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Australia antibiotic resistance

Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Nuttha Lumlertgul, Lachlan J Pearson, Tanittha Chatsuwan, Krit Pongpirul, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Nisa Thongbor, Gunticha Nuntawong, Laksamon Praderm, Pantiwa Wechagama, Surapong Narenpitak, Apinya Wechpradit, Worauma Punya, Guttiga Halue, Phetpailin Naka, Somboon Jeenapongsa, Somchai Eiam-Ong
♦ Background: Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Although a wide range of clinical manifestations from this organism are known, peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) has rarely been reported. ♦ Patients and Methods: Peritoneal dialysis patients from all regions in Thailand were eligible for the study if they had peritonitis and either peritoneal fluid or effluent culture positive for B.pseudomallei Patient data obtained included baseline characteristics, laboratory investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
A Broom, A F Gibson, J Broom, E Kirby, T Yarwood, J J Post
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic optimization in hospitals is an increasingly critical priority in the context of proliferating resistance. Despite the emphasis on doctors, optimizing antibiotic use within hospitals requires an understanding of how different stakeholders, including non-prescribers, influence practice and practice change. AIM: This study was designed to understand Australian hospital managers' perspectives on antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance, and negotiating clinical vis-à-vis managerial priorities...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Brian A Mondeja, Nadia M Rodríguez, Brenda Barroto, Orestes Blanco, Jørgen S Jensen
Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from clinical specimens remains difficult and few strains are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. genitalium strains grown in Vero cell culture with first- and second- line antibiotics, using a modified cell-culture-based method. Macrolide- and -fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were detected by sequencing of the 23S and parC genes, respectively. Seven strains were examined, including three new, genetically distinct M...
2016: PloS One
Lucy Sargent, Amanda McCullough, Chris Del Mar, John Lowe
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a major global public health threat. Most antibiotic prescriptions for human consumption in primary care are for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Australia continues to be a high prescriber of antibiotics, compared with other Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Implementation of evidence-based strategies to reduce antibiotic use in primary care is needed. Delayed prescribing is one evidence-based strategy that is underused...
September 2016: Australian Family Physician
Brendan J McMullan, Asha Bowen, Christopher C Blyth, Sebastiaan Van Hal, Tony M Korman, Jim Buttery, Lesley Voss, Sally Roberts, Celia Cooper, Steven Y C Tong, John Turnidge
Importance: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality, but the epidemiology in children is not well characterized. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of SAB in children and adolescents younger than 18 years from Australia and New Zealand. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study, using data from the Australian New Zealand Cooperative on Outcomes in Staphylococcal Sepsis cohort for 1153 children with SAB from birth to less than 18 years in pediatric and general hospitals across Australia and New Zealand, collected between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Kate McMillan, Sean C Moore, Catherine M McAuley, Narelle Fegan, Edward M Fox
BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Melissa J Ward, Mariya Goncheva, Emily Richardson, Paul R McAdam, Emma Raftis, Angela Kearns, Robert S Daum, Michael Z David, Tsai Ling Lauderdale, Giles F Edwards, Graeme R Nimmo, Geoffrey W Coombs, Xander Huijsdens, Mark E J Woolhouse, J Ross Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the factors influencing the emergence, dissemination and global distribution of epidemic clones of bacteria is limited. ST59 is a major epidemic clone of community-associated MRSA in East Asia, responsible for extensive morbidity and mortality, but has a much lower prevalence in other parts of the world. The geographic origin of ST59 and its international routes of dissemination are unclear and disputed in the literature. RESULTS: To investigate the origin and spread of the ST59 clone, we obtained whole genome sequences of isolates from four continents, sampled over more than a decade, and carried out a time-scaled phylogeographic analysis...
2016: Genome Biology
Christine Parrott, Gillian Wood, Ekaterina Bogatyreva, Geoffrey W Coombs, Paul D R Johnson, Catherine M Bennett
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the management of staphylococcal abscesses (boils) by general practitioners (GPs) in the context of rising antibiotic resistance in community strains of Staphylococcus aureus. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed patient-reported management of 66 cases of uncomplicated skin abscesses from the frequency matched methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) Community-Onset Staphylococcus aureus Household Cohort (COSAHC) study (Melbourne, Australia, 2008-2012)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrew Ingleton, Kirsty Hope, Zeina Najjar, David J Templeton, Leena Gupta
Background: Gonorrhoea disproportionately affects young people and men who have sex with men (MSM). In Australia, the highest notification rates in urban areas occur in MSM, although characteristics of those infected are poorly described. Enhanced surveillance can provide population-based data to inform service delivery and health promotion activities. Methods: An enhanced surveillance and data collection form was sent to the ordering doctor for residents of Sydney and South Western Sydney Local Health Districts with positive gonorrhoea results notified between 1 August 2013 and 28 February 2014...
June 23, 2016: Sexual Health
Ian Fredericks, Samantha Hollingworth, Alex Pudmenzky, Laurence Rossato, Therése Kairuz
OBJECTIVE: Australians are among the highest users of antibiotics in the developed world. The primary aim was to determine the 'age' of antibiotic prescriptions at the time of dispensing as a possible contributor to antibiotic misuse and ultimately, resistance. The secondary aim was to test customised software to permit extraction and de-identification of dispensing records for analysis. METHODS: Data were extracted and de-identified from computerised dispensing systems in three community pharmacies in Brisbane, Australia, according to a strict ethical protocol...
June 13, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Hazel Mitchell, Peter Katelaris
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 50% of the global population is estimated to be infected. Differences in prevalence exist within and between countries, with higher prevalence seen among people with lower socio-economic status. Most transmission of infection occurs early in life, predominantly from person to person in the family setting. H. pylori is the cause of most peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and causes symptoms in a subset of patients with functional dyspepsia...
June 6, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Steven J Nigro, Ruth M Hall
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the evolution of carbapenem-resistant global clone 2 (GC2) Acinetobacter baumannii in Australia focusing on the complement of aminoglycoside resistance genes and their location in resistance islands and plasmids. METHODS: Sixty-two carbapenem-resistant GC2 A. baumannii isolates with various aminoglycoside resistance profiles and resistance gene content that were recovered over the period 1999-2010 from hospitals on the east coast of Australia were examined...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mohammad Arif, Grethel Y Busot, Rachel Mann, Brendan Rodoni, Sanzhen Liu, James P Stack
Rathayibacter toxicus is a gram-positive bacterium that infects the floral parts of several Poaceae species in Australia. Bacterial ooze is often produced on the surface of infected plants and bacterial galls are produced in place of seed. R. toxicus is a regulated plant pathogen in the U.S. yet reliable detection and diagnostic tools are lacking. To better understand this geographically-isolated plant pathogen, genetic variation as a function of geographic location, host species, and date of isolation was determined for isolates collected over a forty-year period...
2016: PloS One
Pauline J Ford, Christopher Saladine, Kathy Zhang, Samantha A Hollingworth
BACKGROUND: The development of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is of global concern. Inappropriate prescribing has the potential to exacerbate this issue. We aimed to examine the patterns of prescribing of antimicrobial medicines by dental practitioners in Australia from 2001 to 2012. METHODS: Data were collected from Medicare Australia on prescriptions from dental practitioners dispensed to concessional beneficiaries between 2001 and 2012. We examined patterns of use over time...
April 28, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
Minyon L Avent, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Charles Gilks, Chris Del Mar, Kate Halton, Hanna Sidjabat, Lisa Hall, Annette Dobson, David L Paterson, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: There is a strong link between antibiotic consumption and the rate of antibiotic resistance. In Australia, the vast majority of antibiotics are prescribed by general practitioners, and the most common indication is for acute respiratory infections. The aim of this study is to assess if implementing a package of integrated, multifaceted interventions reduces antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections in general practice. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a cluster randomised trial comparing two parallel groups of general practitioners in 28 urban general practices in Queensland, Australia: 14 intervention and 14 control practices...
2016: BMC Family Practice
Bonsan Bonne Lee, Swee-Ling Toh, Suzanne Ryan, Judy M Simpson, Kate Clezy, Laetitia Bossa, Scott A Rice, Obaydullah Marial, Gerard Weber, Jasbeer Kaur, Claire Boswell-Ruys, Stephen Goodall, James Middleton, Mark Tudehope, George Kotsiou
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections [UTIs] are very common in people with Spinal Cord Injury [SCI]. UTIs are increasingly difficult and expensive to treat as the organisms that cause them become more antibiotic resistant. Among the SCI population, there is a high rate of multi-resistant organism [MRO] colonisation. Non-antibiotic prevention strategies are needed to prevent UTI without increasing resistance. Probiotics have been reported to be beneficial in preventing UTIs in post-menopausal women in several in vivo and in vitro studies...
2016: BMC Urology
Sara Elmahdi, Ligia V DaSilva, Salina Parveen
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood associated infections and mortality in the United States. The main syndromes caused by these pathogens are gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. This article reviewed the antibiotic resistance profile of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in the United States and other countries including Italy, Brazil, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, China, India, Iran, South Africa and Australia. The awareness of antimicrobial resistance of these two pathogens is not as well documented as other foodborne bacterial pathogens...
August 2016: Food Microbiology
Steven Y C Tong, Jane Nelson, David L Paterson, Vance G Fowler, Benjamin P Howden, Allen C Cheng, Mark Chatfield, Jeffrey Lipman, Sebastian Van Hal, Matthew O'Sullivan, James O Robinson, Dafna Yahav, David Lye, Joshua S Davis
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia is a serious infection resulting in 20-50 % 90-day mortality. The limitations of vancomycin, the current standard therapy for MRSA, make treatment difficult. The only other approved drug for treatment of MRSA bacteraemia, daptomycin, has not been shown to be superior to vancomycin. Surprisingly, there has been consistent in-vitro and in-vivo laboratory data demonstrating synergy between vancomycin or daptomycin and an anti-staphylococcal β-lactam antibiotic...
2016: Trials
Patrick N A Harris, Csongor Oltvolgyi, Aminul Islam, Hazizul Hussain-Yusuf, Mark R Loewenthal, Gemma Vincent, John Stenos, Stephen Graves
Scrub typhus is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi and is endemic to many countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including tropical Australia. We describe a recent large outbreak amongst military personnel in north Queensland. A total of 45 clinical cases were identified (36% of all potentially exposed individuals). This occurred despite existing military protocols stipulating the provision of doxycycline prophylaxis. Doxycycline resistance in O. tsutsugamushi has been described in South-East Asia, but not Australia...
June 2016: Microbes and Infection
Anna Brischetto, Grace Leung, Catherine S Marshall, Asha C Bowen
Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide.A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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