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Subcortical white matter changes in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924555/early-changes-in-brain-structure-correlate-with-language-outcomes-in-children-with-neonatal-encephalopathy
#1
Kevin A Shapiro, Hosung Kim, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Elizabeth E Rogers, Dawn Gano, Donna M Ferriero, A James Barkovich, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Hannah C Glass, Duan Xu
Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902409/binswanger-s-disease-biomarkers-in-the-inflammatory-form-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#2
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a major public health concern because of the increased incidence of vascular disease in the aging population and the impact of vascular disease on Alzheimer's disease. VCID is a heterogeneous group of diseases for which there are no proven treatments. Biomarkers can be used to select more homogeneous populations. Small vessel disease is the most prevalent form of VCID and is the optimal form for treatment trials because there is a progressive course with characteristic pathological changes...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867898/cortical-oligodendrocytes-in-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus-in-wistar-rat-impact-of-degree-and-duration-of-ventriculomegaly
#3
Olugbenga Ayodeji Ayannuga, Thajasvarie Naicker
BACKGROUND: Oligodendrocytes are critical to the function of the brain. They generate the myelin sheath which ensures saltatory conduction, which is a more energy saving and efficient means of axonal impulse transmission. Ventriculomegaly results in neuronal degeneration and astrogliosis. PURPOSE: The effect of the degree of ventriculomegaly on oligodendrocyte in kaolin-induced hydrocephalus and the timeline have not been extensively documented, hence this study...
July 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867652/the-neuropsychology-and-neurobiology-of-late-onset-schizophrenia-and-very-late-onset-schizophrenia-like-psychosis-a-critical-review
#4
REVIEW
Lies Van Assche, Manuel Morrens, Patrick Luyten, Luc Van de Ven, Mathieu Vandenbulcke
OBJECTIVE: The current review discusses neuropsychological profiles and the longitudinal course of cognitive dysfunction in Late Onset Schizophrenia (LOS) and Very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOSLP), and attempts to clarify its neurobiological underpinnings. METHOD: A systematic literature search resulted in 29 publications describing original research on the neuropsychology of LOS/VLOSLP and 46 studies focussing on neurobiology. RESULTS: Although mildly progressive cognitive impairment is usually present, only a subgroup of LOS/VLOSLP develops dementia during a 10-year follow-up succeeding the onset of psychosis...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864026/cardiac-cycle-induced-epi-time-series-fluctuations-in-the-brain-their-temporal-shifts-inflow-effects-and-t2-%C3%A2-fluctuations
#5
Olivia Viessmann, Harald E Möller, Peter Jezzard
The cardiac-induced arterial pressure wave causes changes in cerebral blood flow velocities and volumes that affect the signals in echo-planar imaging (EPI). Using single-echo EPI time series data, acquired fast enough to unalias the cardiac frequency, we found that the cardiac cycle-induced signal fluctuations are delayed differentially in different brain regions. When referenced to the time series in larger arterial structures, the cortical voxels are only minimally shifted but significant shifts are observed in subcortical areas...
August 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855495/adult-onset-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids-and-pigmented-glia-a-case-presented-brain-calcification-and-corpus-callosum-atrophy-from-over-10-years-before-the-onset-of-dementia
#6
Miyuki Okamoto, Jun Takeshita, Kazunori Takahashi, Akio Tanaka, Kunihiro Yoshida, Masaru Kuriyama
A 44-year-old man made many mistakes at work over a year. Eleven years prior, he had had medical examination with headache. He presented with symptoms consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction including cognitive decline, and bilateral pyramidal signs. Brain MRI showed cerebral atrophy, localized atrophy of corpus callosum, asymmetrical white matter lesions and multiple cystic lesions. CT images showed bilateral calcifications in the parietal subcortical white matter. Reconstructed sagittal CT images showed bilateral calcifications in the frontal white matter adjacent to the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles, which had a symmetrical "stepping stone appearance" in the frontal pericallosal regions...
August 31, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835651/brain-plasticity-following-mi-bci-training-combined-with-tdcs-in-a-randomized-trial-in-chronic-subcortical-stroke-subjects-a-preliminary-study
#7
Xin Hong, Zhong Kang Lu, Irvin Teh, Fatima Ali Nasrallah, Wei Peng Teo, Kai Keng Ang, Kok Soon Phua, Cuntai Guan, Effie Chew, Kai-Hsiang Chuang
Brain-computer interface-assisted motor imagery (MI-BCI) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used in stroke rehabilitation, though their combinatory effect is unknown. We investigated brain plasticity following a combined MI-BCI and tDCS intervention in chronic subcortical stroke patients with unilateral upper limb disability. Nineteen patients were randomized into tDCS and sham-tDCS groups. Diffusion and perfusion MRI, and transcranial magnetic stimulation were used to study structural connectivity, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and corticospinal excitability, respectively, before and 4 weeks after the 2-week intervention...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818116/distinct-white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-and-extracellular-water-increases-relate-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-and-without-cerebrovascular-disease
#8
Fang Ji, Ofer Pasternak, Siwei Liu, Yng Miin Loke, Boon Linn Choo, Saima Hilal, Xin Xu, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) with concomitant cerebrovascular disease, has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. The brain white matter (WM) microstructural changes in neurodegeneration well-documented by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can originate from brain tissue or extracellular free water changes. The differential microstructural and free water changes in AD with and without cerebrovascular disease, especially in normal-appearing WM, remain largely unknown...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817944/tracking-brain-development-and-dimensional-psychiatric-symptoms-in-children-a-longitudinal-population-based-neuroimaging-study
#9
Ryan L Muetzel, Laura M E Blanken, Jan van der Ende, Hanan El Marroun, Philip Shaw, Gustavo Sudre, Aad van der Lugt, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier, Tonya White
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatric symptomatology during childhood predicts persistent mental illness later in life. While neuroimaging methodologies are routinely applied cross-sectionally to the study of child and adolescent psychopathology, the nature of the relationship between childhood symptoms and the underlying neurodevelopmental processes remains unclear. The authors used a prospective population-based cohort to delineate the longitudinal relationship between childhood psychiatric problems and brain development...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817577/detailing-neuroanatomical-development-in-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence-using-noddi
#10
Alyssa Mah, Bryce Geeraert, Catherine Lebel
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have provided much evidence of white and subcortical gray matter changes during late childhood and early adolescence that suggest increasing myelination, axon density, and/or fiber coherence. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) can be used to further characterize development in white and subcortical grey matter regions in the brain by improving specificity of the MRI signal compared to conventional DTI. We used measures from NODDI and DTI to examine white and subcortical gray matter development in a group of 27 healthy participants aged 8-13 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789642/uremic-encephalopathy-with-isolated-brainstem-involvement-revealed-by-magnetic-resonance-image-a-case-report
#11
Li-Jing Jia, Zhen-Zhen Qu, Xue-Qian Zhang, Yu-Juan Tian, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: Uremic Encephalopathy (UE) is a neurological complication associated with acute or chronic renal failure. Imaging findings of UE may present involvement of the basal ganglia, cortical or subcortical regions, and white matter. We report a rare case of UE caused by neurogenic bladder with isolated brainstem involvement revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Immediate therapy resulted in full recovery of neurological signs and changes on MRI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old Han Chinese woman with a history of chronic renal failure caused by neurogenic bladder...
August 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765809/diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Cyril Atkinson-Clement, Serge Pinto, Alexandre Eusebio, Olivier Coulon
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies help us better understand the pathophysiology and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). In several of these studies, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate structural changes in cerebral tissue. Although data have been provided as regards to specific brain areas, a whole brain meta-analysis is still missing. METHODS: We compiled 39 studies in this meta-analysis: 14 used fractional anisotropy (FA), 1 used mean diffusivity (MD), and 24 used both indicators...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715552/large-perivascular-spaces-visible-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-progression-and-risk-of-dementia-the-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik-study
#13
Jie Ding, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Pálmi V Jónsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Andreas Charidimou, Oscar L Lopez, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Guðnason, Lenore J Launer
Importance: With advancing age, an increased visibility of perivascular spaces (PVSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is hypothesized to represent impaired drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain and may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, whether large perivascular spaces (L-PVSs) (>3 mm in diameter) visible on MRI are associated with SVD and cognitive deterioration in older individuals is unknown. Objective: To examine whether L-PVSs are associated with the progression of the established MRI markers of SVD, cognitive decline, and increased risk of dementia...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715355/repeated-exposure-to-sucrose-for-procedural-pain-in-mouse-pups-leads-to-long-term-widespread-brain-alterations
#14
Sophie Tremblay, Manon Ranger, Cecil M Y Chau, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Liisa Holsti, Daniel Goldowitz, Ruth E Grunau
Oral sucrose is administered routinely to reduce pain of minor procedures in premature infants and is recommended as standard care in international guidelines. No human or animal studies on effects of early repeated sucrose exposure on long-term brain development have been done in the context of pain. We evaluated the effects of repeated neonatal sucrose treatment before an intervention on long-term brain structure in mouse pups. Neonatal C57Bl/6J mice (n = 109) were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments (vehicle vs sucrose) and one of 3 interventions (handling, touch, or needle-prick)...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705817/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumor-of-the-cerebrum-a-new-leave-me-alone-lesion-with-a-characteristic-imaging-pattern
#15
R H Nunes, C C Hsu, A J da Rocha, L L F do Amaral, L F S Godoy, T W Watkins, V H Marussi, M Warmuth-Metz, H C Alves, F G Goncalves, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, A G Osborn
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum is a recently reported benign, mixed glial neuronal lesion that is included in the 2016 updated World Health Organization classification of brain neoplasms as a unique cytoarchitectural pattern of gangliocytoma. We report 33 cases of presumed multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum that exhibit a remarkably similar pattern of imaging findings consisting of a subcortical cluster of nodular lesions located on the inner surface of an otherwise normal-appearing cortex, principally within the deep cortical ribbon and superficial subcortical white matter, which is hyperintense on FLAIR...
July 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700727/longitudinal-increases-of-brain-metabolite-levels-in-5-10-year-old-children
#16
Martha J Holmes, Frances C Robertson, Francesca Little, Steven R Randall, Mark F Cotton, Andre J W van der Kouwe, Barbara Laughton, Ernesta M Meintjes
Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies reveal significant changes in brain structure and structural networks that occur together with cognitive and behavioral maturation in childhood. However, the underlying cellular changes accompanying brain maturation are less understood. Examining regional age-related changes in metabolite levels provides insight into the physiology of neurodevelopment. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures localize brain metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688263/white-matter-correlates-of-impaired-attention-control-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-healthy-volunteers
#17
Mina M Rizk, Harry Rubin-Falcone, John Keilp, Jeffrey M Miller, M Elizabeth Sublette, Ainsley Burke, Maria A Oquendo, Ahmed M Kamal, Mohamed A Abdelhameed, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired attention control and alterations in frontal-subcortical connectivity. We hypothesized that attention control as assessed by Stroop task interference depends on white matter integrity in fronto-cingulate regions and assessed this relationship using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MDD and healthy volunteers (HV). METHODS: DTI images and Stroop task were acquired in 29 unmedicated MDD patients and 16 HVs, aged 18-65 years...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686962/forensic-aspects-of-homicides-by-insulin-overdose
#18
Fang Tong, Rongqi Wu, Wen Huang, Yi Yang, Lin Zhang, Biao Zhang, Xin Chen, Xiaohui Tang, Yiwu Zhou
Analysis of homicidal insulin overdose is a challenging task in forensic practice because of the difficulties in toxicological analysis as well as the elusive pathologic changes. We performed a detailed histopathologic examination on four autopsy cases involving insulin homicide, using H&E, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence assays. Severe reactive astrocyte proliferation was obvious in the white matter of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brain stem, especially in subcortical regions...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664031/large-scale-structural-alteration-of-brain-in-epileptic-children-with-scn1a-mutation
#19
Yun-Jeong Lee, Mi-Sun Yum, Min-Jee Kim, Woo-Hyun Shim, Hee Mang Yoon, Il Han Yoo, Jiwon Lee, Byung Chan Lim, Ki Joong Kim, Tae-Sung Ko
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in SCN1A gene encoding the alpha 1 subunit of the voltage gated sodium channel are associated with several epilepsy syndromes including genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS +) and severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI). However, in most patients with SCN1A mutation, brain imaging has reported normal or non-specific findings including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in brain morphometry in epileptic children with SCN1A mutation compared to healthy control subjects...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663091/locomotion-in-intact-and-in-brain-cortex-ablated-cats
#20
José Roberto López Ruiz, Luis Castillo Hernández, Braniff De la Torre Valdovinos, Nancy Elizabeth Franco Rodríguez, Judith Marcela Dueñas Jiménez, Alejandro Dueñas Jiménez, Jorge David Rivas-Carrillo, Sergio Horacio Dueñas Jiménez
The current decerebration procedures discard the role of the thalamus in the motor control and decortication only rules out the brain cortex part, leaving a gap between the brain cortex and the subthalamic motor regions. In here we define a new preparation denominated Brain Cortex-Ablated Cat (BCAC), in which the frontal and parietal brain cortices as well as the central white matter beneath them were removed, this decerebration process may be considered as suprathalamic, since the thalamus remained intact...
June 27, 2017: Neuroscience
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