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Power duration relationship

Günter Oberdörster, Uschi Graham
Inhalation exposure to elongated cleavage fragments occurring at mineral and rock mining and crushing operations raises important questions regarding potential health effects given their resemblance to fibers with known adverse health effects like amphibole asbestos. Thus, a major goal for establishing a toxicity profile for elongate mineral particles (EMPs) is to identify and characterize a suspected hazard and characterize a risk by examining together results of hazard and exposure assessment. This will require not only knowledge about biokinetics of inhaled EMPs but also about underlying mechanisms of effects induced by retained EMPs...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Neal D Goldstein, Samuel M Jenness, Deborah Tuttle, Michelle Power, David A Paul, Stephen C Eppes
BACKGROUND: Surveillance for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is a commonplace infection prevention strategy, yet the optimal frequency with which to monitor the unit is unknown. AIM: We compared varying surveillance frequencies via simulation modelling. METHODS: One hundred NICU networks of 52 infants were simulated over a 6-month period to assess MRSA transmission. Unit-wide surveillance occurred every N weeks where N={1,2,3,4}, and was compared against the current NICU policy of dynamic surveillance: weekly when ≥1 positive screen, otherwise every 3 weeks...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Bingbing Cheng, Yonatan Chatzinoff, Debby Szczepanski, Chenchen Bing, Sumbul Shaikh, Omar Wyman, Cameron E Perry, James A Richardson, Dennis K Burns, Bret M Evers, David E Greenberg, Rajiv Chopra
Treatment of prosthetic joint infections often involves multiple surgeries and prolonged antibiotic administration, resulting in a significant burden to patients and the healthcare system. We are exploring a non-invasive method to eradicate biofilm on metal implants utilizing high-frequency alternating magnetic fields (AMF) which can achieve surface induction heating. Although proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the ability of AMF to eradicate biofilm in vitro, there is a legitimate safety concern related to the potential for thermal damage to surrounding tissues when considering heating implanted metal objects...
2018: PloS One
Naoko Yamaguchi, Yasuo Okumura, Ichiro Watanabe, Koichi Nagashima, Keiko Takahashi, Kazuki Iso, Ryuta Watanabe, Masaru Arai, Hiroaki Mano, Rikitake Kogawa, Sayaka Kurokawa, Kimie Ohkubo, Toshiko Nakai, Atsushi Hirayama, Kazumasa Sonoda, Toshimasa Tosaka
Atrial electrical and structural remodeling is related to the perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF) subsequent to sinus node dysfunction. We investigated the relationship between AF recurrence after catheter ablation and sinus node dysfunction in long-standing persistent AF patients using the sinus node recovery time (SNRT) after defibrillation.Fifty-one consecutive patients who underwent a first ablation for long-standing persistent AF were enrolled. Intracardiac cardioversion was applied before ablation in the absence of any antiarrhythmic drugs, and the power required to defibrillate, number, and SNRT after defibrillation were measured...
May 9, 2018: International Heart Journal
Elizabeth B Brown, Joshua Torres, Ryan A Bennick, Valerie Rozzo, Arianna Kerbs, Justin R DiAngelo, Alex C Keene
Regulation of sleep and metabolic homeostasis is critical to an animal's survival and under stringent evolutionary pressure. Animals display remarkable diversity in sleep and metabolic phenotypes; however, an understanding of the ecological forces that select for, and maintain, these phenotypic differences remains poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , is a powerful model for investigating the genetic regulation of sleep and metabolic function, and screening in inbred fly lines has led to the identification of novel genetic regulators of sleep...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Makan Pourmasoumi, Nooshin Vosoughi, Seyedeh-Masoumeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Mostafa Assarroudi, Motahar Heidari-Beni
The evidence on the association between omega-3 consumption and epileptic seizure is inconsistent. Therefore, we have conducted this systematic review to clarify the possible relationship. Original articles were searched in electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and Ovid) and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. The main evaluated outcome was the epileptic seizures. We included the English language studies that reported the original data on the effect of omega-3 on epileptic human patients...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
R J Robinson, E C Hensel, A A Al-Olayan, J M Nonnemaker, Y O Lee
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) offer an alternate means to consume nicotine in a variety of flavored aerosols. Data are needed to better understand the impact of flavors on use behavior. A natural environment observational study was conducted on experienced ENDS users to measure the effect of e-liquid flavor on topography and consumption behavior. The RIT wPUMTM monitor was used to record to record the date and time and puff topography (flow rate, volume, duration) for every puff taken by N = 34 participants over the course of two weeks...
2018: PloS One
Lakshmi Nambiar, Anita Li, Alan Howard, Martin LeWinter, Markus Meyer
BACKGROUND: Exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of all-cause mortality. The duration of exercise with treadmill stress testing is an important prognostic marker in both healthy subjects and patients with cardiovascular disease. Left ventricular (LV) structure is known to adapt to sustained changes in level of physical activity. HYPOTHESIS: Poor exercise capacity in patients with a preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF) should be reflected in smaller LV dimensions, and a normal exercise capacity should be associated with larger LV dimensions, irrespective of comorbidities...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Siamak Mohebi, Mahmoud Parham, Gholamreza Sharifirad, Zabihollah Gharlipour, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Fatemeh Rajati
BACKGROUND: Social support is one of the most effective factors on the diabetic self-care. This study aimed to assess social support and its relationship to self-care in type 2 diabetic patients in Qom, Iran. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 325 diabetics attending the Diabetes Mellitus Association. METHODS: Patients who meet inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected using random sampling method. Data were collected by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, with hemoglobin A1 C test...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Mehrnaz Abbasi, Maryam S Daneshpour, Mehdi Hedayati, Azadeh Mottaghi, Katayoun Pourvali, Fereidoun Azizi
Background: Several studies have shown significant associations between manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) Val16Ala polymorphism and diabetic complications, but this association has not been explored in relation with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level changes in diabetic condition and may play important role in onset or progression of the disease and its complications. The present study investigated the association of MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism and serum TAC with the risk of CKD in T2DM patients...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Anita E Tolouei, Nihan Dülger, Rosa Ghatee, Stephen Kennedy
While inflammation can be problematic, it is nonetheless necessary for proper tissue regeneration. However, it remains unclear how the magnitude and duration of the inflammatory response impacts regenerative outcome. This is partially due to the difficulty in temporally regulating macrophage phenotype at wound sites. Here, a magnetically responsive biomaterial system potentially capable of temporally regulating macrophage phenotypes through sequential, on-demand cytokine deliveries is presented. This material system is designed to (i) rapidly recruit proinflammatory macrophages (M1) through initial cytokine deliveries and (ii) subsequently transition macrophages toward anti-inflammatory phenotypes (M2s) through delayed, magnetically triggered cytokine release...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Fatemeh Khatami, Markus Wöhr, Heather L Read, Monty A Escabí
To communicate effectively animals need to detect temporal vocalization cues that vary over several orders of magnitude in their amplitude and frequency content. This large range of temporal cues is evident in the power-law scale-invariant relationship between the power of temporal fluctuations in sounds and the sound modulation frequency (f). Though various forms of scale invariance have been described for natural sounds, the origins and implications of scale invariant phenomenon remain unknown. Using animal vocalization sequences, including continuous human speech, and a stochastic model of temporal amplitude fluctuations we demonstrate that temporal acoustic edges are the primary acoustic cue accounting for the scale invariant phenomenon...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Othmar Moser, Max L Eckstein, Olivia McCarthy, Rachel Deere, Stephen C Bain, Hanne L Haahr, Eric Zijlstra, Tim Heise, Richard M Bracken
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the degree and direction (kHR) of the heart rate to performance curve (HRPC) during cardio-pulmonary exercise (CPX) testing and explored the relationship with diabetes markers, anthropometry and exercise physiological markers in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-four people with T1DM (13 females; age: 34 ± 8 years; HbA1c: 7.8 ± 1% (62 ± 13 mmol.mol-1) performed a CPX test until maximum exhaustion. kHR was calculated by a second-degree polynomial representation between post-warm up and maximum power output...
2018: PloS One
Ida E Clark, Anni Vanhatalo, Stephen J Bailey, Lee J Wylie, Brett S Kirby, Brad W Wilkins, Andrew M Jones
INTRODUCTION: Changes in the parameters of the power-time relationship (critical power (CP) and W') during endurance exercise would have important implications for performance. We tested the hypotheses that CP and W', estimated using the end-test power (EP) and the work done above EP (WEP), respectively, during a the 3-min all-out test (3MT), can be reliably determined, and would be lower, after completing 2-h of heavy-intensity exercise. METHODS: In study 1, six cyclists completed a 3MT immediately following 2-h of heavy-intensity exercise on two occasions to establish the reliability of EP and WEP...
March 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alessandro Pozzebon, Irene Cappelli, Alessandro Mecocci, Duccio Bertoni, Giovanni Sarti, Fernanda Alquini
Direct measurements of aeolian sand transport on coastal dunes and beaches is of paramount importance to make correct decisions about coast management. As most of the existing studies are mainly based on a statistical approach, the solution presented in this paper proposes a sensing structure able to orient itself according to wind direction and directly calculate the amount of wind-transported sand by collecting it and by measuring its weight. Measurements are performed remotely without requiring human action because the structure is equipped with a ZigBee radio module, which periodically sends readings to a local gateway...
March 8, 2018: Sensors
Matthew I Black, Andrew M Jones, Paul T Morgan, Stephen J Bailey, Jonathan Fulford, Anni Vanhatalo
Purpose: To investigate the influence of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on muscle carnosine content, muscle pH and the power-duration relationship (i.e., critical power and W'). Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 20 recreationally-active males (22 ± 3 y, V°O2peak 3.73 ± 0.44 L·min-1 ) ingested either BA (6.4 g/d for 28 d) or placebo (PL) (6.4 g/d) for 28 d. Subjects completed an incremental test and two 3-min all-out tests separated by 1-min on a cycle ergometer pre- and post-supplementation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Berthold Pemp, Stefan Palkovits, Kinga Howorka, Jiri Pumprla, Stefan Sacu, Gerhard Garhöfer, Michaela Bayerle-Eder, Leopold Schmetterer, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship of neuroretinal layer thickness with sensitive measures of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). METHODS: Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients with type 1 diabetes presenting with mild-to-moderate NPDR were compared to 27 healthy control (HC) eyes matched for age and gender. The total macular volume (TMV) and the volumes of individual neurosensory layers in the macula were analysed from spectral domain optical coherence tomography using automated layer segmentation...
March 5, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Lei Wu, Jun Jiang, Gou-Xia Li, Xiao-Yi Ma
The pulsed events of rainstorm erosion on the Loess Plateau are well-known, but little information is available concerning the characteristics of superficial soil erosion processes caused by heavy rainstorms at the watershed scale. This study statistically evaluated characteristics of pulsed runoff-erosion events based on 17 observed rainstorms from 1997-2010 in a small loess watershed on the Loess Plateau of China. Results show that: 1) Rainfall is the fundamental driving force of soil erosion on hillslopes, but the correlations of rainfall-runoff and rainfall-sediment in different rainstorms are often scattered due to infiltration-excess runoff and soil conservation measures...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mark Mikkelsen, Rachelle S Loo, Nicolaas A J Puts, Richard A E Edden, Ashley D Harris
BACKGROUND: The relationships between scan duration, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sample size must be considered and understood to design optimal GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. NEW METHOD: Simulations investigated the effects of signal averaging on SNR, measurement error and group-level variance against a known ground truth. Relative root mean square errors (measurement error) and coefficients of variation (group-level variance) were calculated...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Olivia Sanchez, Andrea García, Fernando Castro-Prado, Miriam Perez, Rafael Lara-Estrada, Martin Ramirez-Meza, Montserrat Godinez, Michael L Coco, Joaquín Azpiroz, Mark K Borsody, Emilio Sacristán
BACKGROUND: Magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve has been tested in preclinical studies as a new, non-invasive emergency treatment of ischemic stroke that acts by increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF). The objective of the studies reported herein was to identify minimal stimulation parameters that increase CBF in large animals and then test those stimulation parameters in healthy volunteers for safety, tolerability, and effectiveness at increasing CBF. This translational research is necessary preparation for clinical studies in ischemic stroke patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
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