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Subcortical white matter changes in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782307/cutaneous-manifestations-of-tuberous-sclerosis
#1
Mirjana Bakić, Marina Ratković, Branka Gledović, Balsa Vujović, Danilo Radunović, Vera Babić, Vladimir Prelević
Dear Editor, Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease, which occurs due to genetically determined hyperplasia of ectodermal and mesodermal cells. Clinical manifestations present on the skin and in the nervous system, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Recent studies estimate the incidence of TS at 1/6000 to 1/10,000 live births, and a prevalence in the general population of approximately 1 in 20,000 (1). There are two different genetic loci responsible for TS: 9q34 (TSC1-hamartin) and 16p13...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777003/impact-of-reference-target-region-selection-on-amyloid-pet-standard-uptake-value-ratios-in-the-phase-1b-prime-study-of-aducanumab
#2
Ping Chiao, Barry J Bedell, Brian Avants, Alex P Zijdenbos, Marilyn Grand'Maison, Paul O'Neill, John O'Gorman, Tianle Chen, Robert Koeppe
Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) are commonly used to quantify tracer uptake in amyloid beta positron emission tomography (Aβ-PET). Here, we explore the impact of target and reference region of interest (ROI) selection on SUVR effect size using interventional data from the ongoing Phase Ib PRIME study (NCT01677572) of aducanumab (BIIB037) in patients with prodromal or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Florbetapir PET SUVR was calculated at baseline (screening) and Weeks 26 and 54 for patients randomized to placebo and each of four aducanumab doses (1, 3, 6, and 10 mg/kg), using whole cerebellum, cerebellar grey matter, cerebellar white matter, pons, and subcortical white matter as reference regions...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746715/quantitative-susceptibility-map-analysis-in-preterm-neonates-with-germinal-matrix-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#3
Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Jan Sedlacik, Benedetta Toselli, Mariya Malova, Alessandro Parodi, Giovanni Morana, Marco Massimo Fato, Luca Antonio Ramenghi, Andrea Rossi
BACKGROUND: Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage occurring in preterm neonates that may affect normal brain development. Although the primary lesion is easily identified on MRI by the presence of blood products, its exact extent may not be recognizable with conventional sequences. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantify the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility within biological tissues, including blood degradation products...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722054/pathoarchitectonics-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-chorea-acanthocytosis-and-hd
#4
Jia Liu, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg, Eduardo Alho, Edson Amaro, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Udo Rüb, Kay Seidel, Wilfred den Dunnen, Thomas Arzberger, Christoph Schmitz, Maren C Kiessling, Benedikt Bader, Adrian Danek
AIMS: Quantitative estimation of cortical neurone loss in cases with chorea-acanthocytosis and its impact on laminar composition METHODS: We used unbiased stereological tools to estimate the degree of cortical pathology in serial gallocyanin-stained brain sections through the complete hemispheres of three subjects with genetically verified chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and a range of disease durations. We compared these results with our previous data of five Huntington's disease (HD) and five control cases...
May 2, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706150/neurosyphilis-mighty-imitator-forays-with-benign-presentation-and-unique-neuroimaging-findings
#5
Harmanpreet Tiwana, Aiesha Ahmed
Background: Common causes of temporal lobe hyper intensities are central nervous system infections like herpes simplex encephalitis, Lyme disease, limbic encephalitis and vascular pathology like Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy. Methods: Personal assessment, laboratory data analysis and neuroimaging for the patient who was admitted to a central Pennsylvania tertiary care referral centre were conducted. Results: A 52-year-old male presented with a 1-year history of diffuse dysesthesia in upper and lower extremities with associated intermittent headaches and neck stiffness...
April 30, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676856/age-related-changes-in-cortical-and-subcortical-structures-of-healthy-adult-brains-a-surface-based-morphometry-study
#6
Fenglian Zheng, Yulin Liu, Zilong Yuan, Xiaodong Gao, Yaoyao He, Xiaojing Liu, Dong Cui, Rui Qi, Tiao Chen, Jianfeng Qiu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral structures in both cortical and subcortical regions change with aging. More specific and comprehensive studies are needed to better elucidate these changes. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between age and cerebral structures regarding cortical and subcortical changes. STUDY TYPE: Cross-cohort research. POPULATION: 54 healthy adults (28 females) aged 21-71 years. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: T1 -weighted imaging was performed at 1...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604325/characteristic-phase-distribution-in-the-white-matter-of-infants-on-phase-difference-enhanced-imaging
#7
Tesu Niwa, Tetsuya Yoneda, Masaharu Hayashi, Keiji Suzuki, Shuhei Shibukawa, Takashi Okazaki, Yutaka Imai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The infantile brain is continuously undergoing development. Non-invasive methods to assess the neurological development of infants are important for the early detection of abnormalities. Some microstructures in the brain have been demonstrated via phase difference-enhanced imaging (PADRE), which may reflect myelin-related microstructures. We aimed to assess the white matter (WM) signal distribution in infants using PADRE and compared it with that using T1-weighted images (T1WI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578926/altered-white-matter-microstructure-associated-with-mild-and-moderate-depressive-symptoms-in-young-adults-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#8
Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Kaveh Same, Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Mohammad H Aarabi
In the context of growing evidence supporting disturbed neural connectivity in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms, we used the diffusion tensor imaging technique to investigate white matter disruptions in previously undiagnosed and hence treatment-naive young adults with mild and moderate depressive symptoms screened by Beck's Depression Inventory test compared with age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls. This is the first diffusion tensor imaging study to assess minor forms of depression. We hypothesized that subthreshold depressive symptoms share the same neural disruptions as major depressive disorder (MDD)...
March 23, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572926/regional-brain-volumetry-and-brain-function-in-severely-brain-injured-patients
#9
Jitka Annen, Gianluca Frasso, Julia Sophia Crone, Lizette Heine, Carol Di Perri, Charlotte Martial, Helena Cassol, Athena Demertzi, Lionel Naccache, Steven Laureys
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between residual brain tissue in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) and the clinical condition is unclear. This observational study aimed to quantify gray (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy in states of (altered) consciousness. METHODS: Structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were processed for 102 severely brain-injured and 52 healthy subjects. Regional brain volume was quantified for 158 (sub)cortical regions using Freesurfer...
April 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562536/update-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-subcortical-small-vessel-disease
#10
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560949/-actual-problems-of-brain-pathology-in-cerebral-microangiopathy
#11
L A Kalashnikova, T S Gulevskaya, L A Dobrynina
Cerebral microangiopathy (small vessels disease) is a cause of diffuse changes of brain tissue (encephalopathy) denoted in Russian literature by the term dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DE). The main cause of microangiopathy leading to encephalopathy is arterial hypertension, less frequently - cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. The diagnosis of encephalopathy in patients with microangiopathy is based on the combination of clinical manifestations (mainly, cognitive impairment of varying severity and disorders of gait) with the neuroimaging changes (white matter hyperintensity, multiple lacunar infarcts on MRI)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529995/dissecting-the-pathobiology-of-altered-mri-signal-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-post-mortem-whole-brain-sampling-strategy-for-the-integration-of-ultra-high-field-mri-and-quantitative-neuropathology
#12
Menuka Pallebage-Gamarallage, Sean Foxley, Ricarda A L Menke, Istvan N Huszar, Mark Jenkinson, Benjamin C Tendler, Chaoyue Wang, Saad Jbabdi, Martin R Turner, Karla L Miller, Olaf Ansorge
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, in which therapy is hindered by the rapid progression of disease and lack of biomarkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated its potential for detecting the pathological signature and tracking disease progression in ALS. However, the microstructural and molecular pathological substrate is poorly understood and generally defined histologically...
March 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513153/biomarkers-identify-the-binswanger-type-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#13
Erik Barry Erhardt, John C Pesko, Jillian Prestopnik, Jeffrey Thompson, Arvind Caprihan, Gary A Rosenberg
Binswanger's disease is a form of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD-BD) with extensive white matter changes. To test the hypothesis that biomarkers could improve classification of SIVD-BD, we recruited 62 vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) patients. Multimodal biomarkers were collected at entry into the study based on clinical and neuropsychological testing, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. The patients' diagnoses were confirmed by long-term follow-up, and they formed a "training set" to test classification methods, including (1) subcortical ischemic vascular disease score (SIVDS), (2) exploratory factor analysis (EFA), (3) logistic regression (LR), and (4) random forest (RF)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508560/brain-structure-alterations-in-depression-psychoradiological-evidence
#14
Fei-Fei Zhang, Wei Peng, John A Sweeney, Zhi-Yun Jia, Qi-Yong Gong
Depression is the leading cause of disability around the world, but little is known about its pathology. Currently, the diagnosis of depression is made based on clinical manifestations, with little objective evidence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to investigate the pathological changes in brain anatomy associated with this disorder. MRI can identify structural alterations in depressive patients in vivo, which could make considerable contributions to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Numerous studies that focused on gray and white matter have found significant brain region alterations in major depressive disorder patients, such as in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, temporal lobe, thalamus, striatum, and amygdala...
March 5, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491833/plasma-amyloid-is-associated-with-white-matter-and-subcortical-alterations-and-is-modulated-by-age-and-seasonal-rhythms-in-mouse-lemur-primates
#15
Charlotte Gary, Anne-Sophie Hérard, Zoé Hanss, Marc Dhenain
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is a critical early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. There is increasing interest in measuring levels of plasma Aβ since this could help in diagnosis of brain pathology. However, the value of plasma Aβ in such a diagnosis is still controversial and factors modulating its levels are still poorly understood. The mouse lemur ( Microcebus murinus ) is a primate model of cerebral aging which can also present with amyloid plaques and whose Aβ is highly homologous to humans'...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483399/hypertension-induced-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-leading-to-cognitive-impairment
#16
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Yan-Hong Dong, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Wei-Hong Chen, Rui Li
Objective: Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are responsible for more than 80% of dementia cases. These two conditions share common risk factors including hypertension. Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is strongly associated with both hypertension and cognitive impairment. In this review, we identify the pathophysiological changes in CSVD that are caused by hypertension and further explore the relationship between CSVD and cognitive impairment. Data Sources: We searched and scanned the PubMed database for recently published literatures up to December 2017...
March 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480177/homocysteine-and-cerebral-atrophy-the-epidemiology-of-dementia-in-singapore-study
#17
Bryce Tan, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Henri Vrooman, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien Yin Wong, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Christopher Chen, Saima Hilal
BACKGROUND: Plasma homocysteine levels are increasingly studied as a potential risk factor for dementia. Elevated homocysteine levels have been linked with gray and white matter volume reduction among individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of homocysteine on brain changes in preclinical stages of dementia remain unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of elevated homocysteine levels with markers of neurodegeneration, i...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465488/fdg-pet-and-mri-findings-in-a-case-of-bing-neel-syndrome
#18
Caroline Bund, Benoît Lhermitte, Jérôme De Seze, Stéphane Kremer, Izzie-Jacques Namer
A 64-year-old man was admitted for expressive aphasia with lack of words. He had been diagnosed with Waldenström 4 years before. At that time, he received 6 cycles of single-agent fludarabine, and remission was obtained. Because of acute expressive aphasia, he underwent brain MRI, which showed frontoparietal and insular subcortical gadolinium enhancement; Bing-Neel syndrome was suspected. Fronto-temporo-insular hypometabolism and left parietal hypometabolism were highlighted on FDG PET/CT. Structural and functional brain imaging revealed impairment of brain areas due to white matter changes and reinforced the diagnosis...
April 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401206/parallel-trends-in-cortical-gray-and-white-matter-architecture-and-connections-in-primates-allow-fine-study-of-pathways-in-humans-and-reveal-network-disruptions-in-autism
#19
Basilis Zikopoulos, Miguel Ángel García-Cabezas, Helen Barbas
Noninvasive imaging and tractography methods have yielded information on broad communication networks but lack resolution to delineate intralaminar cortical and subcortical pathways in humans. An important unanswered question is whether we can use the wealth of precise information on pathways from monkeys to understand connections in humans. We addressed this question within a theoretical framework of systematic cortical variation and used identical high-resolution methods to compare the architecture of cortical gray matter and the white matter beneath, which gives rise to short- and long-distance pathways in humans and rhesus monkeys...
February 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382055/early-life-iron-deficiency-reduces-brain-iron-content-and-alters-brain-tissue-composition-despite-iron-repletion-a-neuroimaging-assessment
#20
Austin T Mudd, Joanne E Fil, Laura C Knight, Fan Lam, Zhi-Pei Liang, Ryan N Dilger
Early-life iron deficiency has lifelong influences on brain structure and cognitive function, however characterization of these changes often requires invasive techniques. There is a need for non-invasive assessment of early-life iron deficiency with potential to translate findings to the human clinical setting. In this study, 28 male pigs were provided either a control diet (CONT; n = 14; 23.5 mg Fe/L milk replacer) or an iron-deficient diet (ID; n = 14; 1.56 mg Fe/L milk replacer) for phase 1 of the study, from postnatal day (PND) 2 until 32...
January 27, 2018: Nutrients
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