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N-acyl or cannabinoid or NAPE

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222605/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-cardiovascular-function-novel-insights-and-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Salvador Sierra, Natasha Luquin, Judith Navarro-Otano
RATIONALE: Cardiovascular disease is now recognized as the number one cause of death in the world, and the size of the population at risk continues to increase rapidly. The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a central role in a wide variety of conditions including cardiovascular disorders. Cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, as well as enzymes conferring their synthesis and degradation, exhibit overlapping distributions in the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, the pharmacological manipulation of the eCB system has effects on blood pressure, cardiac contractility, and endothelial vasomotor control...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221808/a-cannabinoid-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-ghrelin-induced-activation-of-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-in-mice
#2
Aimilia Lydia Kalafateli, Daniel Vallöf, Julia Winsa Jörnulf, Markus Heilig, Elisabet Jerlhag
Ghrelin has been attributed various physiological processes including food intake and reward regulation, through activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Reward modulation involves the mesolimbic dopamine system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons targeting nucleus accumbens (NAc), a system that ghrelin activates through VTA-dependent mechanisms. In the first study, we found that systemic intraperitoneal (ip) administration of rimonabant attenuated intracerebroventricular (icv) ghrelin's ability to cause locomotor stimulation and NAc dopamine release in mice...
December 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218862/the-presence-and-distribution-of-cannabinoid-type-1-and-2-receptors-in-the-mandibular-gland-the-influence-of-different-physical-forms-of-diets-on-their-expression-in-piglets
#3
C Pirino, M G Cappai, M Maranesi, D Tomassoni, A Giontella, W Pinna, C Boiti, J Kamphues, C Dall'Aglio
We explored the expression and cell type distribution of cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptors type 2 (CB2) in the mandibular glands of pigs in relation to different physical forms of the diet. Thirty-two crossbred growing pigs (ages 5-6 weeks) were randomly allotted to four experimental groups (eight pigs/group) and fed four different physical types of the same diet for 4 weeks: finely ground pellet (FP), coarsely ground meal (CM), coarsely ground pellet (CP) and coarsely ground extruded (CE) with dMEAN of 0...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218644/cardiovascular-complications-of-marijuana-and-related-substances-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Amitoj Singh, Sajeev Saluja, Akshat Kumar, Sahil Agrawal, Munveer Thind, Sudip Nanda, Jamshid Shirani
The recreational use of cannabis has sharply increased in recent years in parallel with its legalization and decriminalization in several countries. Commonly, the traditional cannabis has been replaced by potent synthetic cannabinoids and cannabimimetics in various forms. Despite overwhelming public perception of the safety of these substances, an increasing number of serious cardiovascular adverse events have been reported in temporal relation to recreational cannabis use. These have included sudden cardiac death, vascular (coronary, cerebral and peripheral) events, arrhythmias and stress cardiomyopathy among others...
December 7, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218427/the-role-of-nonautologous-and-autologous-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-in-acute-pyelonephritis
#5
Shabnam Sabetkish, Nastaran Sabetkish, Mahba Ataei Talebi, Shahnaz Halimi, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
We compared the therapeutic effects of autologous and nonautologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC), in ameliorating the renal function in a rabbit model of acute pyelonephritis. The difference of perirenal and neck subcutaneous ADMSCs were also evaluated. Twenty female rabbits were apportioned to 5 groups. In group I (n = 4), the rabbits were injected direct inoculation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) into the right kidney. In group II (n = 4), autologous ADMSCs obtained from nape adipose tissue were injected into the subcapsular space 1 week after E...
December 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214705/visible-light-driven-iminyl-radical-mediated-c-c-single-bond-cleavage-radical-addition-cascade-of-oxime-esters
#6
Wen-Jing Xiao, Xiao-Ye Yu, Jia-Rong Chen, Peng-Zi Wang, Meng-Nan Yang, Dong Liang
A room temperature, visible light-driven N-centered iminyl radical-mediated and redox-neutral C-C single bond cleavage/radical addition cascade reaction of oxime esters and unsaturated systems has been accomplished. The strategy tolerates a wide range of O-acyl oximes and unsaturated systems such as alkenes, silyl enol ethers, alkynes, and isonitrile, enabling highly selective formation of various chemical bonds. This protocol thus provides an efficient approach to various diversely substituted cyano-containing alkenes, ketones, carbocycles and heterocycles...
December 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214639/cannabinoids-for-epilepsy-what-do-we-know-and-where-do-we-go
#7
REVIEW
Martin J Brodie, Elinor Ben-Menachem
Over the past decade there has been an increasing interest in using cannabinoids to treat a range of epilepsy syndromes following reports of some remarkable responses in individual patients. The situation is complicated by the fact that these agents do not appear to work via their attachment to endogenous cannabinoid receptors. Their pharmacokinetics are complex, and bioavailability is variable, resulting in difficulty in developing a suitable formulation for oral delivery. Drug interactions also represent another complication in their everyday use...
December 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213330/renewable-synthesis-of-n-butyraldehyde-from-glucose-by-engineered-escherichia-coli
#8
Jason T Ku, Wiwik Simanjuntak, Ethan I Lan
Background: n-Butyraldehyde is a high-production volume chemical produced exclusively from hydroformylation of propylene. It is a versatile chemical used in the synthesis of diverse C4-C8 alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, and amines. Its high demand and broad applications make it an ideal chemical to be produced from biomass. Results: An Escherichia coli strain was engineered to produce n-butyraldehyde directly from glucose by expressing a modified Clostridium CoA-dependent n-butanol production pathway with mono-functional Coenzyme A-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) instead of the natural bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208745/the-complex-quorum-sensing-circuitry-of-burkholderia-thailandensis-is-both-hierarchically-and-homeostatically-organized
#9
Servane Le Guillouzer, Marie-Christine Groleau, Eric Déziel
The genome of the bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis encodes three complete LuxI/LuxR-type quorum sensing (QS) systems: BtaI1/BtaR1 (QS-1), BtaI2/BtaR2 (QS-2), and BtaI3/BtaR3 (QS-3). The LuxR-type transcriptional regulators BtaR1, BtaR2, and BtaR3 modulate the expression of target genes in association with various N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signaling molecules produced by the LuxI-type synthases BtaI1, BtaI2, and BtaI3. We have systematically dissected the complex QS circuitry of B. thailandensis strain E264...
December 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208698/arginine-123-of-apolipoprotein-a-i-is-essential-for-lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase-activity
#10
Irina N Gorshkova, Xiaohu Mei, David Atkinson
ApoA-I activates LCAT that converts lipoprotein cholesterol to cholesteryl ester (CE). Molecular dynamic simulations suggested earlier that helices 5 of two antiparallel apoA-I molecules on discoidal HDL form an amphipathic tunnel for migration of acyl chains and unesterified cholesterol to the active sites of LCAT. Our recent crystal structure of Δ(185-243)apoA-I showed the tunnel formed by helices 5/5, with two positively charged residues Arg123 positioned at the edge of the hydrophobic tunnel. We hypothesized that these uniquely positioned Arg123 are poised for interaction with fatty acids produced by LCAT hydrolysis of the sn2-chains of phosphatidylcholine thus positioning the fatty acids for esterification to cholesterol...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206243/corrigendum-novel-peripherally-restricted-cannabinoid-1-receptor-selective-antagonist-txx-522-with-prominent-weight-loss-efficacy-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Wei Chen, Fengchun Shui, Cheng Liu, Xinbo Zhou, Wei Li, Zhibing Zheng, Wei Fu, Lili Wang
[This corrects the article on p. 707 in vol. 8, PMID: 29051736.].
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203303/interactive-effects-of-morphine-and-nicotine-on-memory-function-depend-on-the-central-amygdala-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-function-in-rats
#12
Fatemeh Tirgar, Ameneh Rezayof, Sakineh Alijanpour, Nima Yazdanbakhsh
The present study investigated the possible involvement of the central amygdala (CeA) cannabinoid receptors type-1 (CB1Rs) in the interactive effects of morphine and nicotine on memory formation in a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that systemic administration of morphine (3 and 6mg/kg, s.c.) immediately after training phase impaired memory consolidation and induced amnesia. Administration of nicotine (0.3 and 0.6mg/kg, s.c.) before testing phase significantly restored morphine-induced amnesia, suggesting a cross state-dependent learning between morphine and nicotine...
December 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203276/effect-of-ugt2b7-2-and-cyp2c8-4-polymorphisms-on-diclofenac-metabolism
#13
Katarzyna E Lazarska, Stefan J Dekker, Nico P E Vermeulen, Jan N M Commandeur
The use of diclofenac is associated with rare but severe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in a very small number of patients. The factors which predispose susceptible patients to hepatotoxicity of diclofenac are still incompletely understood. Formation of protein-reactive metabolites by UDP-glucuronosyl transferases and cytochromes P450 is commonly considered to play an important role, as indicated by the detection of covalent protein adducts and antibodies in the serum of patients suffering from diclofenac-induced liver injury...
December 1, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203210/indoxyl-sulfate-upregulates-the-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-gene-via-an-atf3-c-jun-complex-mediated-signaling-pathway-in-the-model-of-uremic-cardiomyopathy
#14
Yu-Juei Hsu, Shih-Che Hsu, Yung-Lung Chang, Shih-Ming Huang, Chun-Che Shih, Chien-Sung Tsai, Chih-Yuan Lin
BACKGROUND: The risk of cardiovascular disease is notably increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) plays an important role in the development of uremic cardiomyopathy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the uremic toxin-induced upregulation of CB1R remains elusive. METHODS: The expression of the ATF3/c-Jun complex and CB1R in both in vivo and in vitro models of CKD were measured. We also determined the impact of the ATF3/c-Jun complex on CB1R expression by transfecting H9c2 cells with dominant negative mutants of ATF3 or c-Jun...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202510/extraction-method-and-analysis-of-cannabinoids-in-cannabis-olive-oil-preparations
#15
Antonella Casiraghi, Gabriella Roda, Eleonora Casagni, Cecilia Cristina, Umberto Maria Musazzi, Silvia Franzè, Paolo Rocco, Claudia Giuliani, Gelsomina Fico, Paola Minghetti, Veniero Gambaro
Recently, an increasing number of pharmacists had to supply medicinal products based on Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), prescribed by physicians to individual patients. Cannabis olive oil preparation is the first choice as a concentrated extract of cannabinoids, even though standardized operative conditions for obtaining it are still not available. In this work, the impact of temperature and extraction time on the concentration of active principles was studied to harmonize the different compounding methods, optimize the extraction process, and reduce the variability among preparations...
December 4, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202305/development-of-a-simple-and-sensitive-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-cannabidiol-cbd-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-and-its-metabolites-in-rat-whole-blood-after-oral-administration-of-a-single
#16
Federica Palazzoli, Cinzia Citti, Manuela Licata, Antonietta Vilella, Letizia Manca, Michele Zoli, Maria Angela Vandelli, Flavio Forni, Giuseppe Cannazza
The investigation of the possible conversion of cannabidiol (CBD) into Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vivo after oral administration of CBD is reported herein since recent publications suggested a rapid conversion in simulated gastric fluid. To this end, single high dose of CBD (50mg/kg) was administered orally to rats and their blood was collected after 3 and 6h. A highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated in compliance with the Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) standard practices for method validation in forensic toxicology...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199240/improvement-of-the-solubility-and-intestinal-absorption-of-curcumin-by-n-acyl-taurates-and-elucidation-of-the-absorption-enhancing-mechanisms
#17
Xinpeng Li, Ami Kawamura, Yusuke Sato, Masaki Morishita, Kosuke Kusamori, Hidemasa Katsumi, Toshiyasu Sakane, Akira Yamamoto
In this study, the effects of N-acyl taurates (NATs) on the intestinal absorption of curcumin (CUR), a water-insoluble and poorly absorbed compound, were examined in rats. Sodium methyl lauroyl taurate (LMT) and sodium methyl cocoyl taurate (CMT) were the most effective in increasing the solubility and intestinal absorption of CUR. The intestinal membrane toxicity of the NATs was also evaluated by measuring the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a toxicity marker. NATs did not increase the activity of LDH, suggesting that they may be safely administered orally...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197803/redox-system-and-phospholipid-metabolism-in-the-kidney-of-hypertensive-rats-after-faah-inhibitor-urb597-administration
#18
Michał Biernacki, Ewa Ambrożewicz, Agnieszka Gęgotek, Marek Toczek, Katarzyna Bielawska, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
Primary and secondary hypertension is associated with kidney redox imbalance resulting in enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enzymes dependent phospholipid metabolism. The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, modulates the levels of endocannabinoids, particularly of anandamide, which is responsible for controlling blood pressure and regulating redox balance. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic URB597 administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and rats with secondary hypertension (DOCA-salt rats) on the kidney metabolism associated with the redox and endocannabinoid systems...
November 27, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197242/alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-in-drivers-involved-in-road-traffic-crashes-in-the-milan-area-a-comparison-with-normal-traffic-reveals-the-possible-inadequacy-of-current-cut-off-limits
#19
Davide Ferrari, Monica Manca, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Locatelli
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs in Italy is regulated by the articles 186 and 187 of the National Street Code. Epidemiological studies on drivers involved in road traffic crashes (RTC) provide useful information about the use/abuse of these substances in the general population. Comparison with case control studies may reveal important information like the cut-off limits adequacy. METHODS: Data from 1587 blood tests for alcohol and 1258 blood tests for illicit drugs on drivers involved in RTC around Milan between 2012 and 2016, were analyzed and compared with a published random survey (DRUID) from the European Community...
November 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194599/teens-and-spice-a-review-of-adolescent-fatalities-associated-with-synthetic-cannabinoid-use
#20
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Saeideh Amini, Abraham Ebenezer Paul
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are commonly abused by adolescents with reported past year (2013) use in high school students between 3 and 10%. Standard adolescent postmortem toxicology does not include routine SC analysis, and thus, the true burden of fatalities related to SCs is unknown. A retrospective case review of two cases included scene investigation, interviews, autopsy, and toxicology. SCs were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Review of the eight adolescent SC-associated fatalities in the literature revealed five of eight cases had no other discernible cause of death on autopsy...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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