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Helplessness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452218/tnf%C3%AE-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-to-maintain-prolonged-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#1
Yuyan Cheng, Sachi Desse, Ana Martinez, Ryan J Worthen, Richard S Jope, Eleonore Beurel
Recovery from major depressive disorder is difficult, particularly in patients who are refractory to antidepressant treatments. To examine factors that regulate recovery, we developed a prolonged learned helplessness depression model in mice. After the induction of learned helplessness, mice were separated into groups that recovered or did not recover within 4 weeks. Comparisons were made between groups in hippocampal proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Compared with mice that recovered and control mice, non-recovered mice displaying prolonged learned helplessness had greater hippocampal activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-17A, and interleukin-23, increased permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), and lower levels of the BBB tight junction proteins occludin, ZO1, and claudin-5...
February 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448854/mental-health-care-providers-talk-about-their-experiences-preventing-suicide-in-people-with-substance-use-disorders-in-south-africa-implications-for-clinical-practice
#2
Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes
OBJECTIVE: This study explored mental health care providers' experiences of preventing suicide in people with substance use disorders and their perceptions of factors related to clinical practice that contributed to these experiences. METHODS: In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 mental health care providers working in South Africa. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data inductively with Atlas.ti software. RESULTS: Participants described feeling hopeless, helpless, powerless and guilty and needed to debrief from their experiences of preventing suicide...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444084/attributional-style-and-depressive-symptoms-in-a-male-prison-sample
#3
Danny J O'Sullivan, Maura E O'Sullivan, Brendan D O'Connell, Ken O'Reilly, Kiran M Sarma
The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439798/-refusal-of-care-and-respect-of-the-body
#4
Marie-Fleur Bernard
Patients receive numerous care procedures which they may refuse for physical and/or psychological reasons, even if, sometimes, the consequences for them can be dramatic. Faced with this situation, caregivers are helpless. Only ethical reflection centred on their responsibility and their humanity can guide them towards the suitable attitude to adopt.
January 2018: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429848/learned-helplessness-in-doctors-with-dyslexia-time-for-a-change-in-discourse
#5
EDITORIAL
Sebastian C K Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426793/-widowhood-loneliness-and-health-in-old-age
#6
Juan López Doblas, María Del Pilar Díaz Conde
INTRODUCTION: Elderly people are one of the most vulnerable groups in the population as regards loneliness, especially among those living alone. This paper aims to assess the impact of the feeling of loneliness on the elderly, taking into account that the loss of a spouse is the main reason that triggers this feeling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Findings are presented from a qualitative study conducted in Spain. Data were gathered using a focus group approach (8 focus groups, differentiated by gender and place of residence)...
February 6, 2018: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393222/functional-outcomes-after-behavioral-treatment-of-paradoxical-vocal-fold-motion-in-adults
#7
Karen Drake, Andrew D Palmer, Joshua S Schindler, Stephen A Tilles
OBJECTIVE: Paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) is responsive to behavioral therapy, often resulting in a remission of symptoms, but little is known about whether treatment is beneficial with regard to PVFM-associated psychological symptoms or functional limitations. The goal of the study was to identify patient perceptions of the impact of treatment for PVFM and characteristics associated with treatment outcomes. METHODS: A survey was conducted of all adults who had received at least 1 session of treatment for PVFM in our outpatient clinic over a 2-year period...
January 26, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392232/gray-matter-alteration-associated-with-pain-catastrophizing-in-patients-6-months-after-lumbar-disk-surgery-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#8
Omar Chehadi, Boris Suchan, Kerstin Konietzny, Odo Köster, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Monika I Hasenbring
Introduction: Pain catastrophizing (PC), the increased attention to harmful aspects of pain (magnification), and the belief of low controllability (helplessness) has been shown to be important in the maintenance of pain. A growing research on structural alterations in chronic pain revealed an association between PC and brain areas that are involved in affective and cognitive pain processing. However, little is known about a differential effect of the components magnification and helplessness...
September 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391827/development-and-implementation-of-an-inpatient-multidisciplinary-pain-management-program-for-patients-with-intractable-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-in-japan-preliminary-report
#9
Naoto Takahashi, Satoshi Kasahara, Shoji Yabuki
Introduction: Multidisciplinary pain management is a useful method to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. Few facilities in Japan administer a multidisciplinary pain management program, especially an inpatient program. Therefore, we implemented a multidisciplinary pain management program in our hospital based on biopsychosocial factors guided by the recommendations of the International Association for the Study of Pain. The purpose of this study is to describe our inpatient pain management program for Japanese patients, which uses the biopsychosocial method of pain self-management...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390069/long-non-coding-rna-associated-transcriptomic-changes-in-resiliency-or-susceptibility-to-depression-and-response-to-antidepressant-treatment
#10
Bhaskar Roy, Qingzhong Wang, Yogesh Dwivedi
Background: Recent emergence of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating gene expression and thereby modulating physiological functions in brain has manifested their possible role in psychiatric disorders. In this study, the roles of lncRNAs in susceptibility and resiliency to develop stress-induced depression and their response to antidepressant treatment were examined. Methods: Microarray based transcriptome-wide changes in lncRNAs was determined in hippocampus of male Holtzman rats who showed susceptibility (learned helpless; LH) or resiliency (non-learned helpless; NLH) to develop depression...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383554/-we-went-out-to-explore-but-gained-nothing-but-illness-immigration-expectations-reality-risk-and-resilience-in-chinese-canadian-women-with-a-history-of-suicide-related-behaviour
#11
Juveria Zaheer, Rahel Eynan, June S H Lam, Michael Grundland, Paul S Links
Suicide is a complex and tragic outcome driven by biological, psychological, social and cultural factors. Women of Chinese descent and women who have immigrated to other countries have higher rates of suicidal ideation and behaviour, and immigration-related stress may contribute. To understand the experiences of immigration and their relationship with distress and suicide-related behaviour in Chinese women who have immigrated to Canada. 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews with Chinese women who have immigrated to Toronto, Canada and have a history of suicide-related behaviour were completed and analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory methodology...
January 30, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378290/antidepressant-administration-modulates-stress-induced-dna-methylation-and-dna-methyltransferase-expression-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#12
Amanda J Sales, Sâmia R L Joca
Stress and antidepressant treatment can modulate DNA methylation in promoter region of genes related to neuroplasticity and mood regulation, thus implicating this epigenetic mechanism in depression neurobiology and treatment. Accordingly, systemic administration of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors induces antidepressant-like effects in rodents. DNA methylation is conveyed by DNMT 1, 3a and 3b isoforms, which are differentially expressed in the brain. In order to investigate if the behavioral effects of antidepressants could be associated with changes in DNA methylation and DNMT expression, we investigated the effects induced by acute and repeated antidepressant treatment on DNA methylation and DNMT expression (1, 3a and 3b isoforms) in different brain regions of rats exposed to a stress model of depression, the learned helplessness (LH)...
January 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373439/psychological-factors-and-outcomes-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-pediatric-patients-with-median-arcuate-ligament-syndrome
#13
Colleen Stiles-Shields, Christopher L Skelly, Grace Zee Mak, Christopher Speaker, Hope Boyd, Setareh O'Brien, Tina Drossos
OBJECTIVE: Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome (MALS) is a frequently overlooked cause of chronic abdominal pain (CAP), and results in many symptoms that mimic other gastrointestinal conditions that result in CAP. A small, but growing body of literature indicates that surgery improves quality of life (QOL) in patients with MALS. The purpose of the current study was to examine the psychological characteristics of pediatric patients with MALS to determine their prevalence and impact on surgical outcomes...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373419/institutional-betrayal-and-gaslighting-why-whistle-blowers-are-so-traumatized
#14
Kathy Ahern
Despite whistle-blower protection legislation and healthcare codes of conduct, retaliation against nurses who report misconduct is common, as are outcomes of sadness, anxiety, and a pervasive loss of sense of worth in the whistle-blower. Literature in the field of institutional betrayal and intimate partner violence describes processes of abuse strikingly similar to those experienced by whistle-blowers. The literature supports the argument that although whistle-blowers suffer reprisals, they are traumatized by the emotional manipulation many employers routinely use to discredit and punish employees who report misconduct...
January 2018: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373353/illness-cognitions-and-health-related-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Elena Gurková, Mária Sováriová Soósová
Patients' cognitions about their disease and treatment are important mediators between health and quality of life of patients with chronic diseases and also explain the occurrence of individual differences in individuals' adjustment to chronic disease. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between illness cognitions and health-related quality of life among adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Self-report data on illness cognition and health-related quality of life were collected from 118 people with Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis...
January 2018: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363383/a-forensic-evaluation-of-impalement-injuries
#16
Roger W Byard
Impalement injuries transfix a victim in an inescapable or helpless position. A study was undertaken at Forensic Science SA from 2002 to 2016 of all impalement deaths. There were six vehicle accidents (M:F=5:1; age 14-67 years, average age 38.5 years) involving impalements with a tree branch ( n=2; groin and chest), a metal pipe ( n=2; leg and head), a metal bridge railing (groin) and a metal fence post (chest). Two cases (both males, aged 47 and 18 years) had slipped on fences/gates, with impalements of the ankle and groin...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362511/neuropsychiatric-phenotypes-produced-by-gaba-reduction-in-mouse-cortex-and-hippocampus
#17
Stefan M Kolata, Kazuhito Nakao, Vivek Jeevakumar, Emily L Farmer-Alroth, Yuko Fujita, Aundrea F Bartley, Sunny Zhihong Jiang, Gregory R Rompala, Robert E Sorge, Dennisse V Jimenez, Keri Martinowich, Yolanda Mateo, Kenji Hashimoto, Lynn E Dobrunz, Kazu Nakazawa
Whereas cortical GAD67 reduction and subsequent GABA level decrease are consistently observed in schizophrenia and depression, it remains unclear how these GABAergic abnormalities contribute to specific symptoms. We modeled cortical GAD67 reduction in mice, in which the Gad1 gene is genetically ablated from ~50% of cortical and hippocampal interneurons. Mutant mice showed a reduction of tissue GABA in the hippocampus and cortex including mPFC, and exhibited a cluster of effort-based behavior deficits including decreased home-cage wheel running and increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced swim tests...
December 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361643/-dealing-with-relatives-of-the-victims-of-the-aktion-t4-by-the-national-socialist-institutions-as-well-as-by-wuerttemberg-asylums
#18
Paul-Otto Schmidt-Michel, Thomas Müller
The role of the relatives in the context of the "euthanasia" "Aktion T4" ("T4" campaign) has been controversially discussed in recent years. Based on documents of the National Socialist bureaucracy, statements of asylum psychiatrists in the year 1945 to the French occupation force as well as letters from relatives to Weissenau asylum in Wuerttemberg, these sources are analysed here in the light of the reactions of family members in respect to "Aktion T4". The results testify to a broad spectrum of responses of relatives, which are mainly characterised by fear, helplessness and protest...
January 23, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353630/illness-cognitions-and-the-associated-socio-demographic-and-clinical-factors-in-chinese-women-with-breast-cancer
#19
Jing Han, Jun-E Liu, Hui Qiu, Zhi-Hong Nie, Ya-Li Su
PURPOSE: Illness cognitions are important mediators between disease and psychological adjustment. Evidence related to illness cognitions among patients with breast cancer remains limited. The purpose of this study was to examine illness cognitions among Chinese women with breast cancer and associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 313 women with breast cancer recruited from a general hospital and a social cancer support club in Beijing from October 2016 to May 2017...
February 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344051/experiences-of-fathers-with-inpatient-premature-neonates-phenomenological-interpretative-analysis
#20
Tahmineh Dadkhahtehrani, Narges Eskandari, Zohre Khalajinia, Hoda Ahmari-Tehran
Background: Birth and hospitalization of premature neonates create enormous challenges for the family with serious impacts on parents' mental and emotional health. The present study was designed to explore the experiences of fathers with premature neonates hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Materials and Methods: In this interpretative phenomenological study, data were collected using in-depth interviews guided with a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed by interpretative phenomenological analysis...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
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