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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429964/global-mental-health-autonomy-and-medical-paternalism-reconstructing-the-french-ethical-tradition-in-psychiatry
#1
Tiago Pires Marques
In the last few decades, the definition of deontological ethics, a well-identified ethical territory in psychiatry, has been the object of increasing concerns. This has been the case in France, where claims of a specific ethical tradition in psychiatry have accompanied the institutionalization of psychiatric ethics and the perceived globalization of an Anglo-American model of mental health care. This study traces the history of the 'French ethical tradition in psychiatry' and its relationship with establishing institutional spaces for ethical decision-making...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427114/h-lifestyle-use-of-drugs-by-healthy-people-for-enhancing-cognition-creativity-motivation-and-pleasure
#2
REVIEW
L-S Camilla d'Angelo, George Savulich, Barbara J Sahakian
Today there is continued, and in some cases growing, availability of psychoactive substances, including treatments for mental health disorders such as cognitive enhancers, which can enhance or restore brain function, but also 'recreational' drugs such as novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The use of psychoactive drugs has both benefits and risks: whilst new drugs to treat cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders could have great benefits for many patient groups, the increasing ease of accessibility to recreational NPS and the increasing lifestyle use of cognitive enhancers by healthy people means that the effective management of psychoactive substances will be an issue of increasing importance...
April 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425123/a-5-year-follow-up-of-a-cohort-of-italian-alcoholics-hospital-admissions-and-overall-survival
#3
Gabriele Bardazzi, Ines Zanna, Marco Ceroti, Benedetta Bendinelli, Adriana Iozzi, Saverio Caini, Gabriella Nesi, Calogero Saieva
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse defined according to specific DSM-IV and ICD-X criteria, can be potentially lethal, since they are associated with several medical and psychiatric conditions. This study aims to describe the causes of hospitalization of a large cohort of subjects with alcohol dependence (alcoholics) enrolled in Florence (Italy) over a 5-year follow-up period and to evaluate the effect of hospitalization on overall survival...
April 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416966/an-overview-of-mental-health-care-system-in-kilifi-kenya-results-from-an-initial-assessment-using-the-world-health-organization-s-assessment-instrument-for-mental-health-systems
#4
Mary A Bitta, Symon M Kariuki, Eddie Chengo, Charles R J C Newton
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the state of mental health systems in Kenya. In 2010, Kenya promulgated a new constitution, which devolved national government and the national health system to 47 counties including Kilifi County. There is need to provide evidence from mental health systems research to identify priority areas in Kilifi's mental health system for informing county health sector decision making. We conducted an initial assessment of state of mental health systems in Kilifi County and documented resources, policy and legislation and spectrum of mental, neurological and substance use disorders...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413688/presentation-and-care-of-a-family-with-huntington-disease-in-a-resource-limited-community
#5
Jarmal Charles, Lindyann Lessey, Jennifer Rooney, Ingmar Prokop, Katherine Yearwood, Hazel Da Breo, Patrick Rooney, Ruth H Walker, Andrew K Sobering
BACKGROUND: In high-income countries patients with Huntington disease (HD) typically present to healthcare providers after developing involuntary movements, or for pre-symptomatic genetic testing if at familial risk. A positive family history is a major guide when considering the decision to perform genetic testing for HD, both in affected and unaffected patients. Management of HD is focused upon control of symptoms, whether motor, cognitive, or psychiatric. There is no clear evidence to date of any disease-modifying agents...
2017: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410113/watch-dog-detecting-self-harming-activities-from-wrist-worn-accelerometers
#6
Pratool Bharti, Anurag Panwar, Ganesh Gopalakrishna, Sriram Chellappan
In a 2012 survey, in the United States alone, there were more than 35; 000 reported suicides with approximately 1; 800 of being psychiatric inpatients. Recent CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) reports indicate an upward trend in these numbers. In psychiatric facilities, staff perform intermittent or continuous observation of patients manually in order to prevent such tragedies, but studies show that they are insufficient, and also consume staff time and resources. In this paper, we present the Watch-Dog system, to address the problem of detecting self-harming activities when attempted by in-patients in clinical settings...
April 7, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408828/access-to-diagnosis-treatment-and-supportive-services-among-pharmacotherapy-treated-children-adolescents-with-adhd-in-europe-data-from-the-caregiver-perspective-on-pediatric-adhd-survey
#7
Moshe Fridman, Tobias Banaschewski, Vanja Sikirica, Javier Quintero, Kristina S Chen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and negatively impacts caregivers' lives. Factors including barriers to accessing care, dissatisfaction with support services, and lack of caregiver resources may contribute to this. OBJECTIVES: To report caregivers' experiences of ADHD diagnosis, behavioral therapy (BT), and supportive care for children/adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: The Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD (CAPPA) survey included caregivers of children/adolescents (6-17 years) from ten European countries who were currently receiving/had received ADHD pharmacotherapy in the previous 6 months...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403471/do-psychiatric-disorders-or-measures-of-distress-moderate-response-to-postpartum-relapse-prevention-interventions
#8
Rachel P Kolko, Rebecca L Emery, Yu Cheng, Michele D Levine
Introduction: Most women who quit smoking during pregnancy will relapse postpartum. Interventions for sustained postpartum abstinence can benefit from understanding prenatal characteristics associated with treatment response. Given that individuals with psychiatric disorders or elevated depressive symptoms have difficulty quitting smoking and that increases in depressive symptoms prenatally are common, we examined the relevance of psychiatric diagnoses, prenatal depressive symptoms, and stress to postpartum relapse prevention intervention response...
May 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401773/psychometric-properties-of-the-ndetei-othieno-kathuku-nok-scale-a-mental-health-assessment-tool-for-an-african-setting
#9
Christy A Denckla, David M Ndetei, Victoria N Mutiso, Christine W Musyimi, Abednego M Musau, Eric S Nandoya, Kelly K Anderson, Snezana Milanovic, David Henderson, Kwame McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents are highly debilitating, with sparse resources for assessment and treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability, validity, and latent factor structure of an ethnographically-grounded assessment instrument for detecting common mental health complaints among rural Kenyan children and adolescents. METHODS: The Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku Scale (NOK) was delivered to 2 282 children aged 10 to 18 years old...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398643/systems-genetic-analysis-in-genenetwork-org
#10
Clarissa C Parker, Price E Dickson, Vivek M Philip, Mary Thomas, Elissa J Chesler
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have emerged as a powerful tool to identify alleles and molecular pathways that influence susceptibility to psychiatric disorders and other diseases. Forward genetics using mouse mapping populations allows for a complementary approach that provides rigorous genetic and environmental control. In this unit, we describe techniques and tools that reduce the technical burden traditionally associated with genetic mapping in mice and enhance their translational utility to human psychiatric disorders...
April 10, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398357/a-resource-for-assessing-information-processing-in-the-developing-brain-using-eeg-and-eye-tracking
#11
Nicolas Langer, Erica J Ho, Lindsay M Alexander, Helen Y Xu, Renee K Jozanovic, Simon Henin, Agustin Petroni, Samantha Cohen, Enitan T Marcelle, Lucas C Parra, Michael P Milham, Simon P Kelly
We present a dataset combining electrophysiology and eye tracking intended as a resource for the investigation of information processing in the developing brain. The dataset includes high-density task-based and task-free EEG, eye tracking, and cognitive and behavioral data collected from 126 individuals (ages: 6-44). The task battery spans both the simple/complex and passive/active dimensions to cover a range of approaches prevalent in modern cognitive neuroscience. The active task paradigms facilitate principled deconstruction of core components of task performance in the developing brain, whereas the passive paradigms permit the examination of intrinsic functional network activity during varying amounts of external stimulation...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397618/suicide-by-mental-health-in-patients-under-observation
#12
S Flynn, T Nyathi, S-G Tham, A Williams, K Windfuhr, N Kapur, L Appleby, J Shaw
BACKGROUND: Observations in psychiatric in-patient settings are used to reduce suicide, self-harm, violence and absconding risk. The study aims were to describe the characteristics of in-patients who died by suicide under observation and examine their service-related antecedents. METHOD: A national consecutive case series in England and Wales (2006-2012) was examined. RESULTS: There were 113 suicides by in-patients under observation, an average of 16 per year...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393642/-the-use-of-interpreters-in-the-work-with-refugee-children-adolescents-their-families-and-key-persons-in-psychotherapeutic-care-system
#13
Gundula Kießl, Tilo Meißner, Georg Romer, Birgit Möller
The Use of Interpreters in the Work with Refugee Children, Adolescents, their Families and Key Persons in Psychotherapeutic Care System Psychotherapy with interpreters is demanding and poses specific challenges to all participants. Simultaneously it can generate resources which are beneficial to the therapeutic process. In the present paper, problems and chances of working with interpreters are discussed in reference to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic care for young refugees. Recommendations to optimize the work with interpreters in this field are presented in order to facilitate the establishment of quality standards...
April 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388285/evaluating-an-alternative-to-the-emergency-department-for-adults-in-mental-health-crisis
#14
Michelle Heyland, Mary Johnson
Adults with mental health issues lack clinically indicated options when in crisis. Historically, the emergency department (ED) has been the primary source of intervention largely due to funding cuts and decreased community resources in the USA. The literature highlights drastic mental health funding cuts alongside an increased prevalence of mental illness. A community-based alternative for adults in mental health crises was subsequently developed as a model of crisis care. The program has demonstrated impressive short-term outcomes, typically avoiding ED admissions in over 95% of the clients...
April 7, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384462/can-a-10-minute-questionnaire-identify-significant-psychological-issues-in-patients-with-temporomandibular-joint-disease
#15
Shang-Lun Lin, Shang-Liang Wu, Hsien-Te Huang, For-Wey Lung, Tzong-Cherng Chi, Jung-Wu Yang
PURPOSES: For patients with disc displacement disorders (DDDs), psychiatric illness increases the risk of worsening postsurgical pain, postoperative delirium, postoperative incomplete recovery, and worse postoperative life quality. This study provides a fast and practical protocol to evaluate psychological conditions of patients with DDDs of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in clinical care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The populations under investigation in this cross-sectional study included patients with DDD who received treatment from October 2012 through June 2016...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381599/identifying-genes-for-neurobehavioural-traits-in-rodents-progress-and-pitfalls
#16
REVIEW
Amelie Baud, Jonathan Flint
Identifying genes and pathways that contribute to differences in neurobehavioural traits is a key goal in psychiatric research. Despite considerable success in identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with behaviour in laboratory rodents, pinpointing the causal variants and genes is more challenging. For a long time, the main obstacle was the size of QTLs, which could encompass tens if not hundreds of genes. However, recent studies have exploited mouse and rat resources that allow mapping of phenotypes to narrow intervals, encompassing only a few genes...
April 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378300/development-of-a-shared-decision-making-model-in-a-community-mental-health-center
#17
REVIEW
Shreedhar Paudel, Neeta Sharma, Astha Joshi, Melinda Randall
Shared Decision Making (SDM) is an essential component of recovery oriented treatment for clients with severe and persistent mental illnesses. SDM has been found to be effective in improving outcome of treatment of non-psychiatric ailments, and studies of SDM in community mental health settings are limited. We designed and implemented a low tech SDM program in a non-academic community mental health center and evaluated the outcome on decisional certainty and satisfaction with services. The results suggest that SDM can be effectively integrated with evidence based psychiatric rehabilitation practices utilizing already existing resources...
April 4, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378204/a-schizophrenia-relevant-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-mice-assessing-broad-monitoring-distractibility-and-impulsivity
#18
Huiping Huang, Simone Guadagna, Maddalena Mereu, Mariasole Ciampoli, Giacomo Pruzzo, Theresa Ballard, Francesco Papaleo
The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) is an automated test for rodents allowing the assessment of multiple cognitive measures. Originally designed to assess cognitive deficits relevant to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it has been widely used in the investigation of neural systems of attention. In the current study, we have set up a modified version, which reduced the training phase to only 8-9 days with minimal food deprivation and without single-housing. Furthermore, based on evidence that patients with schizophrenia are more impaired in broad monitoring abilities than in sustained attention, we successfully developed a protocol replicating the Spatial Attentional Resource Allocation Task (SARAT), used in humans to assess broad monitoring...
April 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372713/psychiatric-emergencies-assessing-and-managing-suicidal-ideation
#19
REVIEW
Andrea N Weber, Maria Michail, Alex Thompson, Jess G Fiedorowicz
The assessment of suicide risk is a daunting, but increasingly frequent task for outpatient practitioners. Guidelines for depression screening identify more individuals at risk for treatment and mental health resources are not always easily accessible. For those patients identified as in need of a formal suicide risk assessment, this article reviews established risk and protective factors for suicide and provides a framework for the assessment and management of individuals at risk of suicide. The assessment should be explicitly documented with a summary of the most relevant risk/protective factors for that individual with a focus on interventions that may mitigate risk...
May 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371953/-stigma-evaluation-of-a-psychological-therapy-program-for-stigma-management
#20
Manuela Schenner, Daniela Kohlbauer, Ullrich Meise, Christina Haller, Martina Pixner-Huber, Kristina Stürz, Verena Günther
Objective The project "Stigma Management - StigMa" aims on the evaluation of an adaptive therapy program for patients with psychiatric illness to help them in managing internalized stigma and self-stigmatization. Methods The patients for this pilot-study were recruited in day-hospitals of pro mente tirol. 26 patients participated in 11 group sessions, following 6 modules: "Education", "Activation of Resources", "Social Network", "Self-Esteem", "Social competence in public places" and "My personal stigma management"...
April 3, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
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