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Subcortical white matter changes in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919476/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-complicating-dengue-infection-with-neuroimaging-mimicking-multiple-sclerosis-a-report-of-two-cases
#1
S Viswanathan, N Botross, B N Rusli, A Riad
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890607/genotype-phenotype-correlations-of-cysteine-replacement-in-cadasil
#2
Takashi Matsushima, Silvio Conedera, Ryota Tanaka, Yuanzhe Li, Hiroyo Yoshino, Manabu Funayama, Aya Ikeda, Yuka Hosaka, Ayame Okuzumi, Yoshiaki Shimada, Kazuo Yamashiro, Yumiko Motoi, Kenya Nishioka, Nobutaka Hattori
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is characterized by cerebral infarction related to mutations in the notch homolog protein 3 (NOTCH3). We enrolled 10 patients whose brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed hyperintensities (HIs) in the deep white matter and the external capsule. We then investigated the mutations in NOTCH3 using direct sequencing within the region of intron-exon boundaries in exons 2-24 of NOTCH3...
November 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865980/aging-of-cerebral-white-matter
#3
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Yuanyuan Yang, Yuguo Xia, Wen Zhu, Rehana K Leak, Zhishuo Wei, Jianyi Wang, Xiaoming Hu
White matter (WM) occupies a large volume of the human cerebrum and is mainly composed of myelinated axons and myelin-producing glial cells. The myelinated axons within WM are the structural foundation for efficient neurotransmission between cortical and subcortical areas. Similar to neuron-enriched gray matter areas, WM undergoes a series of changes during the process of aging. WM malfunction can induce serious neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Thus, age-related changes in WM may contribute to the functional decline observed in the elderly...
November 16, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843092/rmnd1-related-leukoencephalopathy-with-temporal-lobe-cysts-and-hearing-loss-another-mendelian-mimicker-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#4
Nicole Ulrick, Amy Goldstein, Cas Simons, Ryan J Taft, Guy Helman, Amy Pizzino, Miriam Bloom, Julie Vogt, Karen Pysden, Daria Diodato, Diego Martinelli, Ahmad Monavari, Daniela Buhas, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Imen Dorboz, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy, Diana Rodriguez, Martine Tétreault, Jacek Majewski, Genevieve Bernard, Yi Shiau Ng, Robert McFarland, Adeline Vanderver
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy with temporal lobe cysts may be associated with monogenetic conditions such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome or RNASET2 mutations and with congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus. In view of the fact that congenital cytomegalovirus is difficult to confirm outside the neonatal period, excluding a Mendelian disorder is extremely relevant, changing family planning and medical management in affected families. We performed diagnostic testing in individuals with leukoencephalopathy with temporal lobe cysts without a definitive diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834774/five-year-longitudinal-brain-volume-change-in-healthy-elders-at-genetic-risk%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease
#5
Katherine Reiter, Kristy A Nielson, Sally Durgerian, John L Woodard, J Carson Smith, Michael Seidenberg, Dana A Kelly, Stephen M Rao
Neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) precede symptom onset by more than a decade. Possession of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset AD. Cross-sectional studies of cognitively intact elders have noted smaller hippocampal/medial temporal volumes in ɛ4 carriers (ɛ4+) compared to ɛ4 non-carriers (ɛ4-). Few studies, however, have examined long-term, longitudinal, anatomical brain changes comparing healthy ɛ4+ and ɛ4- individuals...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829078/sex-specific-alterations-of-white-matter-developmental-trajectories-in-infants-with-prenatal-exposure-to-methamphetamine-and-tobacco
#6
Linda Chang, Kenichi Oishi, Jon Skranes, Steven Buchthal, Eric Cunningham, Robyn Yamakawa, Sara Hayama, Caroline S Jiang, Daniel Alicata, Antonette Hernandez, Christine Cloak, Tricia Wright, Thomas Ernst
Importance: Methamphetamine is a common illicit drug used worldwide. Methamphetamine and/or tobacco use by pregnant women remains prevalent. However, little is known about the effect of comorbid methamphetamine and tobacco use on human fetal brain development. Objective: To investigate whether microstructural brain abnormalities reported in children with prenatal methamphetamine and/or tobacco exposure are present at birth before childhood environmental influences...
November 9, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815774/the-topological-organization-of-white-matter-network-in-internet-gaming-disorder-individuals
#7
Jinquan Zhai, Lin Luo, Lijun Qiu, Yongqiang Kang, Bo Liu, Dahua Yu, Xiaoqi Lu, Kai Yuan
White matter (WM) integrity abnormalities had been reported in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography allows identification of WM tracts, potentially providing information about the integrity and organization of relevant underlying WM fiber tracts' architectures, which has been used to investigate the connectivity of cortical and subcortical structures in several brain disorders. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about the thoroughly circuit-level characterization of topological property changes of WM network with IGD...
November 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813459/marked-brain-asymmetry-with-intact-cognitive-functioning-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-a-longitudinal-analysis
#8
Jared J Tanner, Shellie-Anne Levy, Nadine A Schwab, Loren P Hizel, Peter T Nguyen, Michael S Okun, Catherine C Price
OBJECTIVE: A 71-year-old (MN) with an 11-year history of left onset tremor diagnosed as Parkinson's disease (PD) completed longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. MRI scans showed an asymmetric caudate nucleus (right < left volume). We describe this asymmetry at baseline and the progression over time relative to other subcortical gray, frontal white matter, and cortical gray matter regions of interest. Isolated structural changes are compared to MN's cognitive profiles...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806704/vascular-depression-consensus-report-a-critical-update
#9
EDITORIAL
Howard J Aizenstein, Andrius Baskys, Maura Boldrini, Meryl A Butters, Breno S Diniz, Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Kurt A Jellinger, Lev S Kruglov, Ivan A Meshandin, Milija D Mijajlovic, Guenter Niklewski, Sarah Pospos, Keerthy Raju, Kneginja Richter, David C Steffens, Warren D Taylor, Oren Tene
BACKGROUND: Vascular depression is regarded as a subtype of late-life depression characterized by a distinct clinical presentation and an association with cerebrovascular damage. Although the term is commonly used in research settings, widely accepted diagnostic criteria are lacking and vascular depression is absent from formal psychiatric manuals such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5(th) edition - a fact that limits its use in clinical settings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, showing a variety of cerebrovascular lesions, including extensive white matter hyperintensities, subcortical microvascular lesions, lacunes, and microinfarcts, in patients with late life depression, led to the introduction of the term "MRI-defined vascular depression"...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798653/progression-of-regional-microstructural-degeneration-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-multicenter-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#10
Yu Zhang, I-Wei Wu, Duygu Tosun, Eric Foster, Norbert Schuff
This study aimed to identify the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in measuring the regional distribution of abnormal microstructural progression in patients with Parkinson's disease who were enrolled in the Parkinson's progression marker initiative (PPMI). One hundred and twenty two de-novo PD patients (age = 60.5±9) and 50 healthy controls (age = 60.6±11) had DTI scans at baseline and 12.6±1 months later. Automated image processing included an intra-subject registration of all time points and an inter-subjects registration to a brain atlas...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796747/neonatal-dexamethasone-treatment-exacerbates-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-white-matter-injury
#11
Chia -Yu Yeh, Che-Ming Yeh, Ting-Hsuan Yu, Kan-Hsun Chang, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, has been widely used to prevent or ameliorate morbidity of chronic lung disease in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Despite its beneficial effect on neonatal lung function, growing concern has arisen about adverse effects of this clinical practice on fetal brain development. We demonstrated previously that neonatal dexamethasone (DEX) treatment may render the newborn brain to be more vulnerable to hypoxia/ischemia (HI)-induced gray matter injury...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778099/brain-structural-profile-of-multiple-system-atrophy-patients-with-cognitive-impairment
#12
Eleonora Fiorenzato, Luca Weis, Klaus Seppi, Marco Onofrj, Pietro Cortelli, Stefano Zanigni, Caterina Tonon, Horacio Kaufmann, Timothy Michael Shepherd, Werner Poewe, Florian Krismer, Gregor Wenning, Angelo Antonini, Roberta Biundo
Current consensus diagnostic criteria for multiple system atrophy (MSA) consider dementia a non-supporting feature, although cognitive impairment and even frank dementia are reported in clinical practice. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a commonly used global cognitive scale, and in a previous study, we established an MSA-specific screening cut-off score <27 to identify cognitive impairment. Finally, MSA neuroimaging findings suggest the presence of structural alterations in patients with cognitive deficits, although the extent of the anatomical changes is unclear...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759635/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-early-brain-microstructure-changes-before-and-after-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-in-children-with-high-intracranial-pressure-hydrocephalus
#13
Cailei Zhao, Yongxin Li, Weiguo Cao, Kui Xiang, Heye Zhang, Jian Yang, Yungen Gan
To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2-36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2-36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756805/widespread-structural-brain-involvement-in-als-is-not-limited-to-the-c9orf72-repeat-expansion
#14
Henk-Jan Westeneng, Renée Walhout, Milou Straathof, Ruben Schmidt, Jeroen Hendrikse, Jan H Veldink, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Leonard H van den Berg
BACKGROUND: In patients with a C9orf72 repeat expansion (C9+), a neuroimaging phenotype with widespread structural cerebral changes has been found. We aimed to investigate the specificity of this neuroimaging phenotype in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: 156 C9- and 14 C9+ patients with ALS underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; a subset (n=126) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and white matter integrity were compared between C9+ and C9- patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748972/astrocyte-mediated-infantile-onset-leukoencephalopathy-mouse-model
#15
Shouta Sugio, Koujiro Tohyama, Shinichiro Oku, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Takeshi Yoshimura, Keigo Hikishima, Ryutaro Yano, Takahiro Fukuda, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Masahiko Watanabe, Masaki Fukata, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Kenji F Tanaka
Astrocytes have recently been shown to provide physiological support for various brain functions, although little is known about their involvement in white matter integrity. Several inherited infantile-onset leukoencephalopathies, such as Alexander disease and megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), implicate astrocytic involvement in the formation of white matter. Several mouse models of MLC had been generated by knocking out the Mlc1 gene; however, none of those models was reported to show myelin abnormalities prior to formation of the myelin sheath...
October 17, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729576/association-between-endogenous-testosterone-and-cerebrovascular-disease-in-the-aric-study-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities
#16
Reshmi Srinath, Rebecca F Gottesman, Sherita Hill Golden, Kathryn A Carson, Adrian Dobs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies in men suggest a relationship between endogenous testosterone and ischemic vascular events. We hypothesized that low testosterone is independently associated with ischemic stroke and ischemic brain changes. METHODS: In 1558 male participants (mean [SD] age, 63.1 [5.6] years; body mass index, 28.2 [4.3] kg/m(2)) from visit 4 (1996-1998) of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) without cardiovascular disease, stroke, and previous testosterone therapy, we measured plasma total testosterone by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using morning samples and divided levels into tertiles (median [25th-75th percentile], 377...
November 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721908/frailty-characteristics-in-chronic-hiv-patients-are-markers-of-white-matter-atrophy-independently-of-age-and-depressive-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#17
Kalpana J Kallianpur, Marissa Sakoda, Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Tracie Umaki, Dominic Chow, Suwarat Wongjittraporn, Cecilia M Shikuma
BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV disease is associated with neurocognitive impairment and age-related conditions such as frailty. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether regional brain volumetric changes correlate with frailty parameters in older (≥ 40 years) HIV+ patients on stable combination antiretroviral therapy. METHOD: Thirty-five HIV-infected participants in the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort - Cardiovascular Disease study underwent T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging, frailty assessment and neuropsychological testing...
2016: Open Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719745/pathological-background-of-subcortical-hyperintensities-on-diffusion-weighted-images-in-a-case-of-neuronal-intranuclear-inclusion-disease
#18
Satoshi Yokoi, Keizo Yasui, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Kazuki Niwa, Yoshinori Noguchi, Toyonori Tsuzuki, Maya Mimuro, Jun Sone, Hirohisa Watanabe, Masahisa Katsuno, Mari Yoshida, Gen Sobue
AIMS: Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The variable symptoms of NIID increase the difficulty in an antemortem diagnosis. NIID shows leukoencephalopathy on brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI, but the significance of the radiological findings have not been clarified. METHODS: We examined an autopsied case of NIID with subcortical linear hyperintensities on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and leukoencephalopathy on fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709120/mri-features-in-17-patients-with-l2-hydroxyglutaric-aciduria
#19
Héla Fourati, Emna Ellouze, Mourad Ahmadi, Dhouha Chaari, Fatma Kamoun, Ines Hsairi, Chahnez Triki, Zeineb Mnif
l-2-Hydroxyglutaric (l-2-HG) aciduria is a rare inherited metabolic disease usually observed in children. Patients present a very slowly progressive deterioration with cerebellar ataxia, mild or severe mental retardation, and various other clinical signs including extrapyramidal and pyramidal symptoms, and seizures Goffette et al. [1]. This leukencephalopathy was first described in 1980 Duran et al. [2]. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates nonspecific subcortical white matter (WM) loss, cerebellar atrophy and changes in dentate nuclei and putamen Steenweg et al...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708577/neuroanatomical-alterations-in-tinnitus-assessed-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Thomas W Allan, Julien Besle, Dave R M Langers, Jeff Davies, Deborah A Hall, Alan R Palmer, Peyman Adjamian
Previous studies of anatomical changes associated with tinnitus have provided inconsistent results, with some showing significant cortical and subcortical changes, while others have found effects due to hearing loss, but not tinnitus. In this study, we examined changes in brain anatomy associated with tinnitus using anatomical scans from 128 participants with tinnitus and hearing loss, tinnitus with clinically normal hearing, and non-tinnitus controls with clinically normal hearing. The groups were matched for hearing loss, age and gender...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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