze the clinical and imaging features of hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) due to mutations in DARS, and to identify DARS mutations responsible for HBSL. Methods: Data on 2 HBSL patients who were admitted to the pediatric department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2009 through December 2016 were reviewed and the 2 patients were followed up. Targeted next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were employed to identify potential genetic variations of the children and their parents...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369945/conventional-and-diffusional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes-in-chinese-patients-a-study-of-40-cases
#10
Weixingzi Xu, Jianbo Wen, Chong Sun, Jiawen Cao, Yuxin Li, Daoying Geng
PURPOSES: The aims of the study were to analyze the conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and to investigate underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Features of 58 acute and 68 chronic stroke-like lesions as well as global brain abnormalities of 40 Chinese MELAS patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Gyriform DWI hyperintensity with decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and patchy DWI hyperintensity with normal ADC were noted in 56 of 58 and 2 of 58 cortical regions of acute lesions, respectively...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357980/on-the-low-dimensionality-of-behavioral-deficits-and-alterations-of-brain-network-connectivity-after-focal-injury
#11
REVIEW
Maurizio Corbetta, Joshua S Siegel, Gordon L Shulman
Traditional neuropsychological approaches emphasize the specificity of behavioral deficits and the modular organization of the brain. At the population level, however, there is emerging evidence that deficits are correlated resulting in a low dimensional structure of post-stroke neurological impairments. Here we consider the implications of low dimensionality for the three-way mapping between structural damage, altered physiology, and behavioral deficits. Understanding this mapping will be aided by large-sample studies that apply multivariate models and focus on explained percentage of variance, as opposed to univariate lesion-symptom techniques that report statistical significance...
January 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280246/rich-club-and-reward-network-connectivity-as-endophenotypes-for-alcohol-dependence-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#12
Nabi Zorlu, Necip Çapraz, Esra Oztekin, Başak Bagci, Maria A Di Biase, Andrew Zalesky, Fazıl Gelal, Emre Bora, Ercan Durmaz, Lütfullah Beşiroğlu, Aybala Sarıçiçek
We aimed to examine the whole-brain white matter connectivity and local topology of reward system nodes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and unaffected siblings, relative to healthy comparison individuals. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 18 patients with AUD, 15 unaffected siblings of AUD patients and 15 healthy controls. Structural networks were examined using network-based statistic and connectomic analysis. Connectomic analysis showed a significant ordered difference in normalized rich club organization (AUD < Siblings < Controls)...
December 27, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276561/jaw-dystonia-and-reversible-basal-ganglia-changes-as-an-initial-presentation-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
Meghan Romba, Yujie Wang, Shu-Ching Hu, Sandeep Khot
Dystonia as a manifestation of neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is uncommon. We report a 25-year-old woman who experienced progressive confusion, reduced speech, and difficulty opening her mouth approximately 2 weeks after development of a facial rash. Brain imaging showed bilateral, symmetric signal abnormalities within the basal ganglia and subcortical white matter. Despite treatment with high-dose steroids, she continued to have difficulty speaking with evidence of jaw dystonia on examination...
January 2018: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273521/the-pathology-and-pathophysiology-of-vascular-dementia
#14
REVIEW
Raj N Kalaria
Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event...
December 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209885/neuroimaging-findings-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome-case-series-at-the-time-of-first-epidemic-outbreak-in-pernambuco-state-brazil
#15
Pedro Pires, Patricia Jungmann, Jully Moura Galvão, Adriano Hazin, Luiza Menezes, Ricardo Ximenes, Gabriele Tonni, Edward Araujo Júnior
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging and clinical findings in a clinical series following congenital Zika virus syndrome during the first epidemic Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: We (the authors) conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected case series of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly born to mothers with presumed/confirmed congenital ZIKV syndrome. Prenatal ultrasound findings were reviewed to identify potential central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities...
December 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188399/the-alcoholic-brain-neural-bases-of-impaired-reward-based-decision-making-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#16
Caterina Galandra, Gianpaolo Basso, Stefano Cappa, Nicola Canessa
Neuroeconomics is providing insights into the neural bases of decision-making in normal and pathological conditions. In the neuropsychiatric domain, this discipline investigates how abnormal functioning of neural systems associated with reward processing and cognitive control promotes different disorders, and whether such evidence may inform treatments. This endeavor is crucial when studying different types of addiction, which share a core promoting mechanism in the imbalance between impulsive subcortical neural signals associated with immediate pleasurable outcomes and inhibitory signals mediated by a prefrontal reflective system...
November 29, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186356/altered-caudate-connectivity-is-associated-with-executive-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Sara De Simoni, Peter O Jenkins, Niall J Bourke, Jessica J Fleminger, Peter J Hellyer, Amy E Jolly, Maneesh C Patel, James H Cole, Robert Leech, David J Sharp
Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated...
January 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169405/atypical-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-with-prp-amyloid-plaques-in-white-matter-molecular-characterization-and-transmission-to-bank-voles-show-the-m1-strain-signature
#18
Marcello Rossi, Daniela Saverioni, Michele Di Bari, Simone Baiardi, Afina Willemina Lemstra, Laura Pirisinu, Sabina Capellari, Annemieke Rozemuller, Romolo Nonno, Piero Parchi
Amyloid plaques formed by abnormal prion protein (PrPSc ) aggregates occur with low frequency in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but represent a pathological hallmark of three relatively rare disease histotypes, namely variant CJD, sporadic CJDMV2K (methionine/valine at PRNP codon 129, PrPSc type 2 and kuru-type amyloid plaques) and iatrogenic CJDMMiK (MM at codon 129, PrPSc of intermediate type and kuru plaques). According to recent studies, however, PrP-amyloid plaques involving the subcortical and deep nuclei white matter may also rarely occur in CJDMM1 (MM at codon 129 and PrPSc type 1), the most common CJD histotype...
November 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166461/presumed-zika-virus-related-congenital-brain-malformations-the-spectrum-of-ct-and-mri-findings-in-fetuses-and-newborns
#19
José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Licia Pacheco Pereira, Daniel Aguiar Dias, Lindenberg Barbosa Aguiar, Joanira Costa Nogueira Maia, Jesus Irajacy Fernandes da Costa, Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro, Francisco Edson de Lucena Feitosa, Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: The new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection...
October 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137029/neural-reorganization-between-injured-cingula-and-the-brainstem-cholinergic-nuclei-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-concussion-a-case-report
#20
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed neural reorganization between injured cingula and the brainstem cholinergic nuclei following cerebral concussion. PATIENT CONCERNS: The main concern of the patient is memory impairment. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral concussion. OUTCOMES: When she visited our hospital at 2 years after onset, cognitive function was evaluated using 2 scales; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and the Seoul neuropsychological screening battery: total IQ 97, verbal immediate recall 5...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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