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antibiotic development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724222/development-of-a-soft-extraction-method-for-sulfamethoxazole-and-transformation-products-from-agricultural-soils-effects-of-organic-matter-co-extraction-on-the-environmental-availability-assessment
#1
Anaïs Goulas, Marjolaine Bourdat-Deschamps, Sylvie Nélieu, Julie Jimenez, Dominique Patureau, Claire-Sophie Haudin, Pierre Benoit
The recycling of biosolids and livestock manure in agriculture may lead to the introduction of antibiotic residues, i.e., parent molecule and transformation products, into amended soils. Their fate in soils can be approached through the assessment of their environmental availability. In this work, the environmental availability of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and three transformation products (N(4)-acetyl-SMX, 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole, aniline) was assessed in soils amended with sludge compost or cow manure throughout a three-month incubation, using soft extractions with CaCl2, EDTA or cyclodextrin solutions...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723778/thoracic-splenosis-mimicking-a-pleuropneumonia-a-case-report
#2
Aurélie Baldolli, Solène Coeuret, Vincent Le Pennec, Denis Agostini, Renaud Verdon
RATIONALE: Splenosis is the development of one or more heterotopic splenic tissue autoimplants following rupture of the spleen and remains mostly asymptomatic. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 50-year old post-traumatic splenectomized man admitted for a left side community acquired pneumonia resistant to antibiotics. DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis of intrathoracic ectopic spleen was suspected because of the history of spleen trauma with diaphragm rupture and the absence of Howell-Jolly bodies...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723736/timing-of-preoperative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-54-552-patients-and-the-risk-of-surgical-site-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Stijn Willem de Jonge, Sarah L Gans, Jasper J Atema, Joseph S Solomkin, Patchen E Dellinger, Marja A Boermeester
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of timing of preoperative surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) on surgical site infection (SSI) and compare the different timing intervals.The benefit of routine use of SAP prior to surgery has long been recognized. However, the optimal timing has not been defined. For the purpose of developing recommendations for the World Health Organization guideline for SSI prevention, a systematic review and meta-analysis of all relevant evidence was conducted.Major medical databases were searched from 1990 to 2016...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723471/urinary-tract-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients-with-diabetes-chronic-kidney-disease-and-kidney-transplant
#4
REVIEW
Zafer Tandogdu, Tommaso Cai, Bela Koves, Florian Wagenlehner, Truls Erik Bjerklund-Johansen
CONTEXT: This paper provides a brief overview of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in immunocompromised patients from the perspective of a practicing urologist. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to provide an update on UTIs in immunocompromised patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease, and kidney transplant (KT) are the most common clinical cases encountered by urologists. Diagnosis, management, and future research needs are summarised. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723269/identification-of-antipneumococcal-molecules-effective-against-different-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-using-a-resazurin-based-high-throughput-screen
#5
Hyung Jun Kim, Namyoul Kim, David Shum, Srigouri Huddar, Chul Min Park, Soojin Jang
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen, causing around 1.6 million deaths worldwide each year. By optimizing a resazurin-based assay to detect S. pneumoniae growth in 384-well microplates, we developed a new high-throughput screening (HTS) system for the discovery of antipneumococcal molecules, which was unsuccessful using conventional absorbance measurements. Before applying our protocol to a large-scale screen, we validated the system through a pilot screen targeting about 7,800 bioactive molecules using three different S...
July 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723230/retrograde-endourological-management-of-upper-urinary-tract-abnormalities-in-patients-with-ileal-conduit-urinary-diversion-a-dual-center-experience
#6
Louise Olson, Hywel Satherley, Paul Cleaveland, Bachar Zelhof, Max Mokete, Donald Neilson, Shalom Srirangam
INTRODUCTION: Patients with ileal conduit urinary diversions are at an increased risk of long-term upper urinary tract (UUT) complications, including anastomotic strictures, infections, and urolithiasis. The reconstructed urinary system poses challenges for endoscopic manipulation. We present and describe our dual-center experience in performing retrograde ureteroscopy to treat or diagnose UUT abnormalities in patients with ileal conduit incontinent diversion. PATIENT AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records for all patients with previous urinary diversion who underwent retrograde ureteroscopic procedures via the ileal loop in our institutions over a 9 year period (between June 2007 and August 2016)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723178/development-of-engineered-bacteriophages-for-escherichia-coli-detection-and-high-throughput-antibiotic-resistance-determination
#7
Juhong Chen, Samuel D Alcaine, Angelyca A Jackson, Vincent M Rotello, Sam R Nugen
T7 bacteriophages (phages) have been genetically engineered to carry the lacZ operon, enabling the overexpression of beta-galactosidase (β-gal) during phage infection and allowing for the enhanced colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Following the phage infection of E. coli, the enzymatic activity of the released β-gal was monitored using a colorimetric substrate. Compared with a control T7 phage, our T7lacZ phage generated significantly higher levels of β-gal expression following phage infection, enabling a lower limit of detection for E...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722598/risk-factors-for-severe-infection-hospitalization-and-prolonged-antimicrobial-therapy-in-patients-with-babesiosis
#8
Neeharik Mareedu, Anna M Schotthoefer, Jason Tompkins, Matthew C Hall, Thomas R Fritsche, Holly M Frost
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis, which also transmits Lyme disease. Better gradation of prognostic indicators are needed to determine which patients may develop serious complications requiring hospitalization, and to provide early guidance on appropriate therapy. In this study, we evaluated 128 patients with smear or real time polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Babesia microti infections over a period of 16 years. Patients with asplenia or immunocompromising conditions were more likely to have severe infection (P < 0...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722231/bacteria-antibiotic-resistance-new-challenges-and-opportunities-for-implant-associated-orthopaedic-infections
#9
Bingyun Li, Thomas J Webster
There has been a dramatic increase in the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains, which has made antibiotic choices for infection control increasingly limited and more expensive. In the U.S. alone, antibiotic resistant bacteria cause at least 2 million infections and 23,000 deaths a year resulting in a $55-70 billion per year economic impact. Antibiotics are critical to the success of surgical procedures including orthopaedic prosthetic surgeries, and antibiotic resistance is occurring in nearly all bacteria that infect people, including the most common bacteria that cause orthopaedic infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus (S...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721833/role-of-nutrients-and-phyto-compounds-in-the-modulation-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#10
Steve Harakeh, Imran Khan, Saad B Almasaudi, Esam I Azhar, Soad Al-Jaouni, Aleksandra Niedzweicki
Antimicrobial resistance is quickly spreading and has become a major public health problem worldwide. If this issue is not resolved, it may cause a shift back to the pre-antibiotics era and infectious disease will again be a serious problem, especially in developing countries. Since the discovery of antibiotics, bacterial resistance has emerged, enabling certain bacteria to withstand antibiotic effects. The emergence of antibiotic resistance is fueled by excessive and improper use of antimicrobial agents, especially in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721396/biodiesel-byproduct-bioconversion-to-rhamnolipids-upstream-aspects
#11
Ana Maria Salazar-Bryam, Roberta Barros Lovaglio, Jonas Contiero
This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721045/synthesis-construction-and-evaluation-of-self-assembled-nano-bacitracin-a-as-an-efficient-antibacterial-agent-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Wei Hong, Xiang Gao, Peng Qiu, Jie Yang, Mingxi Qiao, Hong Shi, Dexian Zhang, Chunlian Tian, Shengli Niu, Mingchun Liu
Bacitracin A (BA) is an excellent polypeptide antibiotic that is active against gram-positive bacteria without triggering multidrug resistance. However, BA is inactive against gram-negative bacteria because of its inability to cross the outer membrane of these cells, and it has strong nephrotoxicity, thus limiting its clinical applications. Nanoantibiotics can effectively localize antibiotics to the periplasmic space of bacteria while decreasing the adverse effects of antibiotics. In this study, biodegradable hydrophobic copolymers of poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were attached to the N-termini of BA to design a novel class of self-assembled nano-bacitracin A (nano-BAs), and their potential as antibacterial agents was evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721044/stimulated-phase-shift-acoustic-nanodroplets-enhance-vancomycin-efficacy-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#13
Hao Guo, Ziming Wang, Quanyin Du, Pan Li, Zhigang Wang, Aimin Wang
PURPOSE: Bacterial biofilms on the surface of prostheses are becoming a rising concern in managing prosthetic joint infections. The inherent resistant features of biofilms render traditional antimicrobial therapy unproductive and revision surgery outcomes uncertain. This situation has prompted the exploration of novel antimicrobial strategies. The synergy of ultrasound microbubbles and vancomycin has been proposed as an efficient alternative for biofilm eradication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of stimulated phase-shift acoustic nanodroplets (NDs) combined with vancomycin...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720403/gradenigo-s-syndrome-a-case-of-a-common-infection-with-uncommon-consequences
#14
Matthew Vitale, Misra Amrit, Rajan Arora, Julie Lata
Acute otitis media is a common diagnosis encountered by emergency medicine providers. With appropriate antibiotic treatment, patients with otitis media, in general, have minimal long-term sequela from their underlying infection (Limb et al., 2017 [1]). However, untreated cases can develop life-threatening complications that require prompt intervention. We report a case of an 8-year-old that developed Gradenigo's syndrome, a condition characterized by the triad of otitis media, facial pain in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy (Yeung and Lustig, 2016; Janjua et al...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720345/the-potential-of-phage-therapy-in-cystic-fibrosis-essential-human-bacterial-phage-interactions-and-delivery-considerations-for-use-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infected-airways
#15
REVIEW
Stephanie Trend, Angela M Fonceca, William G Ditcham, Anthony Kicic, Arest Cf
As antimicrobial-resistant microbes become increasingly common and a significant global issue, novel approaches to treating these infections particularly in those at high risk are required. This is evident in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), who suffer from chronic airway infection caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, typically Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One option is bacteriophage (phage) therapy, which utilises the natural predation of phage viruses upon their host bacteria. This review summarises the essential and unique aspects of the phage-microbe-human lung interactions in CF that must be addressed to successfully develop and deliver phage to CF airways...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720045/neonatal-acute-paronychia
#16
Luke Grome, Gregory Borah
BACKGROUND: Paronychia is defined as infection afflicting the eponychial nail folds of the hand or foot. Such infections are rarely reported in the perinatal age group, and not previously described in a neonate younger than 2 weeks. Trauma resulting in inoculation of the nail fold is the most common predisposing factor to paronychia. Oral trauma in the pediatric population from finger sucking predisposes this population to a different set of bacterial pathogens than adults. Contamination can progress to infection and abscess formation within the nail fold with the most prevalent vector in adult infections being Staphylococcus aureus...
February 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719354/thymol-and-carvacrol-strongly-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-growth-of-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli
#17
P Raei, T Pourlak, M Y Memar, N Alizadeh, M Aghamali, E Zeinalzadeh, M Asgharzadeh, H S Kafil
Discovery of novel drugs with new mechanisms of action and without cross-reaction with current therapeutic agents is crucial in the management of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of carvacrol and thymol on biofilm formation and antimicrobial activity against different carbapenemase-producing Gram negative bacilli. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of thymol and carvacrol was investigated against strains harboring different genes related to carbapenemase resistance...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719188/phage-selection-of-cyclic-peptides-for-application-in-research-and-drug-development
#18
Kaycie Deyle, Xu-Dong Kong, Christian Heinis
Cyclic peptides can bind to protein targets with high affinities and selectivities, which makes them an attractive modality for the development of research reagents and therapeutics. Additional properties, including low inherent toxicity, efficient chemical synthesis, and facile modification with labels or immobilization reagents, increase their attractiveness. Cyclic peptide ligands against a wide range of protein targets have been isolated from natural sources such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals...
July 18, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718958/multiplex-pcr-scheme-for-variant-plasmid-mediated-class-c-%C3%AE-lactamase-typing
#19
Le Van Chuong, Virapong Prachayasittikul, Chartchalerm Isarankura Na Ayudhya, Ratana Lawung
BACKGROUND: An increasing of prevalence and diversification of plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) has been emerged worldwide. The incidence of pAmpC resulted in increasing β-lactamase production and conferred resistance to almost all β-lactam antibiotics excluding carbapenems. The lack of standard method for pAmpC identification and classification exert a challenge in epidemiological surveillance and infection control practices. METHODS: A robust, single tube multiplex PCR has been developed to classify six different pAmpC groups including CIT (CMY-2 like, LAT and CFE), ECB (ACT, MIR), MOX & CMY-1 like, DHA, ACC, and FOX...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717548/infective-complications-in-patients-after-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-and-the-role-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli-colonization-in-rectal-flora
#20
Mustafa Bilal Hamarat, Fatih Tarhan, Rahim Horuz, Gülfem Akengin Öcal, Mehmet Kutlu Demirkol, Alper Kafkaslı, Özgür Yazıcı
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to invastigate the ciprofloxacin resistance in rectal flora of the patients undergoing prostate biopsy in our department. Additionally, the possible effects of the presence of ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria in faecal flora on the risk of infective complications after the procedure as well as the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on such infectious complications have been evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 142 patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy were included into the study program...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
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