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Critical power performance

Yongjie Wang, Kunyuan Lu, Lu Han, Zeke Liu, Guozheng Shi, Honghua Fang, Si Chen, Tian Wu, Fan Yang, Mengfan Gu, Sijie Zhou, Xufeng Ling, Xun Tang, Jiawei Zheng, Maria Antonietta Loi, Wanli Ma
Current efforts on lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) solar cells are mostly paid to the device architecture engineering and postsynthetic surface modification, while very rare work regarding the optimization of PbS synthesis is reported. Here, PbS QDs are successfully synthesized using PbO and PbAc2  · 3H2 O as the lead sources. QD solar cells based on PbAc-PbS have demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.82% (and independently certificated values of 10.62%), which is significantly higher than the PCE of 9...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Niels Vandenberk, Anders Barth, Doortje Borrenberghs, Johan Hofkens, Jelle Hendrix
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool to probe molecular interactions, activity, analytes, forces and structure. Single-molecule (sm) FRET additionally allows real-time quantifications of conformation and conformational dynamics. SmFRET robustness critically depends on the employed dyes, yet a systematic comparison of different dye pairs is lacking. Here, we evaluated blue (Atto488 and Alexa488) and far-red (Atto647N, Alexa647, StarRed and Atto655) dyes using confocal smFRET spectroscopy on freely diffusing dsDNA molecules...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Dieter Galea, Ivan Laponogov, Kirill Veselkov
Motivation: Recognition of biomedical entities from scientific text is a critical component of natural language processing and automated information extraction platforms. Modern named entity recognition approaches rely heavily on supervised machine learning techniques, which are critically dependent on annotated training corpora. These approaches have been shown to perform well when trained and tested on the same source. However, in such scenario, the performance and evaluation of these models may be optimistic, as such models may not necessarily generalize to independent corpora, resulting in potential non-optimal entity recognition for large-scale tagging of widely diverse articles in databases such as PubMed...
March 10, 2018: Bioinformatics
Anaëlle Camarda, Émilie Salvia, Julie Vidal, Benoit Weil, Nicolas Poirel, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst, Mathieu Cassotti
Decades of problem solving and creativity research have converged to show that the ability to generate new and useful ideas can be blocked or impeded by intuitive biases leading to mental fixations. The present study aimed at investigating the neural bases of the processes involved in overcoming fixation effects during creative idea generation. Using the AU task adapted for EEG recording, we examined whether participant's ability to provide original ideas was related to alpha power changes in both the frontal and temporo-parietal regions...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Erdem Varol, Aristeidis Sotiras, Christos Davatzikos
Statistical parametric maps formed via voxel-wise mass-univariate tests, such as the general linear model, are commonly used to test hypotheses about regionally specific effects in neuroimaging cross-sectional studies where each subject is represented by a single image. Despite being informative, these techniques remain limited as they ignore multivariate relationships in the data. Most importantly, the commonly employed local Gaussian smoothing, which is important for accounting for registration errors and making the data follow Gaussian distributions, is usually chosen in an ad hoc fashion...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Yao Huang, YueLai Yang, Pengwen Ni, Xian Xiao, JunNa Ye, Gang Kui, Ting Xie
The objectives of this study were to translate the powerlessness assessment tool (PAT) into Chinese, and to evaluate its psychometric performance. The PAT was translated into Chinese and was evaluated in patients with chronic wounds. Mean PAT scores were compared between various wound types to evaluate the scale's power to differentiate wound severity (PUSH score). There were 154 consecutive patients included in this study. All items were included, and the results of item-domain correlation (r ranged from 0...
March 10, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Xiaoyun Tang, Qun Han, Huiling Song, Xueru Zhao, Yaofei Chen, Junfeng Jiang, Tiegen Liu
Thermal effects are critical constraints for developing high-power Er/Yb-codoped fiber amplifiers (EYDFAs), especially those with an auxiliary Yb-band cavity. In this paper, we developed a numerical model to investigate the temperature-dependent effects on EYDFAs with an Yb-band cavity with consideration of thermal-induced cross-section changes. Our results show that the quantum-defect-induced heat affects the performance of the EYDFA, and its effect varies with the resonant wavelength of the Yb-band cavity...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Ida E Clark, Anni Vanhatalo, Stephen J Bailey, Lee J Wylie, Brett S Kirby, Brad W Wilkins, Andrew M Jones
INTRODUCTION: Changes in the parameters of the power-time relationship (critical power (CP) and W') during endurance exercise would have important implications for performance. We tested the hypotheses that CP and W', estimated using the end-test power (EP) and the work done above EP (WEP), respectively, during a the 3-min all-out test (3MT), can be reliably determined, and would be lower, after completing 2-h of heavy-intensity exercise. METHODS: In study 1, six cyclists completed a 3MT immediately following 2-h of heavy-intensity exercise on two occasions to establish the reliability of EP and WEP...
March 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ashkan Ghavami, Nathaniel L Villanueva
Gluteal augmentation with autologous fat transfer is an increasingly popular procedure that has the ability to transform a patient's entire body silhouette and gluteal appearance. Proper patient selection, preoperative evaluation, and planning are critical to the success of the procedure. Using the preoperative planning, surgical technique, and postoperative care described, the procedure can be performed safely with powerful and consistent results and avoidance of complications associated with gluteal fat transfer...
April 2018: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
Oisin Mac Aodha, Rory Gibb, Kate E Barlow, Ella Browning, Michael Firman, Robin Freeman, Briana Harder, Libby Kinsey, Gary R Mead, Stuart E Newson, Ivan Pandourski, Stuart Parsons, Jon Russ, Abigel Szodoray-Paradi, Farkas Szodoray-Paradi, Elena Tilova, Mark Girolami, Gabriel Brostow, Kate E Jones
Passive acoustic sensing has emerged as a powerful tool for quantifying anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity, especially for echolocating bat species. To better assess bat population trends there is a critical need for accurate, reliable, and open source tools that allow the detection and classification of bat calls in large collections of audio recordings. The majority of existing tools are commercial or have focused on the species classification task, neglecting the important problem of first localizing echolocation calls in audio which is particularly problematic in noisy recordings...
March 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Matthew I Black, Andrew M Jones, Paul T Morgan, Stephen J Bailey, Jonathan Fulford, Anni Vanhatalo
Purpose: To investigate the influence of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on muscle carnosine content, muscle pH and the power-duration relationship (i.e., critical power and W'). Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 20 recreationally-active males (22 ± 3 y, V°O2peak 3.73 ± 0.44 L·min-1 ) ingested either BA (6.4 g/d for 28 d) or placebo (PL) (6.4 g/d) for 28 d. Subjects completed an incremental test and two 3-min all-out tests separated by 1-min on a cycle ergometer pre- and post-supplementation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Garrett Jenkinson, Jordi Abante, Andrew P Feinberg, John Goutsias
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a stable form of epigenetic memory used by cells to control gene expression. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has emerged as a gold-standard experimental technique for studying DNA methylation by producing high resolution genome-wide methylation profiles. Statistical modeling and analysis is employed to computationally extract and quantify information from these profiles in an effort to identify regions of the genome that demonstrate crucial or aberrant epigenetic behavior...
March 7, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Helena Banning, Monika Stelling, Stephan König, Ronny Schoenberg, Thomas Neumann
Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient but also a strong toxin with a narrow tolerance range for many organisms. As such, a globally heterogeneous Se distribution in soils is responsible for various disease patterns (i.e. Se excess and deficiency) and environmental problems, whereby plants play a key role for the Se entrance into the biosphere. Selenium isotope variations were proved to be a powerful tracer for redox processes and are therefore promising for the exploration of the species dependent Se metabolism in plants and the Se cycling within the Critical Zone...
2018: PloS One
Ralf Bender, Tim Friede, Armin Koch, Oliver Kuss, Peter Schlattmann, Guido Schwarzer, Guido Skipka
In systematic reviews meta-analyses are routinely applied to summarize the results of the relevant studies for a specific research question. If one can assume that in all studies the same true effect is estimated, the application of a meta-analysis with common effect (commonly referred to as fixed-effect meta-analysis) is adequate. If between-study heterogeneity is expected to be present, the method of choice is a meta-analysis with random effects. The widely used DerSimonian and Laird method for meta-analyses with random effects has been criticized due to its unfavorable statistical properties, especially in the case of very few studies...
March 5, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
Aaron Uthoff, Jon Oliver, John Cronin, Craig Harrison, Paul Winwood
Backward running (BR) is a form of locomotion that occurs in short bursts during many overground field and court sports. It has also traditionally been used in clinical settings as a method to rehabilitate lower body injuries. Comparisons between BR and forward running (FR) have led to the discovery that both may be generated by the same neural circuitry. Comparisons of the acute responses to FR reveal that BR is characterised by a smaller ratio of braking to propulsive forces, increased step frequency, decreased step length, increased muscle activity and reliance on isometric and concentric muscle actions...
March 1, 2018: Sports Medicine
Corey M Peak, Amanda L Reilly, Andrew S Azman, Caroline O Buckee
BACKGROUND: Oral cholera vaccination is an approach to preventing outbreaks in at-risk settings and controlling cholera in endemic settings. However, vaccine-derived herd immunity may be short-lived due to interactions between human mobility and imperfect or waning vaccine efficacy. As the supply and utilization of oral cholera vaccines grows, critical questions related to herd immunity are emerging, including: who should be targeted; when should revaccination be performed; and why have cholera outbreaks occurred in recently vaccinated populations? METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use mathematical models to simulate routine and mass oral cholera vaccination in populations with varying degrees of migration, transmission intensity, and vaccine coverage...
February 28, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zongtao Li, Yong Tang, Jiasheng Li, Xinrui Ding, Caiman Yan, Binhai Yu
To improve the optical performance of the conformal white light-emitting diodes (LEDs), previous studies mainly focus on the phosphor structures design by simulations and experiments methods. However, one of the most critical parameters, i.e., the height of chips, is barely studied. In this study, we have experimentally investigated the effect of the flip-chip height on the optical performance of conformal white LEDs. The results show that larger chip height can cause lower radiant power and luminous flux, while wider viewing angles can be achieved...
March 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Kuldeep Mahato, Pawan Kumar Maurya, Pranjal Chandra
Among various problems faced by mankind, health-related concerns are prevailing since long which are commonly found in the form of infectious diseases and different metabolic disorders. The clinical cure and management of such abnormalities are greatly dependent on the availability of their diagnoses. The conventional diagnostics used for such purposes are extremely powerful; however, most of these are limited by time-consuming protocols and require higher volume of test sample, etc. A new evolving technology called "biosensor" in this context shows an enormous potential for an alternative diagnostic device, which constantly compliments the conventional diagnoses...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Dobromir Rahnev, Rachel N Denison
Human perceptual decisions are often described as optimal. Critics of this view have argued that claims of optimality are overly flexible and lack explanatory power. Meanwhile, advocates for optimality have countered that such criticisms single out a few selected papers. To elucidate the issue of optimality in perceptual decision making, we review the extensive literature on suboptimal performance in perceptual tasks. We discuss eight different classes of suboptimal perceptual decisions, including improper placement, maintenance, and adjustment of perceptual criteria, inadequate tradeoff between speed and accuracy, inappropriate confidence ratings, misweightings in cue combination, and findings related to various perceptual illusions and biases...
February 27, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Nowadays power consumption is increasing day-by-day. To fulfill failure free power requirement, planning and implementation of an effective and reliable power management system is essential. Phasor measurement unit(PMU) is one of the key device in wide area measurement and control systems. The reliable performance of PMU assures failure free power supply for any power system. So, the purpose of the present study is to analyse the reliability of a PMU used for controllability and observability of power systems utilizing available uncertain data...
February 23, 2018: ISA Transactions
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