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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054003/adhesion-force-sensing-and-activation-of-a-membrane-bound-sensor-to-activate-nisin-efflux-pumps-in-staphylococcus-aureus-under-mechanical-and-chemical-stresses
#1
Vera Carniello, Akshay K Harapanahalli, Henk J Busscher, Henny C van der Mei
Nisin-associated-sensitivity-response-regulator (NsaRS) in Staphylococcus aureus is important for its adhesion to surfaces and resistance against antibiotics, like nisin. NsaRS consists of an intra-membrane-located sensor NsaS and a cytoplasmatically-located response-regulator NsaR, which becomes activated upon receiving phosphate groups from the intra-membrane-located sensor. HYPOTHESIS: The intra-membrane location of the NsaS sensor leads us to hypothesize that the two-component NsaRS system not only senses "chemical" (nisin) but also "mechanical" (adhesion) stresses to modulate efflux of antibiotics from the cytoplasm...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053647/efficacy-of-different-methods-used-for-dry-socket-prevention-and-risk-factor-analysis-a-systematic-review
#2
M Taberner-Vallverdú, M-Á Sánchez-Garcés, C Gay-Escoda
BACKGROUND: Dry socket is one of the most common complications that develops after the extraction of a permanent tooth, and its prevention is more effective than its treatment. OBJECTIVES: Analyze the efficacy of different methods used in preventing dry socket in order to decrease its incidence after tooth extraction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Cochrane and PubMed-MEDLINE database search was conducted with the search terms "dry socket", "prevention", "risk factors", "alveolar osteitis" and "fibrynolitic alveolitis", both individually and using the Boolean operator "AND"...
October 20, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052687/association-between-early-life-antibiotic-use-and-the-risk-of-islet-or-celiac-disease-autoimmunity
#3
Kaisa M Kemppainen, Kendra Vehik, Kristian F Lynch, Helena Elding Larsson, Ronald J Canepa, Ville Simell, Sibylle Koletzko, Edwin Liu, Olli G Simell, Jorma Toppari, Anette G Ziegler, Marian J Rewers, Åke Lernmark, William A Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Beena Akolkar, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Atkinson, Martin J Blaser, Jeffrey P Krischer, Heikki Hyöty, Daniel Agardh, Eric W Triplett
Importance: Evidence is lacking regarding the consequences of antibiotic use in early life and the risk of certain autoimmune diseases. Objective: To test the association between early-life antibiotic use and islet or celiac disease (CD) autoimmunity in genetically at-risk children prospectively followed up for type 1 diabetes (T1D) or CD. Design, Setting, and Participants: HLA-genotyped newborns from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States were enrolled in the prospective birth cohort of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study between November 20, 2004, and July 8, 2010...
October 9, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051881/fracture-management-in-pyknodysostosis-a-rare-case-report
#4
G Subramanya Gandhi, V Vijayanarasimhan, Lionel John, S Kailash, E Sathish Balaji
INTRODUCTION: Pyknodysostosis is congenital osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia of a rare entity. It is an autosomal recessive disease which presents with short stature and generalized osteosclerosis of skeleton as result of decreased bone turnover. Here, the authors report a case of pyknodysostosis who presented to our emergency room with a pathological fracture in the shaft of the femur for which operative intervention was carried out. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old female presented to our emergency room with a history of trivial injury to right thigh region and was diagnosed as fracture in her right femur shaft region...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051574/florfenicol-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-autophagy-in-fibroblasts
#5
Dongfang Hu, Shengliang Cao, Guihua Zhang, Yihong Xiao, Sidang Liu, Yingli Shang
Florfenicol (FLO) is one of the most popular antibiotics used in veterinary clinic and aquaculture. FLO can inhibit both bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis. However, the effects of FLO on mitochondrial function and cellular homeostasis remain unclear. Here we show that FLO inhibits expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins, decreases mitochondrial membrane potential, and promotes generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. As a result, activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and IV and the cellular ATP level are decreased and mitochondrial morphology is damaged...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051234/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-strain-resistant-to-fourth-generation-cephalosporin-and-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics
#6
Danish Gul, Robert F Potter, Hurmat Riaz, Shifa Tariq Ashraf, Meghan A Wallace, Tehmina Munir, Amjad Ali, C A Burnham, Gautam Dantas, Saadia Andleeb
Typhoid is endemic in developing countries. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi clinical isolate from Pakistan exhibiting resistance to cefepime (a fourth-generation cephalosporin) and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, two of the last-generation therapies against this pathogen. The genome is ~4.8 Mb, with two putative plasmids.
October 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050887/antibiotic-stewardship-in-the-newborn-surgical-patient-a%C3%A2-quality-improvement-project-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#7
Sarah Walker, Ankur Datta, Roxanne L Massoumi, Erica R Gross, Michael Uhing, Marjorie J Arca
BACKGROUND: There is significant diversity in the utilization of antibiotics for neonates undergoing surgical procedures. Our institution standardized antibiotic administration for surgical neonates, in which no empiric antibiotics were given to infants with surgical conditions postnatally, and antibiotics are given no more than 72 hours perioperatively. METHODS: We compared the time periods before and after implementation of antibiotic protocol in an institution review board-approved, retrospective review of neonates with congenital surgical conditions who underwent surgical correction within 30 days after birth...
October 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050042/-therapy-of-spondylodiscitis-by-severity
#8
Nadine Homagk, Tina Jarmuzek, Gunther O Hofmann, Lars Homagk
Spondylodiscitis is a rare but serious infection of the spine. Recognised methods of treatment include immobilisation and systemic antibiotics. However, available data for specific and recommendations for continuing treatment are also rare. The aim of the present study is the optimisation of the therapy of spondylodiscitis using a clinical pathway that depends on a classification of spondylodiscitis. From 1 October 1998 to 31 December 2013, a classification of the severity of spondylodiscitis was established, including specific treatment recommendations...
October 19, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049966/performance-comparison-of-secondary-and-tertiary-treatment-systems-for-treating-antibiotic-resistance
#9
Manisha Lamba, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. AR proliferation mediated by treated/untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. Efficient sewage treatment is among our key defenses against the dissemination of infectious diseases. The present study aims to estimate the efficiency of aerobic [activated sludge process (ASP) and modified trickling filter (MTF)] and anaerobic reactors (anaerobic flow-through reactor) along with the three disinfection techniques (UV, ozone and chlorination) in reducing ARB and ARGs present in the domestic sewage...
October 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049953/biomimetic-fabrication-of-antibacterial-calcium-phosphates-mediated-by-polydopamine
#10
Lucia Forte, Paola Torricelli, Francesca Bonvicini, Elisa Boanini, Giovanna Angela Gentilomi, Gigliola Lusvardi, Elena Della Bella, Milena Fini, Edoardo Vecchio Nepita, Adriana Bigi
In this work we developed new antibacterial composite materials using polydopamine (PDA) to trigger the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto calcium phosphates, namely octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP). Functionalization of OCP and αTCP with a self-polymerized polydopamine layer was obtained by soaking the calcium phosphates in dopamine solution. The PDA surface of functionalized calcium phosphates (OCPd and αTCPd) promoted the deposition of AgNPs by reducing silver ions when soaked in a silver nitrate solution...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049916/immune-cell-type-fingerprints-at-the-basis-of-outcome-diversity-of-human-infection
#11
REVIEW
Shelly Hen-Avivi, Roi Avraham
Despite the availability of antibiotics and immunization, infectious diseases remain a major cause of malignancy and death worldwide. Yet, it is well documented that for most infectious agents, clinical disease develops in only a small minority of infected individuals. There is, in fact, great heterogeneity in infection outcome, from complete clearance of the pathogen to severe illness. Understanding this variation remains elusive, despite its great potential to equip us with new tools for the treatment of infectious diseases...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049234/case-report-features-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-neonates
#12
Wen-Wen Chen, Zhao-Bin Yang, Lian-Shu Lian, Li-Ping Xu
RATIONALE: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enterovirus. The virus may exist in secretions. PATIENT CONCERNS: Five neonates had symptoms of fever and maculopapular rashes involving face, trunk, breech, arms, and legs, especially scattering on palms and feet. Blood, oropharyngeal fluid, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected and detected for further diagnoses with the consent of the infants' parents. Some of them suffered aseptic meningitis...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049058/the-neonatal-microbiome-implications-for-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-nurses
#13
Jeannie Rodriguez, Sheila Jordan, Abby Mutic, Taylor Thul
Nursing care of the neonate in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is complex, due in large part to various physiological challenges. A newer and less well-known physiological consideration is the neonatal microbiome, the community of microorganisms, both helpful and harmful, that inhabit the human body. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by the maternal microbiome, mode of infant birth, and various aspects of NICU care such as feeding choice and use of antibiotics. The composition and diversity of the microbiome is thought to influence key health outcomes including development of necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, altered physical growth, and poor neurodevelopment...
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049010/biofilm-related-diseases-and-omics-global-transcriptional-profiling-of-enterococcus-faecium-reveals-different-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-biofilm-and-planktonic-cells
#14
Shu Yong Lim, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Kwai Lin Thong
Enterococcus faecium is an opportunistic pathogen with a remarkable ability to acquire resistance toward multiple antibiotics, including those of last-resort drugs such as vancomycin and daptomycin. The occurrence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium is on the rise and there is a need to understand the virulence of this organism. One of the factors that contributes to the virulence is the ability to form biofilms. Since bacteria in biofilm state are more resistant to antibiotics and host immune response, understanding the molecular mechanism of biofilm development is important to control biofilm-related diseases...
October 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048802/-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-determination-of-10-macrolide-antibiotics-in-pork-samples-using-on-line-solid-phase-extraction-purification
#15
Xiaoguang Zhang, Dong Liu, Hongran Liu, Qiang Li, Lili Li, Lixia Wang, Yan Zhang
A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method based on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) purification was established to determine 10 macrolide antibiotics in pork samples. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and the extracts were dried with rotary evaporator at 40℃, then the analytes were dissolved with 2 mL phosphate buffer. The solutions were purified and concentrated by on-line SPE with HLB cartridges. The analytes were eluted with methanol, and then transferred to XBridge BEH C18 column, separated with the mobile phases of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution and acetonitrile...
October 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048488/clinical-and-molecular-features-of-mdr-livestock-associated-mrsa-st9-with-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mecxii-in-humans
#16
Chih-Jung Chen, Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale, Chin-Te Lu, Yu-Yu Chuang, Chien-Chang Yang, Ting-Shu Wu, Chun-Yi Lee, Min-Chi Lu, Wen-Chien Ko, Yhu-Chering Huang
Objectives: Clonal complex (CC) 9 is a prevalent livestock-associated (LA) MRSA clone in Asia whose pathogenicity in humans remains unknown. Methods: In 2012, we identified a patient with CC9-MRSA infection linked to livestock. After screening 3328 clinical MRSA isolates from a national database, eight isolates (0.24%) collected between 1998 and 2012 were further confirmed to be of CC9. The detailed molecular features of the nine human CC9 strains and phylogenetic relatedness to animal CC9 strains were characterized with WGS...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048359/chitosan-ascorbate-nanoparticles-for-the-vaginal-delivery-of-antibiotic-drugs-in-atrophic-vaginitis
#17
Silvia Rossi, Barbara Vigani, Antonella Puccio, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Giuseppina Sandri, Franca Ferrari
The aim of the present work was the development of chitosan ascorbate nanoparticles (CSA NPs) loaded into a fast-dissolving matrix for the delivery of antibiotic drugs in the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. CSA NPs loaded with amoxicillin trihydrate (AX) were obtained by ionotropic gelation in the presence of pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Different CSA:TPP and CSA:AX weight ratios were considered and their influence on the particle size, polydispersion index and production yield were investigated. CSA NPs were characterized for mucoadhesive, wound healing and antimicrobial properties...
October 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048164/development-of-a-modular-synthetic-route-to-pleuromutilin-12-epi-mutilins-and-related-structures
#18
Mingshuo Zeng, Stephen K Murphy, Seth B Herzon
We describe the development of an enantioselective synthetic route to (+)-pleuromutilin (1), (+)-12-epi-mutilin, and related derivatives. A key hydrindanone was prepared in three steps and 48% overall yield from cyclohex-2-en-1-one. 1,4-Hydrocyanation provided a nitrile (53%, or 85% based on recovered starting material) that was converted to the eneimide 57 in 80% yield by the 1,2-addition of methyllithium to the nitrile function, cyclization, and in situ acylation with di-tert-butyldicarbonate. The eneimide 57 was employed in a two-fold neopentylic coupling reaction with an organolithium reagent derived from the alkyl iodides (R)- or (S)-30, which contain the C11-C13 atoms of the target, to provide diastereomeric diketones in 60% or 48% yield (for coupling with (R)- or (S)-30, respectively)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047008/pastoralists-knowledge-and-practices-towards-clinical-bovine-dermatophilosis-in-cattle-herds-of-north-central-nigeria-the-associated-factors-burden-and-economic-impact
#19
Nma Bida Alhaji, Tajudeen Opeyemi Isola
Dermatophilosis is a contagious disease of high economic importance. The study assessed knowledge/awareness and clinical burden of and mitigation measures practised against clinical bovine dermatophilosis in pastoral herds of North-Central Nigeria and associated socio-cultural factors that predisposed to its occurrence in herds. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October 2015 and September 2016. Questionnaires were administered on pastoralists and clinical assessment of cattle with gross pathological lesions indicative of dermatophilosis conducted...
October 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046853/synthesis-of-4h-benzo-e-1-3-oxazin-4-ones-by-a-carbonylation-cyclization-domino-reaction-of-ortho-halophenols-and-cyanamide
#20
Linda Åkerbladh, Shiao Y Chow, Luke R Odell, Mats Larhed
Invited for this month's cover are researchers from the Division of Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden). The research interests in the group span areas such as enzyme inhibitors, new antibiotics, angiotensin II AT2R ligands, PET tracers, palladium catalysis, heterocycle synthesis, and the development of novel multicomponent reactions. In particular, sequential carbonylation and cyclization appeal to us as a convenient and straightforward synthetic route for the synthesis of heterocycles...
October 2017: ChemistryOpen
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