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Subcortical white matter changes in the brain

Cailei Zhao, Yongxin Li, Weiguo Cao, Kui Xiang, Heye Zhang, Jian Yang, Yungen Gan
To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2-36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2-36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Henk-Jan Westeneng, Renée Walhout, Milou Straathof, Ruben Schmidt, Jeroen Hendrikse, Jan H Veldink, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Leonard H van den Berg
BACKGROUND: In patients with a C9orf72 repeat expansion (C9+), a neuroimaging phenotype with widespread structural cerebral changes has been found. We aimed to investigate the specificity of this neuroimaging phenotype in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: 156 C9- and 14 C9+ patients with ALS underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; a subset (n=126) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and white matter integrity were compared between C9+ and C9- patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Shouta Sugio, Koujiro Tohyama, Shinichiro Oku, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Takeshi Yoshimura, Keigo Hikishima, Ryutaro Yano, Takahiro Fukuda, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Masahiko Watanabe, Masaki Fukata, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Kenji F Tanaka
Astrocytes have recently been shown to provide physiological support for various brain functions, although little is known about their involvement in white matter integrity. Several inherited infantile-onset leukoencephalopathies, such as Alexander disease and megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), implicate astrocytic involvement in the formation of white matter. Several mouse models of MLC had been generated by knocking out the Mlc1 gene; however, none of those models was reported to show myelin abnormalities prior to formation of the myelin sheath...
October 17, 2016: Glia
Reshmi Srinath, Rebecca F Gottesman, Sherita Hill Golden, Kathryn A Carson, Adrian Dobs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies in men suggest a relationship between endogenous testosterone and ischemic vascular events. We hypothesized that low testosterone is independently associated with ischemic stroke and ischemic brain changes. METHODS: In 1558 male participants (mean [SD] age, 63.1 [5.6] years; body mass index, 28.2 [4.3] kg/m(2)) from visit 4 (1996-1998) of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) without cardiovascular disease, stroke, and previous testosterone therapy, we measured plasma total testosterone by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using morning samples and divided levels into tertiles (median [25th-75th percentile], 377...
October 11, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Kalpana J Kallianpur, Marissa Sakoda, Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Tracie Umaki, Dominic Chow, Suwarat Wongjittraporn, Cecilia M Shikuma
BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV disease is associated with neurocognitive impairment and age-related conditions such as frailty. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether regional brain volumetric changes correlate with frailty parameters in older (≥ 40 years) HIV+ patients on stable combination antiretroviral therapy. METHOD: Thirty-five HIV-infected participants in the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort - Cardiovascular Disease study underwent T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging, frailty assessment and neuropsychological testing...
2016: Open Medicine Journal
Satoshi Yokoi, Keizo Yasui, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Kazuki Niwa, Yoshinori Noguchi, Toyonori Tsuzuki, Maya Mimuro, Jun Sone, Hirohisa Watanabe, Masahisa Katsuno, Mari Yoshida, Gen Sobue
AIMS: Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The variable symptoms of NIID increase the difficulty in an antemortem diagnosis. NIID shows leukoencephalopathy on brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI, but the significance of the radiological findings have not been clarified. METHODS: We examined an autopsied case of NIID with subcortical linear hyperintensities on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and leukoencephalopathy on fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
Héla Fourati, Emna Ellouze, Mourad Ahmadi, Dhouha Chaari, Fatma Kamoun, Ines Hsairi, Chahnez Triki, Zeineb Mnif
l-2-Hydroxyglutaric (l-2-HG) aciduria is a rare inherited metabolic disease usually observed in children. Patients present a very slowly progressive deterioration with cerebellar ataxia, mild or severe mental retardation, and various other clinical signs including extrapyramidal and pyramidal symptoms, and seizures Goffette et al. [1]. This leukencephalopathy was first described in 1980 Duran et al. [2]. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates nonspecific subcortical white matter (WM) loss, cerebellar atrophy and changes in dentate nuclei and putamen Steenweg et al...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
Thomas W Allan, Julien Besle, Dave R M Langers, Jeff Davies, Deborah A Hall, Alan R Palmer, Peyman Adjamian
Previous studies of anatomical changes associated with tinnitus have provided inconsistent results, with some showing significant cortical and subcortical changes, while others have found effects due to hearing loss, but not tinnitus. In this study, we examined changes in brain anatomy associated with tinnitus using anatomical scans from 128 participants with tinnitus and hearing loss, tinnitus with clinically normal hearing, and non-tinnitus controls with clinically normal hearing. The groups were matched for hearing loss, age and gender...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Andrea Polli, Luca Weis, Roberta Biundo, Michael Thacker, Andrea Turolla, Kostantinos Koutsikos, K Ray Chaudhuri, Angelo Antonini
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of pain in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still poorly understood, although it is conceivable that supraspinal mechanisms may be responsible for pain generation and maintenance. METHODS: We examined brain functional and anatomical changes associated with persistent pain in 40 PD patients, 20 with persistent pain and 20 without pain. We also examined 15 pain-free healthy participants of similar age, gender, and cognitive state as a control group...
October 5, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Eric Jouvent, Edouard Duchesnay, Foued Hadj-Selem, François De Guio, Jean-François Mangin, Dominique Hervé, Marco Duering, Stefan Ropele, Reinhold Schmidt, Martin Dichgans, Hugues Chabriat
OBJECTIVE: To obtain simple models predicting disease evolution at 3 years for a given patient with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: Based on data obtained in a prospective study of 236 patients, we built and validated models predicting, at the individual level, 3-year changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), Trail Making Test version B (TMTB), and modified Rankin Scale (mRS)...
September 30, 2016: Neurology
Hideaki Ono, Hideaki Imai, Satoru Miyawaki, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Nobuhito Saito
White matter injury is an important cause of functional disability of the brain. We comprehensively analyzed a modified endothelin-1 (ET‑1) injection-induced white matter injury model in the rat which is very valuable for investigating the underlying mechanisms of subcortical ischemic stroke. ET-1 was stereotactically injected into the internal capsule of the rat. To avoid complications with leakage of ET-1 into the lateral ventricle, the safest trajectory angle to the target was established. Rats with white matter injury were extensively evaluated for structural changes and functional sequelae, using motor function tests, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, histopathology evolution, volume estimation of the lesion, and neuroanatomical identification of affected neurons using the retrograde tracer hydroxystilbamidine...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Rodney J Anderson, Kate E Hoy, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Paul B Fitzgerald
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a relatively recent addition to the neurostimulation armamentarium for treating individuals suffering from treatment refractory depression and has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. One of the proposed mechanisms of action underlying the therapeutic effects of rTMS for depression involves the modulation of depression-associated dysfunctional activity in distributed brain networks involving frontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions, via changes to aberrant functional and structural connectivity...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Oriol Grau-Rivera, Anna Calvo, Núria Bargalló, Gemma C Monté, Carlos Nos, Albert Lladó, José Luis Molinuevo, Ellen Gelpi, Raquel Sánchez-Valle
BACKGROUND: Quantitative neuroimaging might unveil abnormalities in prion diseases that are not perceivable at visual inspection. On the other hand, scarce studies have quantified volumetric changes in prion diseases. OBJECTIVES: We aim to characterize volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes in patients with prion diseases who presented with either Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or fatal insomnia (FI) phenotype. METHODS: Twenty patients with prion diseases- 15 with CJD and 5 with fatal insomnia (FI)- and 40 healthy controls were examined with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Yeo Jin Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Jae-Hyun Park, Seonwoo Kim, Sook-Young Woo, Ki-Chang Kwak, Jong Min Lee, Na-Yeon Jung, Jae Seung Kim, Yearn Seong Choe, Kyung-Han Lee, Seung Hwan Moon, Jae-Hong Lee, Yun Joong Kim, David J Werring, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether amyloid and hypertensive cerebral small vessel disease (hCSVD) changes synergistically affect the progression of lobar microbleeds in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI). METHODS: Among 72 patients with svMCI who underwent brain MRI and [(11)C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, 52 (72.2%) completed the third year of follow-up. These patients were evaluated by annual neuropsychological testing, brain MRI, and follow-up PiB-PET...
October 11, 2016: Neurology
Martin Seule, Rimmon Isaak, Renan Sanchez-Porras, Oliver Sakowitz, Emanuela Keller, Andreas Unterberg, Berk Orakcioglu
BACKGROUND: Bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of brain injury, allow early detection of secondary ischemia, and help guide therapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new brain tissue probe for serial CBF monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution (NeMo Probe) compared with the existing thermal diffusion probe (QFlow 500 Probe). METHODS: In 7 pigs, the NeMo Probe and QFlow 500 Probe were inserted into the subcortical white matter...
September 9, 2016: Neurosurgery
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Qingsong Wang, Huafu Chen
White matter lesions (WMLs) are frequently detected in elderly people. Previous structural and functional studies have demonstrated that WMLs are associated with cognitive and motor decline. However, the underlying mechanism of how WMLs lead to cognitive decline and motor disturbance remains unclear. We used functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM) to investigate changes in brain functional connectivity in 16 patients with ischemic WMLs and 13 controls. Both short- and long-range FCD maps were computed, and group comparisons were performed between the 2 groups...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Leen Serbruyns, Inge Leunissen, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Lisa Pauwels, Karen Caeyenberghs, Elena Solesio-Jofre, Monique Geurts, Koen Cuypers, Raf L Meesen, Stefan Sunaert, Alexander Leemans, Stephan P Swinnen
Successfully switching between tasks is critical in many daily activities. Age-related slowing of this switching behavior has been documented extensively, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the contribution of brain white matter changes associated with myelin alterations to age-related slowing of switching performance. Diffusion tensor imaging derived radial diffusivity (RD) and magnetization transfer imaging derived magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were selected as myelin sensitive measures...
November 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Yorito Hattori, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Satoshi Iguchi, Satoshi Saito, Yumi Yamamoto, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka, Hidehiro Iida, Masafumi Ihara
The bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) mouse model, which replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and white matter ischemic lesions, is considered to model some aspects of vascular cognitive impairment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the brain surface post-BCAS have been demonstrated by laser speckle flowmetry, but CBF levels in the brain parenchyma remain unknown. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to BCAS using external microcoils. Brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was conducted to visualize the intracranial main arteries while arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to measure cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF levels before and after BCAS...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alexandra Badea, Lauren Kane, Robert J Anderson, Yi Qi, Mark Foster, Gary P Cofer, Neil Medvitz, Anne F Buckley, Andreas K Badea, William C Wetsel, Carol A Colton
Multivariate biomarkers are needed for detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD), understanding its etiology, and quantifying the effect of therapies. Mouse models provide opportunities to study characteristics of AD in well-controlled environments that can help facilitate development of early interventions. The CVN-AD mouse model replicates multiple AD hallmark pathologies, and we identified multivariate biomarkers characterizing a brain circuit disruption predictive of cognitive decline. In vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that CVN-AD mice replicate the hippocampal atrophy (6%), characteristic of humans with AD, and also present changes in subcortical areas...
August 10, 2016: NeuroImage
Paolo Frezzotti, Antonio Giorgio, Francesca Toto, Alessandro De Leucio, Nicola De Stefano
Our aim was to assess in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, whether diffuse brain changes recently shown in advanced stage can be detected since the early stage. We used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 57 patients with the three POAG stages and in 29 age-matched normal controls (NC). Voxelwise statistics was performed with nonparametric permutation testing. Compared with NC, disrupted anatomical connectivity (AC) was found in the whole POAG group along the visual pathway and in nonvisual white matter tracts (P < 0...
August 9, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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