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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647581/development-of-field-applicable-tests-for-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-candidatus-phytoplasma-oryzae
#1
Lillian Wambua, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones, Daniel Masiga, Charles Midega, Zeyaur Khan, Joerg Jores, Anne Fischer
Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD) is a severe disease of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Eastern Africa, caused by the leafhopper-transmitted bacterium Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae. The pathogen severely impairs the growth of Napier grass, the major fodder for dairy cattle in Eastern Africa. NSD is associated with biomass losses of up to 70% of infected plants. Diagnosis of NSD is done by nested PCR targeting the phytoplasma DNA, which is difficult to perform in developing countries with little infrastructure...
June 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646828/spent-yeast-as-natural-source-of-functional-food-additives
#2
Rita Rakowska, Anna Sadowska, Ewa Dybkowska, Franciszek Świderski
Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644002/understanding-photocharging-effects-on-bismuth-vanadate
#3
Erik Y Liu, James E Thorne, Yumin He, Dunwei Wang
Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising material for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Recently it has been shown that "photocharging" BiVO4 results in an improved water oxidation performance. However the understanding of how BiVO4 is being improved has been lacking. Here we study the surface kinetics of BiVO4 using intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and show that photocharging BiVO4 results in both surface and bulk improvements. This result sheds light on how the surface charge transfer and bulk charge transport of BiVO4 respond to illumination...
June 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640396/an-anatomical-study-of-plate-rod-fixation-in-feline-tibiae
#4
Andreas Gutbrod, Simona Vincenti, Karolin Kühn, Sebastian Christoph Knell, Philipp Alexander Schmierer, Antonio Pozzi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of placing bi-cortical cortex (B-cort) or mono-cortical locking screws (M-lock) in a plate-rod construct applied to the feline tibia in combination with different intramedullary (IM) pins. METHODS: Twenty-four feline tibiae of cats were divided into 4 groups, corresponding to IM pin sizes filling approximately 30% (1.0 mm), 40% (1.4 mm), 45% (1.6 mm), and 50% (1.8 mm) of the medullary canal. Computed tomography (CT) was performed to trace potential screw trajectories in each group...
June 22, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639165/molecular-characterization-of-intestinal-carriage-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-among-inpatients-at-two-iranian-university-hospitals-first-report-of-co-production-of-bla-ndm-7-and-bla-oxa-48
#5
H Solgi, F Badmasti, Z Aminzadeh, C G Giske, M Pourahmad, F Vaziri, S A Havaei, F Shahcheraghi
Gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) could serve as a reservoir for the transmission of these pathogens in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal carriage of CRE and to analyze risk factors for CRE carriage. Rectal swabs were collected from 95 patients at two Iranian university hospitals. CRE screening was performed using selective media (CHROMagar and MacConkey agar). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect carbapenemase-encoding genes...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635283/piezoresistive-effect-in-the-fe-htrz-2-trz-bf4-spin-crossover-complex
#6
Andrei Diaconu, Simona-Lacramioara Lupu, Ionela Rusu, Ioan-Marian Risca, Lionel Salmon, Gabor Molnár, Azzedine Bousseksou, Philippe Demont, Aurelian Rotaru
We report on the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) (Htrz = 1H-1,2,4, triazole) spin crossover complex. Variable temperature and pressure broadband imped-ance spectrometry revealed a piezo-resistive effect of more than one order of magnitude for pressures as low as 500 bar, associated with a large pressure-induced hysteresis of 1700 bar. The origin of the piezo-resistive effect has been attributed to the pressure induced spin-state switching in the complex and the associated P,T phase diagram was determined...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630192/in-vitro-activity-of-aztreonam-avibactam-against-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-by-clinical-laboratories-in-40-countries-from-2012-to-2015
#7
James A Karlowsky, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Boudewijn L M de Jonge, Meredith A Hackel, Daniel F Sahm, Patricia A Bradford
The combination of the monobactam, aztreonam, and the non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, avibactam, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of serious infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a difficult to treat subtype of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae for which therapeutic options are currently very limited. The present study tested clinically significant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n=51,352) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=11,842) collected from hospitalized patients in 208 medical center laboratories from 40 countries from 2012 to 2015 for in vitro susceptibility to aztreonam-avibactam, aztreonam, and comparator antimicrobial agents using standard broth microdilution methodology...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629366/molecular-characterization-of-clinical-imp-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-a-chinese-tertiary-hospital
#8
Kaisheng Lai, Yanning Ma, Ling Guo, Jingna An, Liyan Ye, Jiyong Yang
BACKGROUND: IMP-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (IMPKpn) exhibits sporadic prevalence in China. The mechanisms related to the spread of IMPKpn remain unclear. METHODS: Carbapenem non-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from our hospital. The genetic relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as sequence types (ST) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), VITEK 2 AST test Kit, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), respectively...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628637/survival-bacterial-clearance-and-thrombocytopenia-are-improved-in-polymicrobial-sepsis-by-targeting-nuclear-transport-shuttles
#9
Ruth Ann Veach, Yan Liu, Jozef Zienkiewicz, Lukasz S Wylezinski, Kelli L Boyd, James L Wynn, Jacek Hawiger
The rising tide of sepsis, a leading cause of death in the US and globally, is not adequately controlled by current antimicrobial therapies and supportive measures, thereby requiring new adjunctive treatments. Severe microvascular injury and multiple organ failure in sepsis are attributed to a "genomic storm" resulting from changes in microbial and host genomes encoding virulence factors and endogenous inflammatory mediators, respectively. This storm is mediated by stress-responsive transcription factors that are ferried to the nucleus by nuclear transport shuttles importins/karyopherins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628618/solving-the-influence-maximization-problem-reveals-regulatory-organization-of-the-yeast-cell-cycle
#10
David L Gibbs, Ilya Shmulevich
The Influence Maximization Problem (IMP) aims to discover the set of nodes with the greatest influence on network dynamics. The problem has previously been applied in epidemiology and social network analysis. Here, we demonstrate the application to cell cycle regulatory network analysis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fundamentally, gene regulation is linked to the flow of information. Therefore, our implementation of the IMP was framed as an information theoretic problem using network diffusion. Utilizing more than 28,000 regulatory edges from YeastMine, gene expression dynamics were encoded as edge weights using time lagged transfer entropy, a method for quantifying information transfer between variables...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628367/learning-to-spell-phonology-and-beyond
#11
Rebecca Treiman
An understanding of the nature of writing systems and of the typical course of spelling development is an essential foundation for understanding the problems of children who have serious difficulties in learning to spell. The present article seeks to provide that foundation. It argues that the dual-route models of spelling that underlie much existing research and practice are based on overly simple assumptions about how writing systems work and about how spelling skills develop. Many writing systems include not only context-free links from phonemes to letters but also context-sensitive phonological patterns, morphological influences, and graphotactic patterns...
June 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628094/a-water-soluble-dsbb-variant-that-catalyzes-disulfide-bond-formation-in-vivo
#12
Dario Mizrachi, Michael-Paul Robinson, Guoping Ren, Na Ke, Mehmet Berkmen, Matthew P DeLisa
Escherichia coli DsbB is a transmembrane enzyme that catalyzes the reoxidation of the periplasmic oxidase DsbA by ubiquinone. Here, we sought to convert membrane-bound DsbB into a water-soluble biocatalyst by leveraging a previously described method for in vivo solubilization of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). When solubilized DsbB variants were coexpressed with an export-defective copy of DsbA in the cytoplasm of wild-type E. coli cells, artificial oxidation pathways were created that efficiently catalyzed de novo disulfide-bond formation in a range of substrate proteins, in a manner dependent on both DsbA and quinone...
June 19, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620125/mutational-re-modeling-of-di-aspartyl-intramembrane-proteases-uncoupling-physiologically-relevant-activities-from-those-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Anastasia P Grigorenko, Youri K Moliaka, Olga V Plotnikova, Alexander Smirnov, Vera A Nikishina, Andrey Y Goltsov, Fedor Gusev, Tatiana V Andreeva, Omar Nelson, Ilya Bezprozvanny, Evgeny I Rogaev
The intramembrane proteolytic activities of presenilins (PSEN1/PS1 and PSEN2/PS2) underlie production of β-amyloid, the key process in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysregulation of presenilin-mediated signaling is linked to cancers. Inhibition of the γ-cleavage activities of PSENs that produce Aβ, but not the ε-like cleavage activity that release physiologically essential transcription activators, is a potential approach for the development of rational therapies for AD. In order to identify whether different activities of PSEN1 can be dissociated, we designed multiple mutations in the evolutionary conserved sites of PSEN1...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615333/excitability-and-firing-behavior-of-single-slow-motor-axons-transmitting-natural-repetitive-firing-of-human-motoneurons
#14
Lydia P Kudina, Regina E Andreeva
Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function - transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibres. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614759/structure-activity-relationship-study-and-optimisation-of-2-aminopyrrole-1-benzyl-4-5-diphenyl-1h-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile-as-a-broad-spectrum-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor
#15
Ross P McGeary, Daniel T C Tan, Christopher Selleck, Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso, Hanna E Sidjabat, Gerhard Schenk
A SAR study on derivatives of 2-amino-1-benzyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile 5a revealed that the 3-carbonitrile group, vicinal 4,5-diphenyl and N-benzyl side chains of the pyrrole are important for the inhibitory potencies of these compounds against members representing the three main subclasses of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), i.e. IMP-1 (representing the B1 subgroup), CphA (B2) and AIM-1 (B3). Coupling of 5a with a series of acyl chlorides and anhydrides led to the discovery of two N-acylamide derivatives, 10 and 11, as the two most potent IMP-1 inhibitors in this series...
June 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604856/consequences-of-changes-in-the-zno-trap-distribution-on-the-performance-of-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#16
J Falgenhauer, F Fiehler, C Richter, M Rudolph, D Schlettwein
The well-established indoline dye D149 and three indoline dyes with improved binding stability (DN91, DN216 and DN285) were used as sensitizers for electrodeposited porous ZnO and studied in dye-sensitized solar cells and showed very similar cell characteristics. After storage of the cells in the dark for four weeks, an increase in short-circuit current density was observed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy served to detect a shift of the conduction band edge energy to lower energies and, hence, an increased injection efficiency of electrons from the excited state of the sensitizer to the ZnO conduction band is detected as the main cause of this change...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603929/lipid-like-peptides-can-stabilize-integral-membrane-proteins-for-biophysical-and-structural-studies
#17
Katharina Veith, Maria Martinez Molledo, Yasser Almeida Hernandez, Inokentijs Josts, Julius Nitsche, Christian Löw, Henning Tidow
A crucial bottleneck in membrane protein structural biology is the difficulty in identifying a detergent that can maintain the stability and functionality of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). Detergents are poor membrane mimics and their common use in membrane protein crystallography may be one reason for the challenges in obtaining high-resolution crystal structures of many IMP families. Lipid-like peptides (LLPs) have detergent-like properties and have been proposed as alternatives for the solubilization of GPCRs and other membrane proteins...
June 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602518/synergistic-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-and-aztreonam-against-serine-and-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-pathogens
#18
Eric Wenzler, Matthew F Deraedt, Amanda T Harrington, Larry H Danizger
This study assessed the in vitro synergy between ceftazidime, aztreonam, and ceftazidime-avibactam against serine and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing pathogens via the Etest MIC:MIC ratio and Agar-Etest synergy methods. The combination of aztreonam and ceftazidime-avibactam was synergistic against all Enterobacteriaceae. None of the tested combinations were consistently synergistic against IMP-producing P. aeruginosa.
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585170/rapid-and-simple-identification-of-carbapenemase-genes-bla-ndm-bla-oxa-48-bla-vim-bla-imp-14-and-bla-kpc-groups-in-gram-negative-bacilli-by-in-house-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-with-hydroxynaphthol-blue-dye
#19
Arpasiri Srisrattakarn, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Chotechana Wilailuckana, Nicha Charoensri, Lumyai Wonglakorn, Pimjai Saenjamla, Prajuab Chaimanee, Jureerut Daduang, Aroonwadee Chanawong
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates by carbapenemase production are being reported globally with increasing frequency, leading to limited therapeutic options. We therefore developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (LAMP-HNB) for rapid confirmation of bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups. Sixty-two Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. isolates carrying various carbapenemase genes (28 bla NDM-1, 9 bla IMP-14a, 2 bla IMP-48, 1 bla IMP-1, 1 bla IMP-4, 1 bla IMP-9, 1 bla IMP-15, 4 bla VIM-2, 1 bla VIM-1, 1 bla IMP-14a & bla VIM-2, 7 bla KPC-2, 3 bla OXA-48 and 3 bla OXA-181) and 37 non-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates as confirmed by the PCR methods were included...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580106/photocurrent-of-bivo4-is-limited-by-surface-recombination-not-surface-catalysis
#20
Carolin Zachäus, Fatwa F Abdi, Laurence M Peter, Roel van de Krol
Bismuth vanadate is one of the most promising photoanode materials for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In order to achieve high photocurrents the surface of BiVO4 always has to be modified with water oxidation catalysts, such as cobalt phosphate (CoPi), FeOOH, or NiFeO x . While this has generally been attributed to the poor intrinsic catalytic activity of BiVO4, detailed insight into the fate of the photogenerated charge carriers at the surface is still lacking. We used intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) to investigate the surface carrier dynamics of bare and CoPi-modified spray-deposited BiVO4 films...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
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