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Australia antibiotic resistance

Hanna E Sidjabat, Jolene Gien, David Kvaskoff, Keith Ashman, Kanchan Vaswani, Sarah Reed, Ross P McGeary, David L Paterson, Amanda Bordin, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance associated with the clinically significant carbapenemases KPC, NDM and OXA-48 in Enterobacteriaceae is emerging as worldwide. In Australia, IMP-producing Enterobacteriaceae are the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Genomic characteristics of such CPE are well described, but the corresponding proteome is poorly characterised. We have thus developed a method to analyse dynamic changes in the proteome of CPE under antibiotic pressure. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of meropenem at sub-lethal concentrations to develop a better understanding of how antibiotic pressure leads to resistance...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stuart Evan Bond, Shelley P Crowther, Suman Adhikari, Adriana J Chubaty, Ping Yu, Jay P Borchard, Craig Steven Boutlis, Wilfred Winston Yeo, Spiros Miyakis
BACKGROUND: Internet-based learning for health professional education is increasing. It offers advantages over traditional learning approaches, as it enables learning to be completed at a time convenient to the user and improves access where facilities are geographically disparate. We developed and implemented the Vancomycin Interactive (VI) e-learning tool to improve knowledge on the clinical use of the antibiotic vancomycin, which is commonly used for treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
February 26, 2018: JMIR Medical Education
Lia Monica Junie, Ionuţ Isaia Jeican, Luminiţa Matroş, Stanca Lucia Pandrea
The article presents a synthetic molecular characterization of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and describes the most important community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clones that circulate nowadays in the world: the main molecular and epidemiological characteristics, as well as notions related to the clinic of infections produced by these clones and their antibiotic resistance spectrum. The predominant clone of CA-MRSA in North America is USA300 - ST8-IV in North America, in Australia - Queensland (Qld) MRSA (ST93-IV), in Europe - ST80-IV, in Asia there is a high heterogeneity of clones population, in Africa the distribution of CA-MRSA clones is unclear, and in South America - USA 1100 and USA300-Latin American variant are predominant...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Jacqueline Sneddon, Gavin Barlow, Sally Bradley, Adrian Brink, Sujith J Chandy, Dilip Nathwani
Background: The University of Dundee and the BSAC developed a massive open online course (MOOC) to address the global need for education to support antimicrobial stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: An interactive course, Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance, was developed and delivered via the FutureLearn© platform. The course ran over four 6 week periods during 2015 and 2016 supported by educators and was evaluated via data on uptake and feedback from learners on impact on clinical practice...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jianyun Wu, Daniel Taylor, Ludmila Ovchinikova, Aine Heaney, Tessa Morgan, Jonathan Dartnell, Rachel Holbrook, Lauren Humphreys, Lynn Weekes, Suzanne Blogg
Objective NPS MedicineWise aims to ensure that medicines are prescribed and used in a manner consistent with current evidence-based best practice. A series of nationwide educational and advertising interventions for general practitioners and consumers were implemented in Australia between 2009 and 2015 with the aim of reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The work described in this paper quantifies the change in antibiotic dispensing following these interventions...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Tuan Son Le, Paul C Southgate, Wayne O'Connor, Sue Poole, D Ipek Kurtbӧke
Bacterial contamination on seafood resulting from unhygienic food-handling practices causes foodborne diseases and significant revenue losses. Moreover, control measures are complicated by a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative measures such as the phage therapy, therefore, is considered as an environmental and consumer-friendly biological control strategy for controlling such bacterial contamination. In this study, we determined the effectiveness of a bacteriophage cocktail in controlling E...
December 27, 2017: Current Microbiology
Maria C Fookes, James Hadfield, Simon Harris, Surendra Parmar, Magnus Unemo, Jørgen S Jensen, Nicholas R Thomson
BACKGROUND: Although Mycoplasma genitalium is a common sexually transmitted pathogen causing clinically distinct diseases both in male and females, few genomes have been sequenced up to now, due mainly to its fastidious nature and slow growth. Hence, we lack a robust phylogenetic framework to provide insights into the population structure of the species. Currently our understanding of the nature and diversity of M. genitalium relies on molecular tests targeting specific genes or regions of the genome and knowledge is limited by a general under-testing internationally...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
Osman Mohamed Hamed, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Nawal A Hassanain, Eman Hamza, Ahmed G Hegazi, Marwa Badawy Salman
Aim: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represent a severe public health issue worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases in the human gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant STEC in retail meat and milk products and human stool samples and to characterize the genes encoding for virulence and antibiotic resistance among the identified STEC isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 260 food samples were randomly collected from retail markets in different localities of El Giza Governorate, Egypt...
October 2017: Veterinary World
Catherine M McAuley, Kate E McMillan, Sean C Moore, Narelle Fegan, Edward M Fox
Safe dairy food production starts at the farm level, with the presence of pathogens on farms potentially impacting the downstream food supply. Studies often commence with looking for pathogens in fecal material of farm animals, predominantly cows; however, pathogens may arise from other on-farm sources. In Australia, few studies have looked at the broader farm environment, particularly in relation to Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The present study characterized the genetic similarity of these pathogens from bovine, ovine, and caprine dairy farm environments and related this to the stx1 , stx2 , eae, or ehx virulence markers in E...
December 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Alessandro Delli Paoli Carini, Ellen Ariel, Jacqueline Picard, Lisa Elliott
This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
Christopher B Del Mar, Anna Mae Scott, Paul P Glasziou, Tammy Hoffmann, Mieke L van Driel, Elaine Beller, Susan M Phillips, Jonathan Dartnell
In Australia, the antibiotic resistance crisis may be partly alleviated by reducing antibiotic use in general practice, which has relatively high prescribing rates - antibiotics are mostly prescribed for acute respiratory infections, for which they provide only minor benefits. Current surveillance is inadequate for monitoring community antibiotic resistance rates, prescribing rates by indication, and serious complications of acute respiratory infections (which antibiotic use earlier in the infection may have averted), making target setting difficult...
November 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
A L English, A Boufridi, R J Quinn, D I Kurtböke
A near-shore marine intertidal environment-associated Streptomyces isolate (USC-633) from the Sunshine Coast Region of Queensland, Australia, cultivated under a range of chemically defined and complex media to determine optimal parameters resulting in the secretion of diverse array of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties against various antibiotic resistant bacteria. Following extraction, fractioning and re-testing of active metabolites resulted in persistent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (Migula) (ATCC 13706) and subsequent Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis of the active fractions confirmed the induction of metabolites different than the ones in fractions which did not display activity against the same bacterial species...
March 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Diana Averbuch, Gloria Tridello, Jennifer Hoek, Malgorzata Mikulska, Hamdi Akan, Lucrecia Yanez San Segundo, Thomas Pabst, Tülay Özçelik, Galina Klyasova, Irene Donnini, Depei Wu, Zafer Gülbas, Tsila Zuckerman, Aida Botelho de Sousa, Yves Beguin, Aliénor Xhaard, Emmanuel Bachy, Per Ljungman, Rafael de la Camara, Jelena Rascon, Isabel Ruiz Camps, Antonin Vitek, Francesca Patriarca, Laura Cudillo, Radovan Vrhovac, Peter J Shaw, Tom Wolfs, Tracey O'Brien, Batia Avni, Gerda Silling, Firas Al Sabty, Stelios Graphakos, Marja Sankelo, Henrik Sengeloev, Srinivas Pillai, Susanne Matthes, Frederiki Melanthiou, Simona Iacobelli, Jan Styczynski, Dan Engelhard, Simone Cesaro
Background: This intercontinental study aimed to study gram-negative rod (GNR) resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: GNR bacteremias occurring during 6 months post-HSCT (February 2014-May 2015) were prospectively collected, and analyzed for rates and risk factors for resistance to fluoroquinolones, noncarbapenem anti-Pseudomonas β-lactams (noncarbapenems), carbapenems, and multidrug resistance. Results: Sixty-five HSCT centers from 25 countries in Europe, Australia, and Asia reported data on 655 GNR episodes and 704 pathogens in 591 patients (Enterobacteriaceae, 73%; nonfermentative rods, 24%; and 3% others)...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Parker Magin, Amanda Tapley, Simon Morgan, Joshua S Davis, Patrick McElduff, Lucy Yardley, Kim Henderson, Anthea Dallas, Lawrie McArthur, Katie Mulquiney, Andrew Davey, Paul Little, Neil Spike, Mieke L van Driel
Background: Inappropriate antibiotic prescription and consequent antibacterial resistance is a major threat to healthcare. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted intervention in reducing early career general practitioners' (GPs') antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Methods: A pragmatic non-randomized trial employing a non-equivalent control group design nested within an existing cohort study of GP registrars' (trainees') clinical practice...
July 17, 2017: Family Practice
Hannah Glenn, Justin Friedman, Alexander A Borecki, Camilla Bradshaw, Nicolas Grandjean-Thomsen, Harrison Pickup, Michelle Yue Yin, Catherine Jun, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif
INTRODUCTION: National antibiotic stewardship programs aim to mitigate rising antimicrobial resistance and associated healthcare costs by promoting safe and appropriate antibiotic prescribing. AIM: This study aimed to analyse patient and clinician demographic factors that may influence antibiotic prescribing for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs). Trends in antibiotic prescribing patterns were also analysed over the study period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study analysed data from the Australian National University Medical School Clinical Audit Project database, comprising data collected by students during patient encounters over a two week period each April-May between 2006 and 2015 (excluding 2013)...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Rabia Khan
Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for the management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) has contributed to increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance, and this remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of general practitioners' (GPs) participation in the Antibiotics: Clinical e-Audit, a quality-improvement activity, on GP self-reported knowledge and practice change, and explored barriers encountered in the management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Participants completed a survey at the end of the activity to assess the usefulness of the audit, any reported changes made and barriers encountered to their clinical practice...
October 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
L K van Breda, O P Dhungyel, M P Ward
To investigate public health implications of antibiotics to control post-weaning scours, we surveyed 22 commercial pig herds in southeastern Australia. Fifty faecal samples per herd were collected from pre- and post-weaned piglets. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Isolates (n = 325) were screened for susceptibility to 19 veterinary antibiotics using MIC broth microdilution. All 325 E. coli isolates underwent further testing against 27 antibiotics used in human medicine and were screened for ETEC adhesin and enterotoxin genes (F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F18, F41, STa, STb, Stx2e and LT) by multiplex PCR...
September 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
Erin P Price, Derek S Sarovich, Jessica R Webb, Carina M Hall, Sierra A Jaramillo, Jason W Sahl, Mirjam Kaestli, Mark Mayo, Glenda Harrington, Anthony L Baker, Lindsay C Sidak-Loftis, Erik W Settles, Madeline Lummis, James M Schupp, John D Gillece, Apichai Tuanyok, Jeffrey Warner, Joseph D Busch, Paul Keim, Bart J Currie, David M Wagner
The bacterium Burkholderia ubonensis is commonly co-isolated from environmental specimens harbouring the melioidosis pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei. B. ubonensis has been reported in northern Australia and Thailand but not North America, suggesting similar geographic distribution to B. pseudomallei. Unlike most other Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species, B. ubonensis is considered non-pathogenic, although its virulence potential has not been tested. Antibiotic resistance in B. ubonensis, particularly towards drugs used to treat the most severe B...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gabrielle B McCallum, Erin J Plumb, Peter S Morris, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common acute respiratory condition with high prevalence worldwide. This clinically diagnosed syndrome is manifested by tachypnoea (rapid breathing), with crackles or wheeze in young children. In the acute phase of bronchiolitis (≤ 14 days), antibiotics are not routinely prescribed unless the illness is severe or a secondary bacterial infection is suspected. Although bronchiolitis is usually self-limiting, some young children continue to have protracted symptoms (e...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mike L Dyall-Smith, Yuhong Liu, Helen Billman-Jacobe
We report the genome sequence of a monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strain (TW-Stm6) isolated in Australia that is similar to epidemic multidrug-resistant strains from Europe and elsewhere. This strain carries additional antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes on a large (275-kb) IncHI2 plasmid.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
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