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Australia antibiotic resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780371/comparative-metatranscriptomics-of-wheat-rhizosphere-microbiomes-in-disease-suppressive-and-non-suppressive-soils-for-rhizoctonia-solani-ag8
#1
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761047/a-survey-of-the-views-and-capabilities-of-community-pharmacists-in-western-australia-regarding-the-rescheduling-of-selected-oral-antibiotics-in-a-framework-of-pharmacist-prescribing
#2
Fatima Sinkala, Richard Parsons, Bruce Sunderland, Kreshnik Hoti, Petra Czarniak
Background: Antibiotic misuse in the community contributes to antimicrobial resistance. One way to address this may be by better utilizing community pharmacists' skills in antibiotic prescribing. The aims of this study were to examine the level of support for "down-scheduling" selected antibiotics and to evaluate factors determining the appropriateness of community pharmacist prescribing for a limited range of infections, including their decision to refer to a doctor. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires, including graded case vignette scenarios simulating real practice, were sent to Western Australian community pharmacists...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754452/part-1-current-prescribing-trends-of-antibiotics-by-dentists-in-australia-from-2013-to-2016
#3
L Teoh, K Stewart, R J Marino, M J McCullough
BACKGROUND: Literature has shown dentists tend to overprescribe antibiotics and do not always prescribe in accordance with recommended guidelines. Unnecessary prescribing is one major factor that contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess the antibacterial prescribing patterns of dentists in Australia from 2013 to 2016. METHODS: Data on dental antibacterial prescriptions dispensed under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) from 2013 to 2016 was accessed and prescribing trends analysed...
May 13, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614373/pcr-screening-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-faecal-samples-from-australian-and-chinese-children
#4
Joshua T Ravensdale, Darren Ten Wei Xian, Chooi Ming Wei, Quanjun Lv, Xiajian Wen, Jing Guo, Ranil Coorey, Peter LeSouëf, Fengmin Lu, Brad Zhang, Gary A Dykes
OBJECTIVES: Recent public awareness campaigns on the risk of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes has placed pressure on governments to enforce stricter antimicrobial stewardship policies on the hospital and agricultural industry. This study aimed to screen faecal samples from Australian and Chinese children for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes to identify demographics at risk of carriage of these genes and examine antimicrobial stewardship policies from the two countries which may influence carriage...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602857/opportunities-and-challenges-to-improving-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-through-a-one-health-approach-results-of-a-comparative-survey-of-doctors-dentists-and-veterinarians-in-australia
#5
Annie Zhuo, Maurizio Labbate, Jacqueline M Norris, Gwendolyn L Gilbert, Michael P Ward, Beata V Bajorek, Chris Degeling, Samantha J Rowbotham, Angus Dawson, Ky-Anh Nguyen, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Tania C Sorrell, Merran Govendir, Alison M Kesson, Jonathan R Iredell, Dale Dominey-Howes
OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of doctors, dentists and veterinarians (as prescribers) in relation to antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance (AbR), and to consider the implications of these for policy-making that support a One Health approach. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey conducted online. SETTING: Doctors, dentists and veterinarians practising in primary, secondary or tertiary care in Australia...
March 30, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600501/antibiotic-distribution-risk-assessment-and-microbial-diversity-in-river-water-and-sediment-in-hong-kong
#6
Wen-Jing Deng, Na Li, Guang-Guo Ying
For the past fewer years, environment antibiotic residues have got more and more attention. The occurrence and distribution of eight common antibiotics, belonging to five classes, were determined in both water and sediment of eleven rivers of Hong Kong. The target antibiotics were found to be widely distributed. Sulfamethoxazole (n.d.-79.9 ng/L), sulfadimidine (n.d.-29.9 ng/L), and ofloxacin (n.d.-75.5 ng/L) were the dominant antibiotics in river water, with detection rates of 84.6, 76.9, and 69.2%, respectively...
March 29, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579259/high-rates-of-prescribing-antimicrobials-for-prophylaxis-in-children-and-neonates-results-from-the-antibiotic-resistance-and-prescribing-in-european-children-point-prevalence-survey
#7
Markus Hufnagel, Ann Versporten, Julia Bielicki, Nico Drapier, Mike Sharland, Herman Goossens
Background: This study was conducted to assess the variation in prescription practices for systemic antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis among pediatric patients hospitalized in 41 countries worldwide. Methods: Using the standardized Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children Point Prevalence Survey protocol, a cross-sectional point-prevalence survey was conducted at 226 pediatric hospitals in 41 countries from October 1 to November 30, 2012...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497067/the-use-of-swath-to-analyse-the-dynamic-changes-of-bacterial-proteome-of-carbapanemase-producing-escherichia-coli-under-antibiotic-pressure
#8
Hanna E Sidjabat, Jolene Gien, David Kvaskoff, Keith Ashman, Kanchan Vaswani, Sarah Reed, Ross P McGeary, David L Paterson, Amanda Bordin, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance associated with the clinically significant carbapenemases KPC, NDM and OXA-48 in Enterobacteriaceae is emerging as worldwide. In Australia, IMP-producing Enterobacteriaceae are the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Genomic characteristics of such CPE are well described, but the corresponding proteome is poorly characterised. We have thus developed a method to analyse dynamic changes in the proteome of CPE under antibiotic pressure. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of meropenem at sub-lethal concentrations to develop a better understanding of how antibiotic pressure leads to resistance...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483071/evaluating-the-effect-of-a-web-based-e-learning-tool-for-health-professional-education-on-clinical-vancomycin-use-comparative-study
#9
Stuart Evan Bond, Shelley P Crowther, Suman Adhikari, Adriana J Chubaty, Ping Yu, Jay P Borchard, Craig Steven Boutlis, Wilfred Winston Yeo, Spiros Miyakis
BACKGROUND: Internet-based learning for health professional education is increasing. It offers advantages over traditional learning approaches, as it enables learning to be completed at a time convenient to the user and improves access where facilities are geographically disparate. We developed and implemented the Vancomycin Interactive (VI) e-learning tool to improve knowledge on the clinical use of the antibiotic vancomycin, which is commonly used for treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
February 26, 2018: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440945/molecular-epidemiology-of-the-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-a-synthetic-review
#10
REVIEW
Lia Monica Junie, Ionuţ Isaia Jeican, Luminiţa Matroş, Stanca Lucia Pandrea
The article presents a synthetic molecular characterization of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and describes the most important community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clones that circulate nowadays in the world: the main molecular and epidemiological characteristics, as well as notions related to the clinic of infections produced by these clones and their antibiotic resistance spectrum. The predominant clone of CA-MRSA in North America is USA300 - ST8-IV in North America, in Australia - Queensland (Qld) MRSA (ST93-IV), in Europe - ST80-IV, in Asia there is a high heterogeneity of clones population, in Africa the distribution of CA-MRSA clones is unclear, and in South America - USA 1100 and USA300-Latin American variant are predominant...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340600/development-and-impact-of-a-massive-open-online-course-mooc-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#11
Jacqueline Sneddon, Gavin Barlow, Sally Bradley, Adrian Brink, Sujith J Chandy, Dilip Nathwani
Background: The University of Dundee and the BSAC developed a massive open online course (MOOC) to address the global need for education to support antimicrobial stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: An interactive course, Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance, was developed and delivered via the FutureLearn© platform. The course ran over four 6 week periods during 2015 and 2016 supported by educators and was evaluated via data on uptake and feedback from learners on impact on clinical practice...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332434/relationship-between-antimicrobial-resistance-programs-and-antibiotic-dispensing-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-an-analysis-of-australian-data-between-2004-and-2015
#12
Jianyun Wu, Daniel Taylor, Ludmila Ovchinikova, Aine Heaney, Tessa Morgan, Jonathan Dartnell, Rachel Holbrook, Lauren Humphreys, Lynn Weekes, Suzanne Blogg
Objective NPS MedicineWise aims to ensure that medicines are prescribed and used in a manner consistent with current evidence-based best practice. A series of nationwide educational and advertising interventions for general practitioners and consumers were implemented in Australia between 2009 and 2015 with the aim of reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The work described in this paper quantifies the change in antibiotic dispensing following these interventions...
April 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282504/bacteriophages-as-biological-control-agents-of-enteric-bacteria-contaminating-edible-oysters
#13
Tuan Son Le, Paul C Southgate, Wayne O'Connor, Sue Poole, D Ipek Kurtbӧke
Bacterial contamination on seafood resulting from unhygienic food-handling practices causes foodborne diseases and significant revenue losses. Moreover, control measures are complicated by a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative measures such as the phage therapy, therefore, is considered as an environmental and consumer-friendly biological control strategy for controlling such bacterial contamination. In this study, we determined the effectiveness of a bacteriophage cocktail in controlling E...
December 27, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281972/mycoplasma-genitalium-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-recombination-and-population-structure
#14
Maria C Fookes, James Hadfield, Simon Harris, Surendra Parmar, Magnus Unemo, Jørgen S Jensen, Nicholas R Thomson
BACKGROUND: Although Mycoplasma genitalium is a common sexually transmitted pathogen causing clinically distinct diseases both in male and females, few genomes have been sequenced up to now, due mainly to its fastidious nature and slow growth. Hence, we lack a robust phylogenetic framework to provide insights into the population structure of the species. Currently our understanding of the nature and diversity of M. genitalium relies on molecular tests targeting specific genes or regions of the genome and knowledge is limited by a general under-testing internationally...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184370/occurrence-of-virulent-and-antibiotic-resistant-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-some-food-products-and-human-stool-in-egypt
#15
Osman Mohamed Hamed, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Nawal A Hassanain, Eman Hamza, Ahmed G Hegazi, Marwa Badawy Salman
Aim: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represent a severe public health issue worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases in the human gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant STEC in retail meat and milk products and human stool samples and to characterize the genes encoding for virulence and antibiotic resistance among the identified STEC isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 260 food samples were randomly collected from retail markets in different localities of El Giza Governorate, Egypt...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154717/characterization-of-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-from-victoria-australia-dairy-farm-environments
#16
Catherine M McAuley, Kate E McMillan, Sean C Moore, Narelle Fegan, Edward M Fox
Safe dairy food production starts at the farm level, with the presence of pathogens on farms potentially impacting the downstream food supply. Studies often commence with looking for pathogens in fecal material of farm animals, predominantly cows; however, pathogens may arise from other on-farm sources. In Australia, few studies have looked at the broader farm environment, particularly in relation to Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The present study characterized the genetic similarity of these pathogens from bovine, ovine, and caprine dairy farm environments and related this to the stx1 , stx2 , eae, or ehx virulence markers in E...
December 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147114/antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-isolates-from-captive-green-turtles-and-in-vitro-sensitivity-to-bacteriophages
#17
Alessandro Delli Paoli Carini, Ellen Ariel, Jacqueline Picard, Lisa Elliott
This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092694/reducing-antibiotic-prescribing-in-australian-general-practice-time-for-a-national-strategy
#18
REVIEW
Christopher B Del Mar, Anna Mae Scott, Paul P Glasziou, Tammy Hoffmann, Mieke L van Driel, Elaine Beller, Susan M Phillips, Jonathan Dartnell
In Australia, the antibiotic resistance crisis may be partly alleviated by reducing antibiotic use in general practice, which has relatively high prescribing rates - antibiotics are mostly prescribed for acute respiratory infections, for which they provide only minor benefits. Current surveillance is inadequate for monitoring community antibiotic resistance rates, prescribing rates by indication, and serious complications of acute respiratory infections (which antibiotic use earlier in the infection may have averted), making target setting difficult...
November 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062959/evaluation-of-fermentation-conditions-triggering-increased-antibacterial-activity-from-a-near-shore-marine-intertidal-environment-associated-streptomyces-species
#19
A L English, A Boufridi, R J Quinn, D I Kurtböke
A near-shore marine intertidal environment-associated Streptomyces isolate (USC-633) from the Sunshine Coast Region of Queensland, Australia, cultivated under a range of chemically defined and complex media to determine optimal parameters resulting in the secretion of diverse array of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties against various antibiotic resistant bacteria. Following extraction, fractioning and re-testing of active metabolites resulted in persistent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (Migula) (ATCC 13706) and subsequent Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis of the active fractions confirmed the induction of metabolites different than the ones in fractions which did not display activity against the same bacterial species...
March 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020364/antimicrobial-resistance-in-gram-negative-rods-causing-bacteremia-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-intercontinental-prospective-study-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-of-the-european-bone-marrow-transplantation-group
#20
Diana Averbuch, Gloria Tridello, Jennifer Hoek, Malgorzata Mikulska, Hamdi Akan, Lucrecia Yanez San Segundo, Thomas Pabst, Tülay Özçelik, Galina Klyasova, Irene Donnini, Depei Wu, Zafer Gülbas, Tsila Zuckerman, Aida Botelho de Sousa, Yves Beguin, Aliénor Xhaard, Emmanuel Bachy, Per Ljungman, Rafael de la Camara, Jelena Rascon, Isabel Ruiz Camps, Antonin Vitek, Francesca Patriarca, Laura Cudillo, Radovan Vrhovac, Peter J Shaw, Tom Wolfs, Tracey O'Brien, Batia Avni, Gerda Silling, Firas Al Sabty, Stelios Graphakos, Marja Sankelo, Henrik Sengeloev, Srinivas Pillai, Susanne Matthes, Frederiki Melanthiou, Simona Iacobelli, Jan Styczynski, Dan Engelhard, Simone Cesaro
Background: This intercontinental study aimed to study gram-negative rod (GNR) resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: GNR bacteremias occurring during 6 months post-HSCT (February 2014-May 2015) were prospectively collected, and analyzed for rates and risk factors for resistance to fluoroquinolones, noncarbapenem anti-Pseudomonas β-lactams (noncarbapenems), carbapenems, and multidrug resistance. Results: Sixty-five HSCT centers from 25 countries in Europe, Australia, and Asia reported data on 655 GNR episodes and 704 pathogens in 591 patients (Enterobacteriaceae, 73%; nonfermentative rods, 24%; and 3% others)...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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