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Social change

Graeme D Smith, Angela Kydd
Globally, health and social care is facing extraordinary challenges due to changing patterns of disease, changing expectations of patients, financial restrictions and an ever-increasing ageing population. It is estimated that globally, the number of people aged 60 and over will increase from 900 million in 2015 to 1400 million by 2030 and 2100 million by 2050 (Kinsella & Philips 2005). If these predictions do materialize, figures could rise up to 3200 million by 2100 (WHO, 2016). This article is protected by copyright...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Rebecca Pfitzner, Joerg Koenigstorfer
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether and when the hosting of mega-sport events increases quality of life of host city residents. The aim of this study is to assess the changes in quality of life of host city residents over the course of hosting a mega-sport event until three months after the event, depending on residents' perception of the atmosphere during the event. METHODS: The study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in soccer...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Allan Riis, Cathrine Elgaard Jensen, Flemming Bro, Helle Terkildsen Maindal, Karin Dam Petersen, Mette Dahl Bendtsen, Martin Bach Jensen
BACKGROUND: Guidelines are often slowly adapted into clinical practice. However, actively supporting healthcare professionals in evidence-based treatment may speed up guideline implementation. Danish low back pain (LBP) guidelines focus on primary care treatment of LBP, to reduce referrals from primary care to secondary care. The primary aim of this project was to reduce secondary care referral within 12 weeks by a multifaceted implementation strategy (MuIS). METHODS: In a cluster randomised design, 189 general practices from the North Denmark Region were invited to participate...
October 21, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Stina Lou, Camilla P Nielsen, Lone Hvidman, Olav B Petersen, Mette B Risør
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that pregnant women experience increased worry and uncertainty following a high-risk prenatal screening result. While waiting for diagnostic results this worry continues to linger. It has been suggested that high-risk women put the pregnancy mentally 'on hold' during this period, however, not enough is known about how high-risk women and their partners cope while waiting for diagnostic results. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies employed to cope with worry and uncertainty...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Vicky Stergiopoulos, Agnes Gozdzik, Vachan Misir, Anna Skosireva, Aseefa Sarang, Jo Connelly, Adam Whisler, Kwame McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effectiveness of Housing First (HF) among ethnic minority groups, despite its growing popularity for homeless adults experiencing mental illness. This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness of a HF program using rent supplements and intensive case management, enhanced by anti-racism and anti-oppression practices for homeless adults with mental illness from diverse ethnic minority backgrounds. METHODS: This unblinded pragmatic field trial was carried out in community settings in Toronto, Canada...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Hanna F Skjåkødegård, Yngvild S Danielsen, Mette Morken, Sara-Rebekka F Linde, Rachel P Kolko, Katherine N Balantekin, Denise E Wilfley, Pétur B Júlíusson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the FABO-study is to evaluate the effect of family-based behavioral social facilitation treatment (FBSFT), designed to target children's family and social support networks to enhance weight loss outcomes, compared to the standard treatment (treatment as usual, TAU) given to children and adolescents with obesity in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which families (n = 120) are recruited from the children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years) referred to the Obesity Outpatient Clinic (OOC), Haukeland University Hospital, Norway...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Mair Underwood
BACKGROUND: As a result of the mainstreaming of bodybuilding, the majority of image and performance enhancing drug (IPED) users are now not athletes or competitive bodybuilders, but recreational bodybuilders. Previous approaches provide little insight into how the shift from competitive to recreational contexts impacts the use of IPEDs. METHODS: In this study an online ethnographic approach is used to explore the social lives of IPEDs in a recreational context. The study focusses on the Zyzz fandom, an international online community of thousands of recreational bodybuilders who idolise the alleged IPED user Zyzz...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
William M Jackson, Nicholas Davis, Stephen A Sands, Robert A Whittington, Lena S Sun
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? CONTEXT: The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Joshua F Wiley, Bei Bei, Julienne E Bower, Annette L Stanton
OBJECTIVES: Allostatic load (AL) represents cumulative wear-and-tear on the body and is operationalized as a multisystem index of biomarkers. Allostatic load is associated with morbidities and mortality, leading to a growing body of literature that uses AL as an outcome in its own right. Psychosocial resources (PSRs), such as mastery and social support, may influence health outcomes in part via AL, and the current review seeks to characterize the relations between PSRs and AL. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Embase for studies examining the relation between PSR(s) and AL in humans...
October 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Martie L Skinner, Kevin P Haggerty, Mary Casey-Goldstein, Ronald W Thompson, Laura Buddenberg, W Alex Mason
OBJECTIVES: The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. METHODS: Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
David Geard, Peter Reaburn, Amanda Rebar, Rylee Dionigi
Global population aging has raised academic interest in successful aging to a public policy priority. Currently there is no consensus regarding the definition of successful aging. However, a synthesis of research shows successful aging can be defined as a late-life process of change characterized by high physical, psychological, cognitive, and social functioning. Masters athletes systematically train for, and compete in, organized forms of team and individual sport specifically designed for older adults. Masters athletes are often proposed as exemplars of successful aging...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Gael Sentís, Emilio Bagan, John Calsamiglia, Giulio Chiribella, Ramon Muñoz-Tapia
Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is crucial for a number of applications in biology, medicine, and social sciences. Here we take the problem of detecting sudden changes to the quantum domain. We consider a source that emits quantum particles in a default state, until a point where a mutation occurs that causes the source to switch to another state. The problem is then to find out where the change occurred. We determine the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point, allowing for collective measurements on the whole sequence of particles emitted by the source...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jill E Preminger, Ann M Rothpletz
Purpose: Hearing impairment (HI) is a chronic condition; thus, even with treatment, residual participation restrictions and activity limitations typically remain. Individuals must learn to self-manage their HI. The purpose of this research note is to review components of successful Internet-based self-management programs and to evaluate group auditory rehabilitation (AR) programs with varying content, in order to make recommendations for the design of future Internet-based self-management programs...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Megan K Creutzburg, Robert M Scheller, Melissa S Lucash, Stephen D LeDuc, Mark G Johnson
Balancing economic, ecological and social values has long been a challenge in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where conflict over timber harvest and old-growth habitat on public lands has been contentious for the past several decades. The Northwest Forest Plan, adopted two decades ago to guide management on federal lands, is currently being revised as the region searches for a balance between sustainable timber yields and habitat for sensitive species. In addition, climate change imposes a high degree of uncertainty on future forest productivity, sustainability of timber harvest, wildfire risk, and species habitat...
October 21, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Richard D Holmes
Data sourcesAMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ScienceDirect, SocINDEX, ASSIA, Social Policy and Practice, HMIC (Health Management Information Consortium), The Knowledge Network, Intute, MedNar, Copac, EPPI-Centre, EThOS, OpenGrey and TRIP databases. Searches were limited to publications in the English language published after 1994.Study selectionStudies set in general practice that investigated promoting good oral health in adult or child patients were considered. Study quality was assessed using NICE public health guidance checklists...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Mona Agel
Data sourcesPubMed, Embase, Ebsco/PsycInfo, Ebsco/CINAHL and ISI/Web of Science databases.Study selectionStudies that evaluated the association between the psychosocial correlates and oral hygiene behaviour varying from self-reports to clinical measurements, including plaque and bleeding scores were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently selected studies, abstracted data and assessed study quality using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.ResultsTwenty-four studies were included providing 31 datasets...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Denggui Wen, Yutong He, Lizhen Wei, Nan Zhang, Shumei Li, Xiaoduo Wen, Yi Yang, Guiying Wang, Shijie Wang, Cuizhi Geng, Yunjiang Liu, Baoen Shan
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is diagnosed more frequently among urban than rural women in China; however, the incidence among women in Shijiazhuang is unknown. METHODS: As registered Chinese citizens are entitled to complete public medical insurance coverage, the incidence rate was estimated using reimbursement records of first hospitalization. RESULTS: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Shijiazhuang. The crude rate and age-standardized incidence rates by China (ASRC) and world (ASRW) standards were 59...
September 2016: Thoracic Cancer
J McAnuff, R Brooks, C Duff, M Quinn, J Marshall, N Kolehmainen
There is an urgent, agreed need to improve participation outcomes and interventions for children and young people with neurodisability. We worked together with service users and providers to design research into participation outcomes and interventions in neurodisability. We built on existing evidence about participation outcomes and interventions and the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. We: (1) specified seven participation outcome categories for measurement; (2) prioritized these for improvement: self-care, friends and social, and physical activity ranked the highest; (3) identified 11 potential intervention categories for targeting the top priority, self-care, through eight hypothesized change mechanisms and agreed for the interventions to be delivered as a 'Menu of Interventions' for personalized self-care support; and (4) designed a before-and-after mixed methods feasibility study to evaluate the Menu with children and young people (0-12 years) and their parents and therapists...
October 21, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Michał Bronikowski, Małgorzata Bronikowska, Beata Pluta, Janusz Maciaszek, Maciej Tomczak, Agata Glapa
The promotion of physical activity (PA) in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program "Junior for Seniors" by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children ("juniors," 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M = 7...
2016: BioMed Research International
Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Saeed Talebian, Akbar Biglarian, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh, Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad
Background: In line with health promotion plans, early intervention and fall prevention in geriatric population, it is important to study healthy individuals balance mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of adding and removing visual input and dual task on elderly balance. Methods: Twenty healthy elderly recruited from four different senior citizen health club centers and from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR) participated in this analytic cross-sectional study...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
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