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Subcortical white matter changes in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634442/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evokes-pyramidal-neuron-axon-initial-segment-plasticity-and-diffuse-presynaptic-inhibitory-terminal-loss
#1
Michal Vascak, Jianli Sun, Matthew Baer, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential (AP) initiation, thus a crucial regulator of neuronal activity. In excitatory pyramidal neurons, the high density of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.6) at the distal AIS regulates AP initiation. A surrogate AIS marker, ankyrin-G (ankG) is a structural protein regulating neuronal functional via clustering voltage-gated ion channels. In neuronal circuits, changes in presynaptic input can alter postsynaptic output via AIS structural-functional plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618066/assessment-of-ferritin-content-in-multiple-sclerosis-brains-using-temperature-induced-r-2-changes
#2
Christoph Birkl, Daniele Carassiti, Fariha Hussain, Christian Langkammer, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas, Klaus Schmierer, Stefan Ropele
PURPOSE: Current MRI techniques cannot reliably assess iron content in white matter due to the confounding diamagnetic effect of myelin. The purpose of this study was to validate with histology a novel iron mapping technique that uses the temperature dependency of the paramagnetic susceptibility in multiple sclerosis (MS) brains, where white matter has been reported to show significant variations in iron content. METHODS: We investigated post mortem brain tissue from three MS patients and one control subject...
June 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617385/-differential-diagnosis-of-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy
#3
A A Moroz, N Yu Abramycheva, M S Stepanova, R N Konovalov, S L Timerbaeva, S N Illarioshkin
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarctions and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited CNS disease, which is caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. Selective disorders of small vessels underlie the disease pathogenesis. Clinically CADASIL is characterized by headaches, multiple stroke-like disorders (in most cases transient ischemic attacks and lacunar strokes), and different focal neurological symptoms and dementia. There are specific MRI signs of the disease: multiple lacunar infarctions located in the basal ganglia, brain steam and cerebellum, focal lesions of temporal poles, capsula externa, periventricular and subcortical areas; diffuse white matter changes and leukoaraiosis can be observed as well...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601374/quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-qsm-and-r2-in-the-human-brain-at-3t-evaluation-of-intra-scanner-repeatability
#4
Xiang Feng, Andreas Deistung, Jürgen R Reichenbach
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) can be used to monitor iron and myelin content in brain tissue, which are both subject to changes in many neurological diseases but also during healthy aging. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the repeatability of QSM and R2* by applying four independent scans in eight young healthy, female subjects on a 3T MRI scanner. Since QSM does not yield absolute values for bulk magnetic susceptibilities, we additionally investigated the influence of the choice of a reference brain region for susceptibility by computing susceptibility differences with respect to five different brain structures (whole brain, frontal white matter (fWM), internal capsule (IC), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the lateral ventricle, cortical gray matter (cGM))...
June 7, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549449/fatal-familial-insomnia-with-abnormal-signals-on-routine-mri-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Tingting Lu, Yuhang Pan, Lisheng Peng, Feng Qin, Xiaobo Sun, Zhengqi Lu, Wei Qiu
BACKGROUND: Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by the PRNP D178N/129 M mutation. Routine brain CT and MRI usually reveal non-specific features. We report a patient with FFI presenting with diffuse abnormal signals on MRI, later confirmed as combined with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 58-year-old female, whose main clinical manifestations were insomnia, movement disorders, autonomic hyperactivity and mental deterioration...
May 26, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516805/mesial-temporal-lobe-and-subcortical-grey-matter-volumes-differentially-predict-memory-across-stages-of-multiple-sclerosis
#6
James F Sumowski, Victoria M Leavitt, Maria A Rocca, Matilde Inglese, Gianna Riccitelli, Korhan Buyukturkoglu, Alessandro Meani, Massimo Filippi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Memory deficits due to multiple sclerosis (MS) have been variably linked to lower subcortical grey matter (SCGM) and mesial temporal lobe (MTL) volumes. We investigated which is the better predictor and whether this changes across disease stages. METHODS/RESULTS: Memory was assessed in 315 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured volumes of total brain, grey matter, white matter, MTL (hippocampus, amygdala) and SCGM (thalamus, caudate)...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514330/-mri-morphometry-of-neuroplastic-changes-in-the-brain-after-conservative-treatment-of-traumatic-brachial-plexopathy
#7
S A Zhivolupov, E N Gnevyshev, A G Trufanov, L V Voronkov, A A Jurin, N A Rashidov, I N Samartsev, I D Poltavsky
AIM: To identify neuroplastic changes in the brain structures during treatment of traumatic axonotomy of the brachial plexus (the pathology of peripheral nervous system). MATERIAL AND METHODS: MRI morphometry of white and grey matter was studied in 62 patients with traumatic axonotomy of the brachial plexus. RESULTS: There were correlations between the thickness of sensorimotor cortex, morphometric parameters (volume, diffusion, fractional anisotropy) of subcortical formations (corticospinal tracts, the forceps minor), severity of neurological deficit and dynamics of clinical course depending on the therapeutic strategy...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467985/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-treatment-on-the-cerebral-vasculature-in-an-ovine-model-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#8
Margie Castillo-Melendez, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Graham Jenkin, Euan M Wallace, Suzanne L Miller
Chronic moderate hypoxia, such as occurs in fetal growth restriction (FGR) during gestation, compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and results in structural abnormalities of the cerebral vasculature. We have previously determined the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of maternal administration of melatonin (MLT) on growth-restricted newborn lambs. The potential of maternal MLT therapy for the treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction-associated developmental hypoxia has also been demonstrated in newborn lambs...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462514/relationship-between-white-matter-connectivity-loss-and-cortical-thinning-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#9
Yael D Reijmer, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Andreas Charidimou, Susanne J van Veluw, Li Xiong, Grace A Riley, Sergi Martinez-Ramirez, Kristin Schwab, Anand Viswanathan, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg
Patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) show loss of white matter connectivity and cortical thinning on MRI, primarily in posterior brain regions. Here we examined whether a potential causal relationship exists between these markers of subcortical and cortical brain injury by examining whether changes in cortical thickness progress in tandem with changes in their underlying connections. Thirty-one patients with probable CAA with brain MRI at two time points were included (follow-up time: 1.3 ± 0...
April 30, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457809/circulating-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-relation-to-brain-structural-measurements-in-a-non-demented-elderly-population
#10
Yian Gu, Robert Vorburger, Nikolaos Scarmeas, José A Luchsinger, Jennifer J Manly, Nicole Schupf, Richard Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
The aim of this investigation was to determine whether circulating inflammatory biomarkers c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6), and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) were related to structural brain measures assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). High-resolution structural MRI was collected on 680 non-demented elderly (mean age 80.1years) participants of a community-based, multiethnic cohort. Approximately three quarters of these participants also had peripheral inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, IL6, and ACT) measured using ELISA...
April 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441824/-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features-of-acute-encephalopathy-after-status-epilepticus-in-dravet-syndrome
#11
X J Tian, Y H Zhang, A J Liu, X L Yang, Q Zeng, Z X Yang, J T Ye, X Y Liu, Y W Jiang, X R Wu
Objective: To investigate the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of acute encephalopathy (AE) after status epilepticus (SE) of patients with Dravet syndrome (DS). Method: The clinical data of DS patients who had AE (coma ≥24 h) after SE were retrospectively collected from February 2005 to August 2016 in Peking University First Hospital and SCN1A gene tests were performed.The clinical and neuroimaging features were summarized. Result: Twenty-two patients (9 males and 13 females) with AE were collected among 412 DS patients during follow-up...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428014/concussion-induces-focal-and-widespread-neuromorphological-changes
#12
Dafna Sussman, Leodante da Costa, Mallar M Chakravarty, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor, Benjamin T Dunkley
Concussion induces transient, and oftentimes chronic, lingering impairment to mental functioning, which must be driven by some underlying neurobiological perturbation - however, the physical changes related to sequelae are difficult to detect. Previous imaging studies on concussion have focused on alterations to cortical anatomy, but few have examined the cerebrum, subcortex, and cerebellum. Here, we present an analysis of these structures in a single cohort (all males, 21 patients, 22 controls) using MRI and diagnosed with a single-concussive episode in the acute and sub-acute stages of injury...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427358/cortical-laminar-necrosis-in-dengue-encephalitis-a-case-report
#13
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Imran Rizvi, Rajan Ingole, Amita Jain, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Dhruv Batra
BACKGROUND: Dengue encephalitis is a rare neurological manifestation of dengue fever. Its clinical presentation is similar to other viral encephalitides and encephalopathy. No single specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging of dengue encephalitis has yet been documented. They are highly variable and atypical. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year boy presented with fever, the headache and altered sensorium of 12-day duration. On neurological examination, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 10 (E3M4V3)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415142/neural-correlates-of-cognitive-processing-in-monolinguals-and-bilinguals
#14
REVIEW
John G Grundy, John A E Anderson, Ellen Bialystok
Here, we review the neural correlates of cognitive control associated with bilingualism. We demonstrate that lifelong practice managing two languages orchestrates global changes to both the structure and function of the brain. Compared with monolinguals, bilinguals generally show greater gray matter volume, especially in perceptual/motor regions, greater white matter integrity, and greater functional connectivity between gray matter regions. These changes complement electroencephalography findings showing that bilinguals devote neural resources earlier than monolinguals...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399892/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-white-matter-glial-responses-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#15
Yoshiki Hase, Lucinda Craggs, Mai Hase, William Stevenson, Janet Slade, Dianne Lopez, Rubin Mehta, Aiqing Chen, Di Liang, Arthur Oakley, Masafumi Ihara, Karen Horsburgh, Raj N Kalaria
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment (EE) on white matter glial changes in a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). METHODS: A total of 74 wild-type male C57BL/6J mice underwent BCAS or sham surgery. One week after surgery, the mice were randomly assigned into three different groups having varied amounts of EE-standard housing with no EE conditions (std), limited exposure with 3 h EE a day (3 h) and full-time exposure to EE (full) for 12 weeks...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347393/brain-volume-changes-over-the-first-year-of-treatment-in-schizophrenia-relationships-to-antipsychotic-treatment
#16
R Emsley, L Asmal, S du Plessis, B Chiliza, L Phahladira, S Kilian
BACKGROUND: Progressive brain volume reductions have been described in schizophrenia, and an association with antipsychotic exposure has been reported. METHODS: We compared percentage changes in grey and white matter volume from baseline to month 12 in 23 previously antipsychotic-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder who were treated with the lowest effective dose of flupenthixol decanoate depot formulation, with 53 matched healthy individuals...
March 28, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#17
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339428/does-conservative-treatment-change-the-brain-in-patients-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-a-systematic-review
#18
Jeroen Kregel, Iris Coppieters, Robby DePauw, Anneleen Malfliet, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs, Barbara Cagnie, Mira Meeus
BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is characterized by maladaptive central neuroplastic changes. Many observational studies have demonstrated that chronic pain states are associated with brain alterations regarding structure and/or function. Rehabilitation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain may include cognitive, exercise, or multimodal therapies. OBJECTIVE: The current review aims to provide a constructive overview of the existing literature reporting neural correlates, based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, following conservative treatment in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336929/developmental-whole-brain-white-matter-alterations-in-transgenic-huntington-s-disease-monkey
#19
Yuguang Meng, Jie Jiang, Jocelyne Bachevalier, Xiaodong Zhang, Anthony W S Chan
Transgenic Huntington's disease monkey (HD monkey) model provides great opportunity for studying disease progression that could lead to new insight for developing biomarker, early intervention and novel therapeutics. Whole brain white matter integrity of HD-monkeys was examined longitudinally from 6 to 48 months using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Progressive developmental white matter alterations in HD monkeys were widespread and were observed not only in fiber bundles connecting cortical areas to the striatum (e...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336779/validation-of-the-semi-quantitative-static-suvr-method-for-18-f-av45-pet-by-pharmacokinetic-modeling-with-an-arterial-input-function
#20
Julie Ottoy, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Leonie Wyffels, Charisse Somers, Ellen De Roeck, Hanne Struyfs, Femke Soetewey, Steven Deleye, Tobi Van den Bossche, Sara Van Mossevelde, Sarah Ceyssens, Jan Versijpt, Sigrid Stroobants, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Steven Staelens
Increased brain uptake of [(18)F]-AV45 visualized by PET is a key biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) is widely used for quantification, but is subject to variability based on choice of reference region and changes in cerebral blood flow. Here we validate the SUVR method against the gold standard volume of distribution (VT) to assess cross-sectional differences in plaque load. Methods: Dynamic 60-min [(18)F]-AV45 (291 ± 67 MBq) and 1-min [(15)O]-H2O (370 MBq) scans were obtained in 35 age-matched elderly subjects, including 10 probable AD dementia, 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 10 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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