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Critical power performance

Wenchao Huang, Pei Cheng, Yang Michael Yang, Gang Li, Yang Yang
Organic solar cells (OSCs) based on bulk heterojunction structures are promising candidates for next-generation solar cells. However, the narrow absorption bandwidth of organic semiconductors is a critical issue resulting in insufficient usage of the energy from the solar spectrum, and as a result, it hinders performance. Devices based on multiple-donor or multiple-acceptor components with complementary absorption spectra provide a solution to address this issue. OSCs based on multiple-donor or multiple-acceptor systems have achieved power conversion efficiencies over 12%...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Timothy C Sheehan, Vishnu Sreekumar, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Memory performance is highly variable between individuals. Most studies examining human memory, however, have largely focused on the neural correlates of successful memory formation within individuals, rather than the differences between them. As such, what gives rise to this variability is poorly understood. Here, we examined intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings captured from 43 participants (23 male) implanted with subdural electrodes for seizure monitoring as they performed a paired-associates verbal memory task...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Seung Jun Lee, Yoon Jin Jang, Han Joon Kim, Eun Suk Hwang, Seok Min Jeon, Jun Shik Kim, Taehwan Moon, Kyung-Tae Jang, Young-Chang Joo, Deok-Yong Cho, Cheol Seong Hwang
P-Type SnO thin films were deposited on Si substrate by a co-sputtering process using ce-ramic SnO and metal Sn targets at room temperature without adding oxygen. By varying the DC sputtering power applied to the Sn target while maintaining the RF power to the SnO target constant, the Sn:O ratio could vary from 56:44 to 74:26 at the as-deposited state. After the thermal annealing at 180 oC for 25 min under air atmosphere using a microwave annealing system, the films were crystallized into the tetragonal SnO while the Sn:O ratio became from 44:56 to 57:43...
January 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Philip Tseng, Kai-Chi Iu, Chi-Hung Juan
Visual working memory (VWM) refers to people's ability to maintain and manipulate visual information on line. Its capacity varies between individuals, and neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between one's VWM capacity and theta power in the parietal cortex. However, it is unclear how the parietal cortices communicate with each other in order to support VWM processing. In two experiments we employed transcranial alternate current stimulation (tACS) to use frequency-specific (6 Hz) alternating current to modulate theta oscillation between the left and right parietal cortex with either in-phase (0° difference, Exp 1), anti-phase (180° difference, Exp 2), or sham sinusoidal current stimulation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Long Ye, Yuan Xiong, Qianqian Zhang, Sunsun Li, Cheng Wang, Zhang Jiang, Jianhui Hou, Wei You, Harald Ade
The commercialization of nonfullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) critically relies on the response under typical operating conditions (for instance, temperature and humidity) and the ability of scale-up. Despite the rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of spin-coated devices fabricated in a protective atmosphere, the efficiencies of printed nonfullerene OSC devices by blade coating are still lower than 6%. This slow progress significantly limits the practical printing of high-performance nonfullerene OSCs...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
Aaron Joseph, Amy Wiley, Robin Orr, Benjamin Schram, J Jay Dawes
The current literature suggests that load carriage can impact on a tactical officer's mobility, and that survival in the field may rely on the officer's mobility. The ability for humans to generate power and agility is critical for performance of the high-intensity movements required in the field of duty. The aims of this review were to critically examine the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on measures of power and agility and to synthesize the findings. The authors completed a search of the literature using key search terms in four databases...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kevin Caen, Kobe Vermeire, Jan G Bourgois, Jan Boone
PURPOSE: The interchangeable use of whole-body exercise thresholds and breakpoints (BPs) in the local oxygenation response, as measured via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), has recently been questioned in scientific literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the interrelationship of four commonly used exercise thresholds: critical power (CP), the respiratory compensation point (RCP) and BPs in muscle (m[HHb]BP) and brain (c[O2Hb]BP) oxygenation. METHODS: Nine male participants (21...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Anupam Datta Gupta, Wing Hong Chu, Stuart Howell, Subhojit Chakraborty, Simon Koblar, Renuka Visvanathan, Ian Cameron, David Wilson
BACKGROUND: Improved walking is one of the highest priorities in people living with stroke. Post-stroke lower limb spasticity (PSLLS) impedes walking and quality of life (QOL). The understanding of the evidence of improved walking and QOL following botulinum toxin (BoNTA) injection is not clear. We performed a systematic review of the randomized control trials (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of BoNTA injection on walking and QOL in PSLLS. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, ProQuest Thesis and Dissertation checks, Google Scholar, WHO International Clinical Trial Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials...
January 5, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Michael G White, Matthew Panicker, Chaoqi Mu, Ashley M Carter, Bradley M Roberts, Poorna A Dharmasri, Brian N Mathur
Cognitive abilities, such as volitional attention, operate under top-down, executive frontal cortical control of hierarchically lower structures. The circuit mechanisms underlying this process are unresolved. The claustrum possesses interconnectivity with many cortical areas and, thus, is hypothesized to orchestrate the cortical mantle for top-down control. Whether the claustrum receives top-down input and how this input may be processed by the claustrum have yet to be formally tested, however. We reveal that a rich anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) input to the claustrum encodes a preparatory top-down information signal on a five-choice response assay that is necessary for optimal task performance...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
O V Kaminskyi, O V Kopylova, D Ye Afanasyev, O V Mazurenko, S Ya Berezovskyi
OBJECTIVE: Estimation of the parathyroid hyperplasia prevalence after the ChNPP accident in adults exposed to ion izing radiation and their descendants using the diagnostic ultrasound and its methodology elaboration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pilot prospective study of the prevalence of parathyroid hyperplasia among the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident adult survivors (n=686) and their descendants (54 children) was performed using diagnostic ultrasound examination of thyroid and parathyroids...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Rosa Gómez-Villafuertes, Lucía Paniagua-Herranz, Sergio Gascon, David de Agustín-Durán, María de la O Ferreras, Juan Carlos Gil-Redondo, María José Queipo, Aida Menendez-Mendez, Ráquel Pérez-Sen, Esmerilda G Delicado, Javier Gualix, Marcos R Costa, Timm Schroeder, María Teresa Miras-Portugal, Felipe Ortega
Understanding the mechanisms that control critical biological events of neural cell populations, such as proliferation, differentiation, or cell fate decisions, will be crucial to design therapeutic strategies for many diseases affecting the nervous system. Current methods to track cell populations rely on their final outcomes in still images and they generally fail to provide sufficient temporal resolution to identify behavioral features in single cells. Moreover, variations in cell death, behavioral heterogeneity within a cell population, dilution, spreading, or the low efficiency of the markers used to analyze cells are all important handicaps that will lead to incomplete or incorrect read-outs of the results...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sung Jin Kim, Jinwoo Byun, Taewoo Jeon, Hyeong Min Jin, Hye Rim Hong, Sang Ouk Kim
Owing to unique potential for high color purity luminance based on low cost solution process, organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite light emitting diodes (PeLEDs) are attracting a great deal of research attention. For high performance PeLEDs, optimum control of perovskite film morphology is a critical parameter. Here we introduce reliable and well-controllable PeLED crystallization process based on beam-damage-free, near-infrared (NIR) laser (λ = 808 nm) irradiation. Morphology of the CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) films can be precisely controlled by laser irradiation condition parameters; power density and beam scan speed...
December 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Franziska Pögel Neé Steinicke, Imke Oltmann-Norden, Hermann Waetzig
Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors (SPR) are one of the most powerful tools to characterize protein binding, e.g. for drug discovery, like target identification, ligand fishing, assay development, lead selection and manufacturing quality control. However, there is increasing concern about its reproducibility in the light of the reproducibility crisis. Therefore an appropriate analytical instrument qualification (AIQ) is required for quality assurance of SPR instruments. AIQ is a prerequisite for analytical method validation and it is consisting of four parts, Design Qualification (DQ), Installation Qualification (IQ), Operational Qualification (OQ) and Performance Qualification (PQ)...
December 25, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Jamie M Johnson
The practice of contemporary warfare seems to be plagued by scandal. It is often assumed that the act of bearing witness to these moments of ethical failure, in which the relationship between the martial and the ethical breaks down, plays an important role in holding powerful actors to account for their conduct. Considerable faith has been placed in the role of transparency and truth-telling as foundations for normative engagements with war. This article argues that we must be cautious about this investment...
September 2017: Eur J Int Relat
Julie L Winterburn, Aristotle N Voineskos, Gabriel A Devenyi, Eric Plitman, Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Nikhil Bhagwat, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Jo Knight, M Mallar Chakravarty
Machine learning is a powerful tool that has previously been used to classify schizophrenia (SZ) patients from healthy controls (HC) using magnetic resonance images. Each study, however, uses different datasets, classification algorithms, and validation techniques. Here, we perform a critical appraisal of the accuracy of machine learning methodologies used in SZ/HC classifications studies by comparing three machine learning algorithms (logistic regression [LR], support vector machines [SVMs], and linear discriminant analysis [LDA]) on three independent datasets (435 subjects total) using two tissue density estimates and cortical thickness (CT)...
December 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Silvia Pineda, Tara K Sigdel, Jieming Chen, Annette M Jackson, Marina Sirota, Minnie M Sarwal
Transplant rejection is the critical clinical end-point limiting indefinite survival after histocompatibility antigen (HLA) mismatched organ transplantation. The predominant cause of late graft loss is antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), a process whereby injury to the organ is caused by donor-specific antibodies, which bind to HLA and non-HLA (nHLA) antigens. AMR is incompletely diagnosed as donor/recipient (D/R) matching is only limited to the HLA locus and critical nHLA immunogenic antigens remain to be identified...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Michelle Sophie Keller, Hannah J Park, Maria Elena Cunningham, Joshua Eleazar Fouladian, Michelle Chen, Brennan Mason Ross Spiegel
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) technology provides an immersive environment that enables users to have modified experiences of reality. VR is increasingly used to manage patients with pain, disability, obesity, neurologic dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. However, public opinion regarding the use of VR in health care has not been explored. Understanding public opinion of VR is critical to ensuring effective implementation of this emerging technology. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine public opinion about health care VR using social listening, a method that allows for the exploration of unfiltered views of topics discussed on social media and online forums...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Olivera Kotevska, A Gilad Kusne, Daniel V Samarov, Ahmed Lbath, Abdella Battou
Today's cities generate tremendous amounts of data, thanks to a boom in affordable smart devices and sensors. The resulting big data creates opportunities to develop diverse sets of context-aware services and systems, ensuring smart city services are optimized to the dynamic city environment. Critical resources in these smart cities will be more rapidly deployed to regions in need, and those regions predicted to have an imminent or prospective need. For example, crime data analytics may be used to optimize the distribution of police, medical, and emergency services...
2017: IEEE Access: Practical Innovations, Open Solutions
Yanfei Guan, Li Guo, Nana Wu, Lingli Zhang, Darren E R Warburton
For fencing, speed of the lunge is considered critical to success. The aim of this study is to investigate determinants of lunge speed based on biomechanics. Ground reaction force (GRF) and three-dimensional kinematic data were collected from 7 elite fencers and 12 intermediate-level fencers performing maximum-effort lunges. The results showed that elite fencers acquired a higher horizontal peak velocity of the centre of gravity (HPV) and concomitantly a higher horizontal peak GRF exerted by rear leg (PGRF) than intermediate-level fencers (P < ...
December 17, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
Kathleen L Grady, Philip G Jones, Adin Cristian-Andrei, David C Naftel, Susan Myers, Mary Amanda Dew, Katharine Idrissi, Gerdi Weidner, Sherri A Wissman, James K Kirklin, John A Spertus
BACKGROUND: Missing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data in longitudinal studies can reduce precision and power and bias results. Using INTERMACS (Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support), we sought to identify factors associated with missing HRQOL data, examine the impact of these factors on estimated HRQOL assuming missing at random missingness, and perform sensitivity analyses to examine missing not at random (MNAR) missingness because of illness severity...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
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