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antibiotic development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823054/recent-advances-in-synthetic-lipopeptides-as-anti-microbial-agents-designs-and-synthetic-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Jun-Jie Koh, Shuimu Lin, Roger W Beuerman, Shouping Liu
Infectious diseases impose serious public health burdens and continue to be a global public health crisis. The treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens is challenging because only a few viable therapeutic options are clinically available. The emergence and risk of drug-resistant superbugs and the dearth of new classes of antibiotics have drawn increasing awareness that we may return to the pre-antibiotic era. To date, lipopeptides have been received considerable attention because of the following properties: They exhibit potent antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of pathogens, rapid bactericidal activity and have a different antimicrobial action compared with most of the conventional antibiotics used today and very slow development of drug resistance tendency...
August 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822976/persistence-after-treatment-of-pharyngeal-gonococcal-infections-in-patients-of-the-sti-clinic-amsterdam-the-netherlands-2012-2015-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
I Putu Yuda Hananta, Henry John Christiaan De Vries, Alje P van Dam, Martijn Sebastiaan van Rooijen, Hardyanto Soebono, Maarten Franciscus Schim van der Loeff
INTRODUCTION: Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. METHODS: At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, females-at-risk and men who have sex with men are routinely screened for pharyngeal Ng using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2)...
August 19, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822963/%C3%AE-1a-subtype-adrenergic-agonist-therapy-for-failing-right-ventricle
#3
Patrick M Cowley, Guan-Ying Wang, Sunil K Joshi, Philip M Swigart, David H Lovett, Paul C Simpson, Anthony J Baker
Failure of the right ventricle (RV) is a serious disease with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Signaling by α1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs), in particular the α1A-subtype, mediate cardioprotective effects in multiple heart failure models. Recent studies show that chronic treatment with the α1A-subtype agonist A61603 improves function and survival in a model of LV failure. The goal of this study was to determine if chronic A61603 treatment is beneficial in a RV failure model. We used tracheal instillation of the fibrogenic antibiotic bleomycin in mice to induce pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and RV failure within 2 wk...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822770/regulation-of-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-host-responses-to-the-microbiome
#4
Jobert G Barin, Monica V Talor, Nicola L Diny, SuFey Ong, Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth Gebremariam, Djahida Bedja, Guobao Chen, Hee Sun Choi, Xuezhou Hou, Lei Wu, Ashley B Cardamone, Daniel A Peterson, Noel R Rose, Daniela Čiháková
The extensive, diverse communities that constitute the microbiome are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of human health and disease through inflammatory, immune, and metabolic pathways. We sought to elucidate pathways by which microbiota contribute to inflammatory, autoimmune cardiac disease. We employed an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), which results in inflammatory and autoimmune pathophysiology and subsequent maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Antibiotic dysbiosis protected mice from EAM and fibrotic cardiac dysfunction...
August 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822736/-rhinovirus-underestimated-pathogens-in-patients-during-the-neonatal-period
#5
S Zacharie, A Vabret, B Guillois, C Dupont, J Brouard
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, developments in virological tools have led to the easy detection of rhinoviruses and enteroviruses (E/RV). Their detection is very frequent in cases of airway involvement in children and their demonstrated causality. But the morbidity of E/RV in the neonatal period is unknown due to lack of epidemiological data. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of these infections in hospitalized neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the virology specimens of all neonates hospitalized at the Caen University Hospital between 2006 and 2011...
August 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822559/antibiotic-therapy-for-prevention-of-fistula-in-ano-after-incision-and-drainage-of-simple-perianal-abscess-a-randomized-single-blind-clinical-trial
#6
Leila Ghahramani, Mohammad Reza Minaie, Peyman Arasteh, Seyed Vahid Hosseini, Ahmad Izadpanah, Ali Mohammad Bananzadeh, Mahboobe Ahmadbeigi, Zahra Hooshanginejad
BACKGROUND: Much controversy exists regarding the role of antibiotics in the development of fistula in-ano after incision and drainage. We evaluated the role of postoperative antibiotics in the prevention of fistula in-ano after incision and drainage of perianal abscess. METHODS: In a randomized single blind clinical trial study, 307 patients were randomly selected from those referring for incision and drainage of perianal abscess at Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, during September 2013 to September 2014...
August 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822347/screening-and-confirmation-of-steroids-and-nitroimidazoles-in-urine-blood-and-food-matrices-sample-preparation-methods-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometric-separations
#7
Ádám Tölgyesi, Enikő Barta, Andrea Simon, Thomas J McDonald, Virender K Sharma
Veterinary drugs containing synthetic anabolic steroid and nitroimidazole active agents are not allowed for their applications in livestock of the European Union (EU). This paper presents analyses of twelve selected steroids and six nitroimidazole antibiotics at low levels (1.56μg/L-4.95μg/L and 0.17μg/kg-2.14μg/kg, respectively) in body fluids and egg incurred samples. Analyses involved clean-up procedures, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and tandem mass spectrometric screening and confirmatory methods...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822069/characterization-of-ofloxacin-interaction-with-mutated-a91v-quinolone-resistance-determining-region-of-dna-gyrase-in-mycobacterium-leprae-through-computational-simulation
#8
J Nisha, V Shanthi
Mycobacterium leprae, the causal agent of leprosy is non-cultivable in vitro. Thus, the assessment of antibiotic activity against Mycobacterium leprae depends primarily upon the time-consuming mouse footpad system. The GyrA protein of Mycobacterium leprae is the target of the antimycobacterial drug, Ofloxacin. In recent times, the GyrA mutation (A91V) has been found to be resistant to Ofloxacin. This phenomenon has necessitated the development of new, long-acting antimycobacterial compounds. The underlying mechanism of drug resistance is not completely known...
August 18, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821784/high-copy-and-stable-expression-of-the-xylanase-xynhb-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-rdna-mediated-integration
#9
Cheng Fang, Qinhong Wang, Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj, Yuling Zhou, Lixin Ma, Guimin Zhang, Yanhe Ma
Xylanase is a widely-used additive in baking industry for enhancing dough and bread quality. Several xylanases used in baking industry were expressed in different systems, but their expression in antibiotic free vector system is highly essential and safe. In the present study, an alternative rDNA-mediated technology was developed to increase the copy number of target gene by integrating it into Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. A xylanase-encoding gene xynHB from Bacillus sp. was cloned into pHBM367H and integrated into S...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821610/a-screen-for-kinase-inhibitors-identifies-antimicrobial-imidazopyridine-aminofurazans-as-specific-inhibitors-of-the-listeria-monocytogenes-pasta-kinase-prka
#10
Adam J Schaenzer, Nathan Wlodarchak, David H Drewry, William J Zuercher, Warren E Rose, Rob Striker, John-Demian Sauer
Bacterial signaling systems such as protein kinases and quorum sensing have become increasingly attractive targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents in a time of rising antibiotic resistance. The family of bacterial Penicillin-binding-protein And Serine/Threonine kinase-Associated (PASTA) kinases is of particular interest due to the role of these kinases in regulating resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. As such, small-molecule kinase inhibitors that target PASTA kinases may prove beneficial as treatments adjunctive to β-lactam therapy...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821547/cultivation-in-space-flight-produces-minimal-alterations-in-the-susceptibility-of-bacillus-subtilis-cells-to-72-different-antibiotics-and-growth-inhibiting-compounds
#11
Michael D Morrison, Patricia Fajardo-Cavazos, Wayne L Nicholson
Past results have suggested that bacterial antibiotic susceptibility is altered during space flight. To test this notion, Bacillus subtilis cells were cultivated in matched hardware, medium, and environmental conditions either in spaceflight microgravity on the International Space Station, termed Flight (FL) samples, or at Earth-normal gravity, termed Ground Control (GC) samples. Susceptibility of FL and GC samples was compared to 72 antibiotics and growth-inhibitory compounds using the Omnilog Phenotype Microarray (PM) system...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821540/investigating-undergraduate-students-use-of-intuitive-reasoning-and-evolutionary-knowledge-in-explanations-of-antibiotic-resistance
#12
Melissa Richard, John D Coley, Kimberly D Tanner
Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, research has focused on the degree to which misconceptions may be based in the complexity of biological information or in pedagogical choices, rather than in deep-seated cognitive patterns...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821298/efficacy-of-a-polyvalent-immersion-vaccine-against-flavobacterium-psychrophilum-and-evaluation-of-immune-response-to-vaccination-in-rainbow-trout-fry-onchorynchus-mykiss-l
#13
R Hoare, T P H Ngo, K L Bartie, A Adams
Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is a disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, responsible for significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. The diversity of F. psychrophilum isolates and the inherent difficulties in vaccinating juvenile fish has hampered the development of a vaccine for RTFS. Disease episodes tend to occur between 10-14 °C with necrotic lesions often seen on the skin surrounding the dorsal fin and tail. At present no commercial vaccines are available for RTFS in the UK, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to control disease outbreaks...
August 18, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821215/implementation-of-global-strategies-to-prevent-hospital-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-targeting-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-probiotics
#14
Paul O Lewis, Timothy S Lundberg, Jennifer L Tharp, Clay W Runnels
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been identified as a significant risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Probiotics given concurrently with antibiotics have been shown to have a moderate impact on preventing CDI. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of hospital-wide interventions designed to reduce PPI use and increase probiotics and whether these interventions were associated with a change in the incidence of hospital onset (HO)-CDI...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820533/actinomycetes-still-a-source-of-novel-antibiotics
#15
REVIEW
Olga Genilloud
Covering: 2006 to 2017Actinomycetes have been, for decades, one of the most important sources for the discovery of new antibiotics with an important number of drugs and analogs successfully introduced in the market and still used today in clinical practice. The intensive antibacterial discovery effort that generated the large number of highly potent broad-spectrum antibiotics, has seen a dramatic decline in the large pharma industry in the last two decades resulting in a lack of new classes of antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action reaching the clinic...
August 18, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820293/lacrimal-gland-abscess-in-children-two-case-reports-and-literature-review
#16
Tracy Hiu Ting Lai, Frank Hiu Ping Lai, Tommy Chung Yan Chan, Alvin Lerrmann Young, Kelvin Kam Lung Chong
Acute suppurative bacterial dacryoadenitis (ASBD) with abscess formation is rarely seen in clinical practice. A retrospective review of medical records in the past 8 years identified two unilateral cases in children, one developed presumably after methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) conjunctivitis and the other due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection. Computerized tomography scans showed globe indentation by the enlarged lacrimal glands with rim-enhancing lesions...
August 18, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819362/recurrent-csf-rhinorrhea-misdiagnosed-as-chronic-allergic-rhinitis-with-subsequent-development-of-bacterial-meningitis
#17
Michael T Ulrich, Lawrence K Loo, Michael B Ing
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea results from an abnormal communication of the dura mater to the nasal mucosa. The majority of cases of CSF rhinorrhea are the result of trauma or surgery involving the skull base. Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea is a rare clinical entity with increased risk of ascending infection. Delay in diagnosis places the patient at risk of developing meningitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old African American female with significant medical history of obesity and hypertension presented to the emergency department with headache, altered level of consciousness, fever, and neck stiffness...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818804/an-on-spot-internal-standard-addition-approach-for-accurately-determining-colistin-a-and-colistin-b-in-dried-blood-spots-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
I-Lin Tsai, Ching-Hua Kuo, Hsin-Yun Sun, Yu-Chung Chuang, Divyabharathi Chepyala, Shu-Wen Lin, Yun-Jung Tsai
Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections have been reported worldwide. Colistin, an antibiotic with known nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, is now being used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative strains. In this study, we applied an on-spot internal standard addition approach coupled with an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify colistin A and B from dried blood spots (DBSs). Only 15μL of whole blood was required for each sample...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818628/a-prospective-multicentre-study-of-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infection-in-cirrhotic-patients
#19
Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella, Russell Lewis, Paolo Caraceni, Sara Tedeschi, Mical Paul, Christoph Schramm, Tony Bruns, Manuela Merli, Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros, Elena Seminari, Pilar Retamar, Patricia Muñoz, Mario Tumbarello, Patrizia Burra, Maria Torrani Cerenzia, Bruno Barsic, Ester Calbo, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Nicola Petrosillo, Maria Angeles Galan-Ladero, Giampiero D'Offizi, Noa Bar Sinai, Jesus Rodríguez-Baño, Gabriella Verucchi, Mauro Bernardi, Pierluigi Viale
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the current epidemiology of BSI in patients with cirrhosis, analyse predictors of 30-day mortality, and risk factors for antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients developing a BSI episode were prospectively included at 19 centres in five countries from September 2014 to December 2015. The discrimination of mortality risk scores for 30-day mortality were compared by area under the receiver operator-risk and Cox-regression models...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818350/candidate-quality-measures-for-hand-surgery
#20
(no author information available yet)
PURPOSE: Quality measures are tools used by physicians, health care systems, and payers to evaluate performance, monitor the outcomes of interventions, and inform quality improvement efforts. A paucity of quality measures exist that address hand surgery care. We completed a RAND/UCLA (University of California Los Angeles) Delphi Appropriateness process with the goal of developing and evaluating candidate hand surgery quality measures to be used for national quality measure development efforts...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
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