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Australia antibiotic resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887966/forgotten-antibiotics-a-follow-up-inventory-study-in-europe-the-usa-canada-and-australia
#1
Céline Pulcini, Simone Mohrs, Bojana Beovic, Inge Gyssens, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Otto Cars
The objective of this study was to update a 2011 survey, conducted on behalf of the ESCMID Study Group for Antibiotic Policies (ESGAP), studying the availability of old but clinically useful antibiotics in North America, Europe and Australia. This follow-up survey was performed in 2015 in 40 countries among specialists from the pharmaceutical, infectious diseases and microbiology sectors in North America, Europe and Australia in order to assess the availability through usual marketing processes of 36 systemic antibiotics (addition of 3 antibiotics compared with the 2011 survey) selected for their ability to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria and their unique value for specific criteria...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866945/a-global-call-from-five-countries-to-collaborate-in-antibiotic-stewardship-united-we-succeed-divided-we-might-fail
#2
REVIEW
Debra A Goff, Ravina Kullar, Ellie J C Goldstein, Mark Gilchrist, Dilip Nathwani, Allen C Cheng, Kelly A Cairns, Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Maria Virginia Villegas, Adrian Brink, Dena van den Bergh, Marc Mendelson
In February, 2016, WHO released a report for the development of national action plans to address the threat of antibiotic resistance, the catastrophic consequences of inaction, and the need for antibiotic stewardship. Antibiotic stewardship combined with infection prevention comprises a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to optimise use of antibiotics. Efforts to mitigate overuse will be unsustainable without learning and coordinating activities globally. In this Personal View, we provide examples of international collaborations to address optimal prescribing, focusing on five countries that have developed different approaches to antibiotic stewardship-the USA, South Africa, Colombia, Australia, and the UK...
November 17, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848173/assessing-pharmacists-readiness-to-prescribe-oral-antibiotics-for-limited-infections-using-a-case-vignette-technique
#3
Elizabeth Ung, Petra Czarniak, Bruce Sunderland, Richard Parsons, Kreshnik Hoti
Background Pharmacist's skills are underutilized whilst they are directly involved with antibiotic supply to the community. Addressing this issue could lead to better use of antibiotics and hence decreased resistance. Objective Explore how pharmacists can prescribe oral antibiotics to treat a limited range of infections whilst focusing on their confidence and appropriateness of prescribing. Setting Community pharmacies, Western Australia. Method Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire also containing case vignettes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832055/announcement-get-smart-about-antibiotics-week-november-14-20-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
Get Smart About Antibiotics Week is November 14-20, 2016. This annual observance is intended to engage health care providers, professional societies, advocacy groups, for-profit companies, state and local health departments, the general public, the media, and others in an effort to improve antibiotic stewardship in outpatient, inpatient, nursing home, and animal health settings. During this week, participants will raise awareness of the threat of antibiotic resistance and emphasize the importance of appropriate antibiotic use across all health care settings...
November 11, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822686/relationship-between-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-metals-in-residential-soil-samples-from-western-australia
#5
Charles W Knapp, Anna C Callan, Beatrice Aitken, Rylan Shearn, Annette Koenders, Andrea Hinwood
Increasing drug-resistant infections have drawn research interest towards examining environmental bacteria and the discovery that many factors, including elevated metal conditions, contribute to proliferation of antibiotic resistance (AR). This study examined 90 garden soils from Western Australia to evaluate predictions of antibiotic resistance genes from total metal conditions by comparing the concentrations of 12 metals and 13 genes related to tetracycline, beta-lactam and sulphonamide resistance. Relationships existed between metals and genes, but trends varied...
November 7, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809728/does-lyme-disease-exist-in-australia
#6
Peter J Collignon, Gary D Lum, Jennifer Mb Robson
There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought...
November 7, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804112/carriage-rate-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-isolated-from-healthy-dogs-in-victoria-australia
#7
D C Bean, S M Wigmore
BACKGROUND: Studies in Australia and elsewhere have shown high levels of antibiotic resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci in dogs visiting veterinary clinics with pyoderma and related conditions. Although important, such studies tend to overestimate the burden of resistance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci in healthy dogs in Central Victoria to assess the level of antibiotic resistance among these isolates. METHODS: We recruited 117 healthy dogs into the study...
November 1, 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798010/why-do-general-practitioners-prescribe-antibiotics-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-to-meet-patient-expectations-a-mixed-methods-study
#8
Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Melissa Yee, Christina Gaarslev, Rabia Khan
OBJECTIVES: To describe the role patient expectations play in general practitioners (GPs) antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). METHODS: Concurrent explanatory mixed methods approach using a cross-sectional survey and semistructured interviews. SETTINGS: Primary care GPs in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 584 GPs (response rate of 23.6%) completed the cross-sectional survey. 32 GPs were interviewed individually...
October 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738086/peritoneal-dialysis-related-peritonitis-due-to-melioidosis-a-potentially-devastating-condition
#9
Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Nuttha Lumlertgul, Lachlan J Pearson, Tanittha Chatsuwan, Krit Pongpirul, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Nisa Thongbor, Gunticha Nuntawong, Laksamon Praderm, Pantiwa Wechagama, Surapong Narenpitak, Apinya Wechpradit, Worauma Punya, Guttiga Halue, Phetpailin Naka, Somboon Jeenapongsa, Somchai Eiam-Ong
♦ Background: Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Although a wide range of clinical manifestations from this organism are known, peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) has rarely been reported. ♦ Patients and Methods: Peritoneal dialysis patients from all regions in Thailand were eligible for the study if they had peritonitis and either peritoneal fluid or effluent culture positive for B.pseudomallei Patient data obtained included baseline characteristics, laboratory investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686266/optimizing-antibiotic-usage-in-hospitals-a-qualitative-study-of-the-perspectives-of-hospital-managers
#10
A Broom, A F Gibson, J Broom, E Kirby, T Yarwood, J J Post
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic optimization in hospitals is an increasingly critical priority in the context of proliferating resistance. Despite the emphasis on doctors, optimizing antibiotic use within hospitals requires an understanding of how different stakeholders, including non-prescribers, influence practice and practice change. AIM: This study was designed to understand Australian hospital managers' perspectives on antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance, and negotiating clinical vis-à-vis managerial priorities...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679992/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-recent-cuban-mycoplasma-genitalium-isolates-determined-by-a-modified-cell-culture-based-method
#11
Brian A Mondeja, Nadia M Rodríguez, Brenda Barroto, Orestes Blanco, Jørgen S Jensen
Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from clinical specimens remains difficult and few strains are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. genitalium strains grown in Vero cell culture with first- and second- line antibiotics, using a modified cell-culture-based method. Macrolide- and -fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were detected by sequencing of the 23S and parC genes, respectively. Seven strains were examined, including three new, genetically distinct M...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606375/is-australia-ready-to-implement-delayed-prescribing-in-primary-care-a-review-of-the-evidence
#12
Lucy Sargent, Amanda McCullough, Chris Del Mar, John Lowe
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a major global public health threat. Most antibiotic prescriptions for human consumption in primary care are for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Australia continues to be a high prescriber of antibiotics, compared with other Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Implementation of evidence-based strategies to reduce antibiotic use in primary care is needed. Delayed prescribing is one evidence-based strategy that is underused...
September 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533601/epidemiology-and-mortality-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-australian-and-new-zealand-children
#13
Brendan J McMullan, Asha Bowen, Christopher C Blyth, Sebastiaan Van Hal, Tony M Korman, Jim Buttery, Lesley Voss, Sally Roberts, Celia Cooper, Steven Y C Tong, John Turnidge
Importance: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality, but the epidemiology in children is not well characterized. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of SAB in children and adolescents younger than 18 years from Australia and New Zealand. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study, using data from the Australian New Zealand Cooperative on Outcomes in Staphylococcal Sepsis cohort for 1153 children with SAB from birth to less than 18 years in pediatric and general hospitals across Australia and New Zealand, collected between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473328/characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-raw-milk-sources-in-victoria-australia
#14
Kate McMillan, Sean C Moore, Catherine M McAuley, Narelle Fegan, Edward M Fox
BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459968/identification-of-source-and-sink-populations-for-the-emergence-and-global-spread-of-the-east-asia-clone-of-community-associated-mrsa
#15
Melissa J Ward, Mariya Goncheva, Emily Richardson, Paul R McAdam, Emma Raftis, Angela Kearns, Robert S Daum, Michael Z David, Tsai Ling Lauderdale, Giles F Edwards, Graeme R Nimmo, Geoffrey W Coombs, Xander Huijsdens, Mark E J Woolhouse, J Ross Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the factors influencing the emergence, dissemination and global distribution of epidemic clones of bacteria is limited. ST59 is a major epidemic clone of community-associated MRSA in East Asia, responsible for extensive morbidity and mortality, but has a much lower prevalence in other parts of the world. The geographic origin of ST59 and its international routes of dissemination are unclear and disputed in the literature. RESULTS: To investigate the origin and spread of the ST59 clone, we obtained whole genome sequences of isolates from four continents, sampled over more than a decade, and carried out a time-scaled phylogeographic analysis...
2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375560/a-prescription-for-resistance-management-of-staphylococcal-skin-abscesses-by-general-practitioners-in-australia
#16
Christine Parrott, Gillian Wood, Ekaterina Bogatyreva, Geoffrey W Coombs, Paul D R Johnson, Catherine M Bennett
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the management of staphylococcal abscesses (boils) by general practitioners (GPs) in the context of rising antibiotic resistance in community strains of Staphylococcus aureus. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed patient-reported management of 66 cases of uncomplicated skin abscesses from the frequency matched methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) Community-Onset Staphylococcus aureus Household Cohort (COSAHC) study (Melbourne, Australia, 2008-2012)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333338/characteristics-of-gonorrhoea-cases-notified-in-inner-and-south-western-sydney-australia-results-of-population-based-enhanced-surveillance
#17
Andrew Ingleton, Kirsty Hope, Zeina Najjar, David J Templeton, Leena Gupta
Background: Gonorrhoea disproportionately affects young people and men who have sex with men (MSM). In Australia, the highest notification rates in urban areas occur in MSM, although characteristics of those infected are poorly described. Enhanced surveillance can provide population-based data to inform service delivery and health promotion activities. Methods: An enhanced surveillance and data collection form was sent to the ordering doctor for residents of Sydney and South Western Sydney Local Health Districts with positive gonorrhoea results notified between 1 August 2013 and 28 February 2014...
June 23, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293019/-repeat-prescriptions-and-antibiotic-resistance-findings-from-australian-community-pharmacy
#18
Ian Fredericks, Samantha Hollingworth, Alex Pudmenzky, Laurence Rossato, Therése Kairuz
OBJECTIVE: Australians are among the highest users of antibiotics in the developed world. The primary aim was to determine the 'age' of antibiotic prescriptions at the time of dispensing as a possible contributor to antibiotic misuse and ultimately, resistance. The secondary aim was to test customised software to permit extraction and de-identification of dispensing records for analysis. METHODS: Data were extracted and de-identified from computerised dispensing systems in three community pharmacies in Brisbane, Australia, according to a strict ethical protocol...
June 13, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256648/epidemiology-clinical-impacts-and-current-clinical-management-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#19
Hazel Mitchell, Peter Katelaris
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 50% of the global population is estimated to be infected. Differences in prevalence exist within and between countries, with higher prevalence seen among people with lower socio-economic status. Most transmission of infection occurs early in life, predominantly from person to person in the family setting. H. pylori is the cause of most peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and causes symptoms in a subset of patients with functional dyspepsia...
June 6, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246238/loss-and-gain-of-aminoglycoside-resistance-in-global-clone-2-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-australia-via-modification-of-genomic-resistance-islands-and-acquisition-of-plasmids
#20
Steven J Nigro, Ruth M Hall
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the evolution of carbapenem-resistant global clone 2 (GC2) Acinetobacter baumannii in Australia focusing on the complement of aminoglycoside resistance genes and their location in resistance islands and plasmids. METHODS: Sixty-two carbapenem-resistant GC2 A. baumannii isolates with various aminoglycoside resistance profiles and resistance gene content that were recovered over the period 1999-2010 from hospitals on the east coast of Australia were examined...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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