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Australia antibiotic resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289114/parents-expectations-and-experiences-of-antibiotics-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in-primary-care
#1
Peter D Coxeter, Chris Del Mar, Tammy C Hoffmann
PURPOSE: Primary care visits for children with acute respiratory infections frequently result in antibiotic prescriptions, although antibiotics have limited benefits for common acute respiratory infections and can cause harms, including antibiotic resistance. Parental demands are often blamed for antibiotic prescription. We aimed to explore parents' beliefs about antibiotic necessity, quantify their expectations of antibiotic benefit, and report experiences of other management options and exposure to and preferences for shared decision making...
March 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273168/within-host-whole-genome-analysis-of-an-antibiotic-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strain-sub-type-in-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Laura J Sherrard, Anna S Tai, Bryan A Wee, Kay A Ramsay, Timothy J Kidd, Nouri L Ben Zakour, David M Whiley, Scott A Beatson, Scott C Bell
A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AUST-02 strain sub-type (M3L7) has been identified in Australia, infects the lungs of some people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with antibiotic resistance. Multiple clonal lineages may emerge during treatment with mutations in chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes commonly observed. Here we describe the within-host diversity and antibiotic resistance of M3L7 during and after antibiotic treatment of an acute pulmonary exacerbation using whole genome sequencing and show both variation and shared mutations in important genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178770/interventions-to-improve-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-for-hospital-inpatients
#3
REVIEW
Peter Davey, Charis A Marwick, Claire L Scott, Esmita Charani, Kirsty McNeil, Erwin Brown, Ian M Gould, Craig R Ramsay, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a major public health problem. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are associated with prolonged hospital stay and death compared with infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Appropriate antibiotic use in hospitals should ensure effective treatment of patients with infection and reduce unnecessary prescriptions. We updated this systematic review to evaluate the impact of interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing to hospital inpatients...
February 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173787/first-time-identification-of-pandoraea-sputorum-from-a-patient-with-cystic-fibrosis-in-argentina-a-case-report
#4
Pablo F Martina, Mónica Martínez, Guillermo Frada, Florencia Alvarez, Lorena Leguizamón, Claudia Prieto, Carolina Barrias, Marisa Bettiol, Antonio Lagares, Alejandra Bosch, Julián Ferreras, Martha Von Specht
BACKGROUND: Pandoraea species are considered emerging pathogens in the context of cystic fibrosis (CF) and are difficult to identify by conventional biochemical methods. These multidrug resistant bacteria remain poorly understood particularly in terms of natural resistance, mechanisms of acquired resistance and impact on the prognosis of the disease and the lung function. Among them, Pandoraea sputorum has been previously described in few cases of CF patients from Spain, Australia, France and United States, underlining the need of more clinical data for a better knowledge of its pathogenicity...
February 7, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118021/notification-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-an-australian-perspective
#5
Rachel Thomson, Ellen Donnan, Anastasios Konstantinos
In Queensland, Australia, all cases of mycobacterial infection (tuberculosis [TB] and nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM]) are notifiable under the Queensland Public Health Act (2005). This process originally emerged to avoid NTM confounding with notification of cases of TB, but has facilitated awareness of the increasing incidence and changing epidemiology of NTM. Although initially not a public health priority, the notification process has facilitated research that has led to an appreciation of both public health and environmental health issues associated with these pathogens...
March 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107364/genetic-attributes-of-e-coli-isolates-from-chlorinated-drinking-water
#6
Michaela D J Blyton, David M Gordon
Escherichia coli, is intimately associated with both human health and water sanitation. E. coli isolates from water can either be (i) host associated commensals, indicating recent faecal contamination; (ii) diarrheal pathogens or (iii) extra-intestinal pathogens that pose a direct health risk; or (iv) free-living. In this study we genetically characterised 28 E. coli isolates obtained from treated drinking water in south eastern Australia to ascertain their likely source. We used full genome sequencing to assign the isolates to their phylogenetic group and multi-locus sequence type...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100229/surveillance-of-life-long-antibiotics-a-review-of-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-in-an-australian-healthcare-network
#7
Jillian S Y Lau, Christopher Kiss, Erika Roberts, Kylie Horne, Tony M Korman, Ian Woolley
BACKGROUND: The rise of antimicrobial use in the twentieth century has significantly reduced morbidity due to infection, however it has also brought with it the rise of increasing resistance. Some patients are on prolonged, if not "life-long" course of antibiotics. The reasons for this are varied, and include non-infectious indications. We aimed to study the characteristics of this potential source of antibiotic resistance, by exploring the antibiotic dispensing practices and describing the population of patients on long-term antibiotic therapy...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018320/single-molecule-sequencing-pacbio-of-the-staphylococcus-capitis-nrcs-a-clone-reveals-the-basis-of-multidrug-resistance-and-adaptation-to-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-environment
#8
Patrícia Martins Simões, Hajar Lemriss, Yann Dumont, Sanâa Lemriss, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Sophie Assant-Trouillet, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Saâd El Kabbaj, Marine Butin, Frédéric Laurent
The multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a major pathogen causing nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates worldwide. NRCS-A representatives exhibit an atypical antibiotic resistance profile. Here, the complete closed genome (chromosomal and plasmid sequences) of NRCS-A prototype strain CR01 and the draft genomes of three other clinical NRCS-A strains from Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom are annotated and compared to available non-NRCS-A S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999043/changes-in-the-rates-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-antimicrobial-resistance-are-primarily-driven-by-dynamic-fluctuations-in-common-gonococcal-genotypes
#9
Monica M Lahra, Ella Trembizki, Cameron Buckley, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Rebecca Guy, Ratan L Kundu, David G Regan, David M Whiley
OBJECTIVES: To examine how gonococcal genotypes and associated changes over time influence rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: All available N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected in New South Wales, Australia in the first half of both 2012 and 2014 were genotyped using the Agena MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Genotypic data were compared with phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles over time. We focused on penicillin and ciprofloxacin as significant increases in resistance to both antibiotics were observed over this time period...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887966/forgotten-antibiotics-a-follow-up-inventory-study-in-europe-the-usa-canada-and-australia
#10
Céline Pulcini, Simone Mohrs, Bojana Beovic, Inge Gyssens, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Otto Cars
The objective of this study was to update a 2011 survey, conducted on behalf of the ESCMID Study Group for Antibiotic Policies (ESGAP), studying the availability of old but clinically useful antibiotics in North America, Europe and Australia. This follow-up survey was performed in 2015 in 40 countries among specialists from the pharmaceutical, infectious diseases and microbiology sectors in North America, Europe and Australia in order to assess the availability through usual marketing processes of 36 systemic antibiotics (addition of 3 antibiotics compared with the 2011 survey) selected for their ability to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria and their unique value for specific criteria...
January 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866945/a-global-call-from-five-countries-to-collaborate-in-antibiotic-stewardship-united-we-succeed-divided-we-might-fail
#11
REVIEW
Debra A Goff, Ravina Kullar, Ellie J C Goldstein, Mark Gilchrist, Dilip Nathwani, Allen C Cheng, Kelly A Cairns, Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Maria Virginia Villegas, Adrian Brink, Dena van den Bergh, Marc Mendelson
In February, 2016, WHO released a report for the development of national action plans to address the threat of antibiotic resistance, the catastrophic consequences of inaction, and the need for antibiotic stewardship. Antibiotic stewardship combined with infection prevention comprises a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to optimise use of antibiotics. Efforts to mitigate overuse will be unsustainable without learning and coordinating activities globally. In this Personal View, we provide examples of international collaborations to address optimal prescribing, focusing on five countries that have developed different approaches to antibiotic stewardship-the USA, South Africa, Colombia, Australia, and the UK...
February 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848173/assessing-pharmacists-readiness-to-prescribe-oral-antibiotics-for-limited-infections-using-a-case-vignette-technique
#12
Elizabeth Ung, Petra Czarniak, Bruce Sunderland, Richard Parsons, Kreshnik Hoti
Background Pharmacist's skills are underutilized whilst they are directly involved with antibiotic supply to the community. Addressing this issue could lead to better use of antibiotics and hence decreased resistance. Objective Explore how pharmacists can prescribe oral antibiotics to treat a limited range of infections whilst focusing on their confidence and appropriateness of prescribing. Setting Community pharmacies, Western Australia. Method Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire also containing case vignettes...
February 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832055/announcement-get-smart-about-antibiotics-week-november-14-20-2016
#13
(no author information available yet)
Get Smart About Antibiotics Week is November 14-20, 2016. This annual observance is intended to engage health care providers, professional societies, advocacy groups, for-profit companies, state and local health departments, the general public, the media, and others in an effort to improve antibiotic stewardship in outpatient, inpatient, nursing home, and animal health settings. During this week, participants will raise awareness of the threat of antibiotic resistance and emphasize the importance of appropriate antibiotic use across all health care settings...
November 11, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822686/relationship-between-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-metals-in-residential-soil-samples-from-western-australia
#14
Charles W Knapp, Anna C Callan, Beatrice Aitken, Rylan Shearn, Annette Koenders, Andrea Hinwood
Increasing drug-resistant infections have drawn research interest towards examining environmental bacteria and the discovery that many factors, including elevated metal conditions, contribute to proliferation of antibiotic resistance (AR). This study examined 90 garden soils from Western Australia to evaluate predictions of antibiotic resistance genes from total metal conditions by comparing the concentrations of 12 metals and 13 genes related to tetracycline, beta-lactam and sulphonamide resistance. Relationships existed between metals and genes, but trends varied...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809728/does-lyme-disease-exist-in-australia
#15
Peter J Collignon, Gary D Lum, Jennifer Mb Robson
There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought...
November 7, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804112/carriage-rate-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-isolated-from-healthy-dogs-in-victoria-australia
#16
D C Bean, S M Wigmore
BACKGROUND: Studies in Australia and elsewhere have shown high levels of antibiotic resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci in dogs visiting veterinary clinics with pyoderma and related conditions. Although important, such studies tend to overestimate the burden of resistance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci in healthy dogs in Central Victoria to assess the level of antibiotic resistance among these isolates. METHODS: We recruited 117 healthy dogs into the study...
December 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798010/why-do-general-practitioners-prescribe-antibiotics-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-to-meet-patient-expectations-a-mixed-methods-study
#17
Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Melissa Yee, Christina Gaarslev, Rabia Khan
OBJECTIVES: To describe the role patient expectations play in general practitioners (GPs) antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). METHODS: Concurrent explanatory mixed methods approach using a cross-sectional survey and semistructured interviews. SETTINGS: Primary care GPs in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 584 GPs (response rate of 23.6%) completed the cross-sectional survey. 32 GPs were interviewed individually...
October 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738086/peritoneal-dialysis-related-peritonitis-due-to-melioidosis-a-potentially-devastating-condition
#18
Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Nuttha Lumlertgul, Lachlan J Pearson, Tanittha Chatsuwan, Krit Pongpirul, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Nisa Thongbor, Gunticha Nuntawong, Laksamon Praderm, Pantiwa Wechagama, Surapong Narenpitak, Apinya Wechpradit, Worauma Punya, Guttiga Halue, Phetpailin Naka, Somboon Jeenapongsa, Somchai Eiam-Ong
♦ Background: Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Although a wide range of clinical manifestations from this organism are known, peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) has rarely been reported. ♦ Patients and Methods: Peritoneal dialysis patients from all regions in Thailand were eligible for the study if they had peritonitis and either peritoneal fluid or effluent culture positive for B.pseudomallei Patient data obtained included baseline characteristics, laboratory investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686266/optimizing-antibiotic-usage-in-hospitals-a-qualitative-study-of-the-perspectives-of-hospital-managers
#19
A Broom, A F Gibson, J Broom, E Kirby, T Yarwood, J J Post
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic optimization in hospitals is an increasingly critical priority in the context of proliferating resistance. Despite the emphasis on doctors, optimizing antibiotic use within hospitals requires an understanding of how different stakeholders, including non-prescribers, influence practice and practice change. AIM: This study was designed to understand Australian hospital managers' perspectives on antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance, and negotiating clinical vis-à-vis managerial priorities...
November 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679992/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-recent-cuban-mycoplasma-genitalium-isolates-determined-by-a-modified-cell-culture-based-method
#20
Brian A Mondeja, Nadia M Rodríguez, Brenda Barroto, Orestes Blanco, Jørgen S Jensen
Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from clinical specimens remains difficult and few strains are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. genitalium strains grown in Vero cell culture with first- and second- line antibiotics, using a modified cell-culture-based method. Macrolide- and -fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were detected by sequencing of the 23S and parC genes, respectively. Seven strains were examined, including three new, genetically distinct M...
2016: PloS One
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