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Masaaki Iwata, Hisahito Ishida, Koichi Kaneko, Yukihiko Shirayama
An accumulating body of evidence has demonstrated that inflammation is associated with the pathology of depression. We recently found that psychological stress induces inflammation in the hippocampus of the rat brain through the inflammasome, a component of the innate immune system. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, play a central role in the innate immune system and express inflammasomes; thus, we hypothesized that hippocampal microglia would be key mediators in the development of depression via stress-induced inflammation...
October 18, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health- promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviors such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioral and biological responses to stress later in life...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Raquel Fonseca, Rui A Carvalho, Cristina Lemos, Ana C Sequeira, Inês R Pita, Fábio Carvalho, Carlos D Silva, Rui D S Prediger, Ivana Jarak, Rodrigo A Cunha, Carlos A Fontes Ribeiro, Attila Köfalvi, Frederico C Pereira
INTRODUCTION: We recently showed that a single high dose of methamphetamine (METH) induces a persistent frontal cortical monoamine depletion that is accompanied by helpless-like behavior in mice. However, brain metabolic alterations underlying both neurochemical and mood alterations remain unknown. AIMS: Herein, we aimed at characterizing frontal cortical metabolic alterations associated with early negative mood behavior triggered by METH. Adult C57BL/6 mice were injected with METH (30 mg/kg, i...
October 19, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Anika Sparla, Sebastian Flach-Vorgang, Matthias Villalobos, Katja Krug, Martina Kamradt, Kadiatou Coulibaly, Joachim Szecsenyi, Michael Thomas, Sinikka Gusset-Bährer, Dominik Ose
PURPOSE: Lung cancer is a disease with a high percentage of patients diagnosed in an advanced stage. In a situation of palliative treatment, both patients and their relatives experience diverse types of distress and burden. Little research has been done to identify the individual difficulties and resources for patients with advanced lung cancer and their relatives. Especially, standardized questionnaire-based exploration may not assess the specific distressing issues that pertain to each individual on a personal level...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Hui-Chuan Huang, Chien-Hung Chang, Chaur-Jong Hu, Meei-Ling Shyu, Chin-I Chen, Chih-Shan Huang, Hsiu-Ting Tsai, Hsiu-Ju Chang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the temporal effects of psychological distress on the functional recovery among stroke survivors. DESIGN: A longitudinal follow-up study. All participants were interviewed at 5 days after stroke onset, and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after discharge from acute care hospitals. SETTING: Neurology inpatient and outpatient departments and rehabilitation clinics. PARTICIPANTS: First-time stroke participants (N=62) without cognitive impairment, psychiatric disorders, or cancer were recruited...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Kathrin I Mohr
For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Miloš Buřič, Martin Fořt, Martin Bláha, Lukáš Veselý, Pavel Kozák, Antonín Kouba
Invertebrates are a very diverse group of animals, showing a wide spectrum of life strategies and adaptations. They often exhibit very complex behavioural and social patterns. In crayfish, the largest freshwater invertebrates, we found a new behavioural pattern, burying their own exuviae after moulting. Such a pattern may be an as yet unrecognized type of hoarding or caching. The buried exuvia is exhumed after 2 or 3 days (when the crayfish body is no longer as soft) and consumed. This behaviour is probably self-protective (hiding the mark of a helpless prey), as well as having mineral storage reasons...
2016: SpringerPlus
Steven F Grieco, Dmitry Velmeshev, Marco Magistri, Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, Mohammad A Faghihi, Richard S Jope, Eleonore Beurel
OBJECTIVES: We examined mechanisms that contribute to the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine in mice that is dependent on glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibition. METHODS: We measured serotonergic (5HT)-2C-receptor (5HTR2C) cluster microRNA (miRNA) levels in mouse hippocampus after administering an antidepressant dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) in wild-type and GSK3 knockin mice, after GSK3 inhibition with L803-mts, and in learned helpless mice. RESULTS: Ketamine up-regulated cluster miRNAs 448-3p, 764-5p, 1264-3p, 1298-5p and 1912-3p (2- to 11-fold)...
October 10, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Gayaprasad Upadhyay, Sarvesh Khoshla, Ramoji Kosuru, Sanjay Singh
OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to explore anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antistress actions of Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaves (aqueous extract) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Behavioral procedures of anxiety, depression, and stress were assessed in rats. CT (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was given once a daily for 7 days via oral route and the efficacy was matched by those elicited by lorazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and Withania somnifera (100 mg/kg, p...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Ebru Salcioglu, Sevim Urhan, Tugba Pirinccioglu, Sule Aydin
Objective: Embracing the conceptual framework of contemporary learning theory, this study tested the hypothesis that anticipatory fear due to a sense of ongoing threat to safety and sense of helplessness in life would be the strongest determinants of PTSD and depression in domestic violence survivors. Method: Participants were 220 domestic violence survivors recruited consecutively from 12 shelters for women in Turkey (response rate 70%). They were assessed with the Semi-Structured Interview for Survivors of Domestic Violence, Traumatic Stress Symptom Checklist, Depression Rating Scale, and Fear and Sense of Control Scale...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Ada Ghiggia, Lorys Castelli, Giuseppe Riva, Valentina Tesio, Erica Provenzano, Mattia Ravera, Massimiliano Garzaro, Giancarlo Pecorari, Pierfrancesco Franco, Ilenia Potenza, Monica Rampino, Riccardo Torta
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the head and neck cancer with the greatest impact on patients' quality of life. The aim of this explorative study is to investigate the psychological distress, coping strategies and quality of life of NPC patients in the post-treatment observation period. Twenty-one patients disease-free for at least two years were assessed with a medical and a psycho-oncological evaluation. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms (CRD) were present in 23.8% of patients and 33.3% reported clinically relevant anxiety symptoms (CRA)...
August 10, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Xin Yin, Nuri Guven, Nikolas Dietis
Depression is one of the leading causes of disability and a significant health-concern worldwide. Much of our current understanding on the pathogenesis of depression and the pharmacology of antidepressant drugs is based on pre-clinical models. Three of the most popular stress-based rodent models are the forced swimming test, the chronic mild stress paradigm and the learned helplessness model. Despite their recognizable advantages and limitations, they are associated with an immense variability due to the high number of design parameters that define them...
September 20, 2016: Brain Research
Nena Kopčavar Guček, Davorina Petek, Igor Švab, Polona Selič
INTRODUCTION: In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV) the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors. METHODS: In July 2014, a qualitative study was performed through semi-structured interviews with ten family doctors of different ages and gender, working in rural or urban environments...
March 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Christiane Vial
Sexual health encompasses many aspects other than sexual intercourse. Talking about it with patients requires professionals to distance themselves from their own representations. Nurses, often confronted directly or indirectly with this issue, feel helpless. Sexology counselling can offer some answers to these difficulties.
June 2016: Revue de L'infirmière
Camara Phyllis Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: American Journal of Public Health
É Cappe, N Poirier, É Boujut, N Nader-Grosbois, C Dionne, A Boulard
INTRODUCTION: Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Shingisai Chando, Christian Young, Jonathan C Craig, Hasantha Gunasekera, Allison Tong
UNLABELLED: This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience)...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Eun-Jung Shim, Bong-Jin Hahm, Eun-Seung Yu, Ha Kyoung Kim, Seong Jin Cho, Sung Man Chang, Jong-Chul Yang, Jong-Heun Kim
OBJECTIVE: To report the development and validation of the National Cancer Center Psychological Symptom Inventory (NCC-PSI). METHODS: Psychometric properties of the NCC-PSI were examined by using multicenter surveys involving 400 patients with cancer in 5 cancer-treatment hospitals throughout Korea. Related measures including the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were administered. RESULTS: Convergent validity was supported by NCC-PSI's significant associations with related measures...
September 8, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Yan Zhang, Bing Feng, Wenxiu Geng, Laurence Owens, Juzhe Xi
BACKGROUND: Compulsory drug detention is the most frequent way to control drug use in China; however, it has often been criticized. This qualitative study aimed to investigate abstinence self-efficacy and its sources of drug users in a compulsory male drug detention center in Shanghai, China, and the attitudes of the drug users to this form of rehabilitation. METHODS: Thirty-six participants were interviewed (semi-structured, in depth) about their history of drug use and rehabilitation, self-evaluation of addiction, motivations to abstain, plans for the future and attitudes toward rehabilitation...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Jeffery N Talbot, Laura M Geffert, Jessica E Jorvig, Ruben I Goldstein, Cienna L Nielsen, Nicholas E Wolters, Mary Ellen Amos, Caitlin A Munro, Elizabeth Dallman, Maddalena Mereu, Gianluigi Tanda, Jonathan L Katz, Martín Indarte, Jeffry D Madura, Hailey Choi, Rehana K Leak, Christopher K Surratt
Rational design of lead compounds targeting monoamine transporters (MATs) is critical to developing novel therapeutics to treat psychiatric disorders including depression and substance abuse. A 3-D dopamine transporter (DAT) computer model was used to virtually screen a commercially available small molecule library for high DAT affinity drug-like compounds. One hit, coded "MI-4", inhibited human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters in vitro. In vivo administration in mice induced robust, dose-dependent antidepressant-like behaviors in learned helplessness models (tail suspension and forced swim tests)...
August 26, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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