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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457989/propylthiouracil-induced-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis-mimicking-kawasaki-disease
#1
Yoshihiro Aoki, Katsuhiko Kitazawa, Hironobu Kobayashi
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is rare in children and is characterised as necrotising vasculitis predominantly affecting small and medium-sized vessels. Propylthiouracil (PTU), an antithyroid drug, has been implicated in drug-induced AAV. In contrast, Kawasaki disease (KD) is a common systemic vasculitis, typically observed in children, which affects the medium-sized vessels, including the coronary arteries. An 11-year-old girl who developed AAV while receiving PTU therapy for Graves' disease is described...
February 19, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456981/prevalence-of-ctx-m-and-tem-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-patients-with-urinary-tract-infection-al-zahra-hospital-isfahan-iran
#2
Nafiseh Maleki, Zahra Tahanasab, Sina Mobasherizadeh, Aliakbar Rezaei, Jamshid Faghri
Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing is a significant resistant mechanism to β-lactams in Enterobacteriaceae , especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae . The main objectives of this study were to genetically characterize urinary clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae through the investigating of blaTEM , blaCTX-M and using molecular typing by Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) method. We also determined the frequency of antibiotic resistance of K...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456976/respiratory-viruses-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-respiratory-symptoms
#3
Mohsen Meidani, Seyed Alireza Mirmohammad Sadeghi
Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h), upper and lower respiratory symptoms...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456841/successful-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventriculitis-with-polymyxin-b-and-tigecycline-a-case-report
#4
Wei Guo, Shao-Chun Guo, Min Li, Li-Hong Li, Yan Qu
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial ventriculitis/meningitis, especially those due to drug-resistant strains, has substantially increased over recent years. However, limited therapeutic options exist for the Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis/meningitis because of the poor penetration rate of most antibiotics through the blood-brain barrier. Case presentation: A 57-year-old male patient developed ventriculitis from an extensively drug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii after the decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456644/eudesmin-attenuates-helicobacter-pylori-induced-epithelial-autophagy-and-apoptosis-and-leads-to-eradication-of-h-pylori-infection
#5
Jai-Sing Yang, Chao-Min Wang, Chiu-Hsian Su, Han-Chen Ho, Chiung-Hung Chang, Chang-Hung Chou, Yuan-Man Hsu
Eudesmin has been proven to possess anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of eudesmin on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) -mediated autophagy, apoptosis, immune response and inflammation were determined in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells in vitro and in C57BL/6 mice in vivo . Detection of the production of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β and immunoglobulin M (IgM) was performed using ELISA. Identification of the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase-3, -8 and -9 proteins, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and BH3 interacting domain death agonist (Bid) protein, was determined through western blot analysis...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456241/ecology-and-evolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
Sebastien Gagneux
Tuberculosis (TB) is the number one cause of human death due to an infectious disease. The causative agents of TB are a group of closely related bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). As the MTBC exhibits a clonal population structure with low DNA sequence diversity, methods (such as multilocus sequence typing) that are applied to more genetically diverse bacteria are uninformative, and much of the ecology and evolution of the MTBC has therefore remained unknown. Owing to recent advances in whole-genome sequencing and analyses of large collections of MTBC clinical isolates from around the world, many new insights have been gained, including a better understanding of the origin of the MTBC as an obligate pathogen and its molecular evolution and population genetic characteristics both within and between hosts, as well as many aspects related to antibiotic resistance...
February 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455386/-some-current-concepts-in-antibacterial-drug-discovery
#7
REVIEW
Lasse van Geelen, Dieter Meier, Nidja Rehberg, Rainer Kalscheuer
The rise of multidrug resistance in bacteria rendering pathogens unresponsive to many clinical drugs is widely acknowledged and considered a critical global healthcare issue. There is broad consensus that novel antibacterial chemotherapeutic options are extremely urgently needed. However, the development pipeline of new antibacterial drug lead structures is poorly filled and not commensurate with the scale of the problem since the pharmaceutical industry has shown reduced interest in antibiotic development in the past decades due to high economic risks and low profit expectations...
February 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455089/occurrence-and-transformation-of-veterinary-antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-dairy-manure-treated-by-advanced-anaerobic-digestion-and-conventional-treatment-methods
#8
Joshua S Wallace, Emily Garner, Amy Pruden, Diana S Aga
Manure treatment technologies are rapidly developing to minimize eutrophication of surrounding environments and potentially decrease the introduction of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) into the environment. While laboratory and pilot-scale manure treatment systems boast promising results, antibiotic and ARG removals in full-scale systems receiving continuous manure input have not been evaluated. The effect of treatment on ARGs is similarly lacking. This study examines the occurrence and transformation of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, tetracycline degradation products, and related ARGs throughout a full-scale advanced anaerobic digester (AAD) receiving continuous manure and antibiotic input...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454848/a-multi-center-derivation-and-validation-of-a-simple-predictive-index-for-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection
#9
Meghann L Davis, Harlan G Sparrow, Judy O Ikwuagwu, William L Musick, Kevin W Garey, Katherine K Perez
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Despite well-established risk factors, very little research has focused on use of these variables to identify a patient population at high-risk for CDI to target with primary prevention strategies. A predictive index for healthcare-associated CDI could improve clinical care and guide research for primary prevention trials. Our objective was to develop a predictive index to identify patients at high-risk for healthcare-associated CDI...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454808/a-new-multifunctionalized-material-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-and-abnormal-osteoclast-activity
#10
Elisa Boanini, Paola Torricelli, Francesca Bonvicini, Maria Cristina Cassani, Milena Fini, Giovanna Angela Gentilomi, Adriana Bigi
The development of new biomaterials able to favor bone formation and to inhibit bone abnormal resorption is mandatory to face the increasing number of age-related musculo-skeletal disorders. Moreover, the increasing antibiotic resistance of clinically important bacteria, which is among the main causes of implant failure, requires new antimicrobial systems. In this study, we prepared multifunctional materials consisting of hydroxyapatite-zoledronate composite crystals decorated with Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs)...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454787/trans-envelope-multidrug-efflux-pumps-of-gram-negative-bacteria-and-their-synergism-with-the-outer-membrane-barrier
#11
Helen I Zgurskaya, Valentin V Rybenkov, Ganesh Krishnamoorthy, Inga V Leus
Antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to public health. Significant efforts are currently directed toward containment of the spread of resistance, finding new therapeutic options concerning resistant human and animal pathogens, and addressing the gaps in the fundamental understanding of mechanisms of resistance. Experimental data and kinetic modeling revealed a major factor in resistance, the synergy between active efflux and the low permeability barrier of the outer membrane, which dramatically reduces the intracellular accumulation of many antibiotics...
February 15, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454592/effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-cost-effective-utilization-of-telavancin-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hospital-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
James A McKinnell, Shelby Corman, Dipen Patel, Grace H Leung, Lynne M Gordon, Thomas P Lodise
PURPOSE: Clinicians and stewardship programs are challenged with positioning of novel, higher priced antibiotic agents for the treatment of clinical infections. We developed a decision-analytic model to describe costs, including drug, total treatment costs, and health care outcomes, associated with telavancin (TLV) compared with vancomycin (VAN) for patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP). METHODS: This decision-analytic model assessed the treatment of SA-HABP with TLV versus VAN...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454207/repeated-treatments-of-ciprofloxacin-and-kresoxim-methyl-alter-their-dissipation-rates-biological-function-and-increase-antibiotic-resistance-in-manured-soil
#13
Hua Fang, Lingxi Han, Houpu Zhang, Yanfei Deng, Qiqing Ge, Jiajia Mei, Zhengnan Long, Yunlong Yu
The dissipation of ciprofloxacin (CIP, 1.0 and 10.0mg/kg) and kresoxim-methyl (KM, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg) in manure-amended soil, the variations in soil enzyme activities and microbial functional diversities, and CIP-induced bacterial community tolerances were studied using a chromatographic analysis, enzyme colorimetric and titration analyses, and the BIOLOG EcoPlate method. Three successive treatments of individual and combined samples of CIP and KM at low and high concentrations were performed at 60d intervals...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454031/expression-and-characterization-of-recombinant-rattusin-an-%C3%AE-defensin-related-peptide-with-a-homodimeric-scaffold-formed-by-intermolecular-disulfide-exchanges
#14
Sehyeon Ji, Hyosuk Yun, Gwansik Park, Hye Jung Min, Chul Won Lee
Rattusin is an α-defensin-related peptide isolated from the small intestine of rats. The primary sequence of linear rattusin is composed of 31 amino acids containing five cysteines with a unique spacing pattern. It forms a homodimeric scaffold in which the primary structure occurs in an antiparallel fashion formed by five intermolecular disulfide (SS) bonds. Rattusin is a highly potent antibiotic, which not only exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, but also maintains its antimicrobial activity at physiological salt concentrations...
February 14, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453908/effective-anti-adhesives-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
Rosana Ribić, Tomislav Meštrović, Marijana Neuberg, Goran Kozina
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Due to their frequent occurrence in the community and nosocomial settings, as well as the development of resistance to the commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, an enormous financial burden is placed on healthcare systems around the world. Therefore, novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of UTIs are needed. Although UPEC may harbour a plethora of virulence factors, type I fimbriae and P pili are two of the most studied adhesive organelles, since the attachment to host cells in the urinary tract is a crucial step towards infection...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453848/postoperative-recurrence-of-crohn-s-disease-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
Antonio Di Sario, Paola Sassaroli, Luigi Daretti, Giulia Annulli, Laura Schiada, Giorgia Falcioni, Emanuele Bendia, Simone Antuono, Antonio Benedetti
BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of Crohn`s disease (CD) patients require at least one surgical intervention in their lifetime and up to 70% of these patients develop postoperative endoscopic recurrence within 1 year. The most important predictors of early postoperative recurrence are represented by smoking, prior intestinal surgery, penetrating disease and perianal location. Genetic factors, gut microbiota structure and immunological alterations may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative recurrence of CD, although their specific roles have to be determined yet...
February 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453715/the-influence-of-heavy-metals-polyaromatic-hydrocarbons-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pollution-on-the-development-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-soils
#17
Andrey Vladimirovich Gorovtsov, Ivan Sergeevich Sazykin, Marina Alexandrovna Sazykina
The minireview is devoted to the analysis of the influence of soil pollution with heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the distribution of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in soil microbiomes. It is shown that the best understanding of ARGs distribution process requires studying the influence of pollutants on this process in natural microbiocenoses. Heavy metals promote co-selection of genes determining resistance to them together with ARGs in the same mobile elements of a bacterial genome, but the majority of studies focus on agricultural soils enriched with ARGs originating from manure...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453632/microbiota-in-fermented-feed-and-swine-gut
#18
REVIEW
Cheng Wang, Changyou Shi, Yu Zhang, Deguang Song, Zeqing Lu, Yizhen Wang
Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT)...
February 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453178/seasonal-dynamics-of-tetracycline-resistance-gene-transport-in-the-sumas-river-agricultural-watershed-of-british-columbia-canada
#19
Patricia L Keen, Charles W Knapp, Kenneth J Hall, David W Graham
Environmental transport of contaminants that can influence the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an important concern in the management of ecological and human health risks. Agricultural regions are locales where practices linked to food crop and livestock production can introduce contaminants that could alter the selective pressures for the development of antibiotic resistance in microbiota. This is important in regions where the use of animal manure or municipal biosolids as waste and/or fertilizer could influence selection for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacterial species...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452960/traditionally-practiced-medicinal-plant-extracts-inhibit-the-ergosterol-biosynthesis-of-clinically-isolated-dermatophytic-pathogens
#20
M Chellappandian, M Saravanan, P Pandikumar, P Harikrishnan, K Thirugnanasambantham, S Subramanian, V I Hairul-Islam, S Ignacimuthu
OBJECTIVE: Dermatophytes are resistant to some available antibiotics. Development of new plant drugs to control drug resistant microbes is urgently needed. This study evaluates the antidermatophytic potential of 18 selected medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Theni and Virudhunagar Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selected plant parts were collected, shade dried and powdered. Plant powders were extracted with ethanol and their antifungal potency was investigated against and clinical dermatophytes...
February 13, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
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