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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509364/how-do-caregivers-understand-and-respond-to-unsettled-infant-behaviour-in-vietnam-a-qualitative-study
#1
L Murray, T Tran, V V Thang, L Cass, J Fisher
BACKGROUND: Unsettled infant behaviours are a common source of concern for new parents and have been associated with perinatal common mental disorders amongst women in high-income settings. There is little evidence about how unsettled infant behaviours are understood and managed in low and lower-middle income countries. This study aimed to describe caregivers' understandings of, and responses to, unsettled infant behaviours in Vietnam and their family caregiving contexts. METHODS: Women who were mothers of infants aged 0-6 months were purposively recruited from two sites in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam (one urban and one rural)...
May 16, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506142/the-frustrated-and-helpless-healer-pathways-approaches-to-posttraumatic-stress-disorders
#2
Donald Moss
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychophysiological disorder, characterized by the following: chronic sympathetic nervous activation; persisting perceptual/sensory vigilance for threats; recurrent distressing memories of the event, including intrusive memories, flashbacks lived as if in the present moment, and nightmares; and a persisting negative emotional state including fear and shame. The psychophysiological basis for this disorder calls for psychophysiologically based interventions. This article presents the case narrative of a 29-year-old national guardsman, exposed to combat trauma and later to civilian trauma in public safety work...
July 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499915/early-life-stress-and-later-peer-distress-on-depressive-behavior-in-adolescent-female-rats-effects-of-a-novel-intervention-on-gaba-and-d2-receptors
#3
Jodi L Lukkes, Shirisha Meda, Britta S Thompson, Nadja Freund, Susan L Andersen
Early life adversity (ELA) increases the risk of depression during adolescence that may result from a decline in parvalbumin (PVB) secondary to increased neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated depressive-like behavior following exposure to two different types of stressors that are relevant for their developmental period: 1) chronic ELA (maternal separation; MS) and 2) an acute emotional stressor during adolescence (witnessing their peers receive multiple shocks; WIT), and their interaction. We also determined whether reducing inflammation by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition would prevent the onset of depressive-like behavior...
May 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488329/phosphodiesterase-1b-deletion-confers-depression-like-behavioral-resistance-separate-from-stress-related-effects-in-mice
#4
Jillian R Hufgard, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Phosphodiesterase-1b (Pde1b) is highly expressed in striatum, dentate gyrus, CA3, and substantia nigra. In a new Floxed Pde1b x Cre(CMV) global knock-out (KO) mouse model we show an immobility resistance phenotype that recapitulates that found in constitutive Pde1b KO mice. We use this new mouse model to show that the resistance to acute stress-induced depression-like phenotype is not the product of changes in locomotor activity or reactivity to other stressors (learned helplessness, novelty suppressed feeding, or dexamethasone suppression), and is not associated with anhedonia using the sucrose preference test...
May 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479937/consequences-of-learned-helplessness-and-recognition-of-the-state-of-cognitive-exhaustion-in-persons-with-mild-intellectual-disability
#5
Michał Gacek, Tomasz Smoleń, Władysława Pilecka
Persons with intellectual disability are a group at risk of being exposed to overly demanding problem-solving situations, which may produce learned helplessness. The research was based on the informational model of learned helplessness. The consequences of exposure to an unsolvable task and the ability to recognize the symptoms of cognitive exhaustion were tested in 120 students with mild intellectual disability. After the exposure to the unsolvable task, persons in the experimental group obtained lower results than the control group in the escape/avoidance learning task, but a similar result was found in the divergent thinking fluency task...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469589/experiences-of-loneliness-associated-with-being-an-informal-caregiver-a-qualitative-investigation
#6
Konstantina Vasileiou, Julie Barnett, Manuela Barreto, John Vines, Mark Atkinson, Shaun Lawson, Michael Wilson
Although providing care to a family member or friend may provide psychological benefits, informal (i.e., unpaid) caregivers also encounter difficulties which may negatively affect their quality of life as well as their mental and physical health. Loneliness is one important challenge that caregivers face, with this psychological state being associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Although previous research has identified loneliness as an issue associated with being an informal caregiver, there is a paucity of evidence that attempts to understand this phenomenon in depth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466749/the-impact-of-an-empowerment-intervention-on-people-with-schizophrenia-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Abdalhadi Hasan, Mahmoud Musleh
AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess what empowerment intervention has on people with schizophrenia. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out between November 2015 and May 2016 involving 112 participants who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Patients, who were 18 years and above diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-V) schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from the outpatient mental health clinics in Jordan, were randomly assigned to take part in an intervention that consisted of receiving 6 weeks' worth of information booklets, with face to face discussions, while receiving their usual medication or allocated treatment as usual...
May 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465137/hippocampal-neurogenesis-of-wistar-kyoto-rats-is-congenitally-impaired-and-correlated-with-stress-resistance
#8
Kyohei Kin, Takao Yasuhara, Masahiro Kameda, Takashi Agari, Tatsuya Sasaki, Jun Morimoto, Mihoko Okazaki, Michiari Umakoshi, Ken Kuwahara, Ittetsu Kin, Naoki Tajiri, Isao Date
The hippocampus is thought to be an important region for depression. However, the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and depression is still controversial. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats are frequently used as a depression model. WKY rats are known to show physiologically abnormal features, and these features resemble abnormalities seen in depressed patients. However, the neurogenesis of WKY rats is still unknown. In this study, we first evaluated the neurogenesis of WKY rats and compared it to that of Wistar (WIS) rats...
April 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437216/posttraumatic-symptom-reporting-and-reported-cigarette-smoking-during-pregnancy
#9
Sara L Kornfield, Marian Moseley, Dina Appleby, Courtney L McMickens, Mary D Sammel, C Neill Epperson
INTRODUCTION: Increased prevalence of nicotine dependence among individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, there are limited studies on the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in relation to prepregnancy history of trauma exposures and active PTSD symptoms during pregnancy. Prenatal smoking has been implicated in a host of negative outcomes for mother and baby. Given maternal and fetal risk, it is critical to define predictors of continued cigarette smoking during pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436924/harnessing-the-promise-of-moral-distress-a-call-for-re-orientation
#10
Alisa Carse, Cynda Hylton Rushton
Despite over three decades of research into the sources and costs of what has become an "epidemic" of moral distress among healthcare professionals, spanning many clinical disciplines and roles, there has been little significant progress in effectively addressing moral distress. We believe the persistent sense of frustration, helplessness, and despair still dominating the clinical moral distress narrative signals a need for re-orientation in the way moral distress is understood and worked with. Most fundamentally, moral distress reveals moral investment and energy...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424990/proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-in-mouse-models-of-trigeminal-neuralgia-and-inescapable-shock-induced-depression
#11
Qing-Huan Guo, Qing-He Tong, Ning Lu, Hong Cao, Liu Yang, Yu-Qiu Zhang
To investigate the behavioral and biomolecular similarity between neuralgia and depression, a trigeminal neuralgia (TN) mouse model was established by constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION) to mimic clinical trigeminal neuropathic pain. A mouse learned helplessness (LH) model was developed to investigate inescapable foot-shock-induced psychiatric disorders like depression in humans. Mass spectrometry was used to assess changes in the biomolecules and signaling pathways in the hippocampus from TN or LH mice...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413210/acute-pulmonary-thromboembolism-in-a-case-of-fatal-child-abuse
#12
R Rahimi, Z F Zulkifli, E Omar, H Ismail, S Md Noor
Child abuse is a worldwide problem. The four major types of abuse include physical abuse, child neglect, psychological maltreatment and sexual violence. We describe a fatal case of child abuse which presented with numerous old and recent soft tissue injuries all over the body. The injuries on the legs have immobilized the victim for quite some time, giving rise to deep vein thrombosis, leading to death as a result of acute pulmonary thromboembolism. This case demonstrates presence of both elements of abuse and neglect in one victim...
April 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412704/structural-validity-of-the-rheumatology-attitudes-index-in-systemic-sclerosis-analysis-from-the-ucla-scleroderma-quality-of-life-study
#13
Shadi Gholizadeh, Sarah D Mills, Rina S Fox, Erin L Merz, Scott C Roesch, Philip J Clements, Suzanne Kafaja, Daniel E Furst, Dinesh Khanna, Vanessa L Malcarne
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the structural validity of the Rheumatology Attitudes Index (RAI), a widely used measure of rheumatic disease-related helplessness in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients with physician-confirmed SSc from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Scleroderma Quality of Life Study (n = 208) received clinical examinations and completed self-report questionnaires. The structural validity of the RAI was examined through confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis (CFA/EFA)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406052/the-psychometric-properties-of-the-perceived-stress-scale-10-among-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#14
S D Mills, D Azizoddin, G Z Racaza, D J Wallace, M H Weisman, P M Nicassio
Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by periods of remission and recurrent flares, which have been associated with stress. Despite the significance of stress in this disease, the Perceived Stress Scale-10 has yet to be psychometrically evaluated in patients with SLE. Methods Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structural validity of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among patients with SLE ( N = 138) receiving medical care at Cedars Sinai Medical Center...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395046/a-qualitative-study-of-survival-strategies-used-by-low-income-black-women-who-experience-intimate-partner-violence
#15
Noelle M St Vil, Bushra Sabri, Vania Nwokolo, Kamila A Alexander, Jacquelyn C Campbell
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are often portrayed as helpless victims. Yet many women who experience IPV implement strategies to help them survive the abuse. This qualitative study sought to explore the survivor strategies used by low-income black women who experience IPV. Authors used a semistructured interview guide to survey 26 survivors who reported being in an IPV relationship in the past two years. Thematic analysis revealed three types of survivor strategies used by low-income black women: (1) internal (use of religion and becoming self-reliant), (2) interpersonal (leave the abuser or fight back), and (3) external (reliance on informal, formal, or both kinds of sources of support)...
January 1, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382403/meaningful-patient-engagement-in-inflammatory-arthritis-development-of-the-patient-motivation-questionnaire
#16
Y El Miedany, Maha El Gaafary, Sally Youssef, Nadia El Aroussy
The objective of this study is to develop a questionnaire for evaluating the patient's "motivation" and assess the psychometric properties of that measure in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis. Using Rasch analysis and questions item pool, content analysis, and semi-structured group discussion, the questionnaire was developed including 10-item scale (0-10 on VAS scale). Construct validity was assessed by correlating the questionnaire score to parameters of disease activity (DAS-28, ASDAS, and DAPSA scores), functional disability, quality of life, patient self-helplessness measure, as well as the patients' compliance to therapy...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374949/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-beyond-an-overview-of-rodent-stress-models
#17
REVIEW
Johanna Schöner, Andreas Heinz, Matthias Endres, Karen Gertz, Golo Kronenberg
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder of high prevalence and major socioeconomic impact. Patients suffering from PTSD typically present intrusion and avoidance symptoms and alterations in arousal, mood and cognition that last for more than 1 month. Animal models are an indispensable tool to investigate underlying pathophysiological pathways and, in particular, the complex interplay of neuroendocrine, genetic and environmental factors that may be responsible for PTSD induction. Since the 1960s, numerous stress paradigms in rodents have been developed, based largely on Seligman's seminal formulation of 'learned helplessness' in canines...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374663/efficacy-of-meaning-centered-group-psychotherapy-for-cancer-survivors-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
N van der Spek, J Vos, C F van Uden-Kraan, W Breitbart, P Cuijpers, K Holtmaat, B I Witte, R A E M Tollenaar, I M Verdonck-de Leeuw
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors (MCGP-CS) to improve personal meaning, compared with supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) and care as usual (CAU). METHOD: A total of 170 cancer survivors were randomly assigned to one of the three study arms: MCGP-CS (n = 57); SGP (n = 56); CAU (n = 57). The primary outcome measure was the Personal Meaning Profile (PMP; total score). Secondary outcome measures were subscales of the PMP, psychological well-being (Scales of Psychological Well-being; SPWB), post-traumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory), Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC), optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised), hopelessness (Beck's Hopelessness Scale), psychological distress (anxiety and depression, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS) and quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire; EORTC QLQ-C30)...
April 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360786/interaction-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-and-neuropeptide-y-on-behavior-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Aynur Müdüroğlu Kirmizibekmez, Murat Mengi, Ertan Yurdakoş
INTRODUCTION: In the central nervous system, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) 55-102 peptide is localized in areas, such as the ventral tegmental area, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus, where emotional activity is regulated. Studies on the effects of the intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CART peptide on behavior remain limited. The findings from these studies suggest that this neuropeptide has anxiogenic-like effects. In the central nervous system, neuropeptide Y (NPY) has similar localization as CART...
June 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357702/lower-inhibitory-control-interacts-with-greater-pain-catastrophizing-to-predict-greater-pain-intensity-in-women-with-migraine-and-overweight-obesity
#20
Rachel Galioto, Kevin C O'Leary, J Graham Thomas, Kathryn Demos, Richard B Lipton, John Gunstad, Jelena M Pavlović, Julie Roth, Lucille Rathier, Dale S Bond
BACKGROUND: Pain catastrophizing (PC) is associated with more severe and disabling migraine attacks. However, factors that moderate this relationship are unknown. Failure of inhibitory control (IC), or the ability to suppress automatic or inappropriate responses, may be one such factor given previous research showing a relationship between higher PC and lower IC in non-migraine samples, and research showing reduced IC in migraine. Therefore, we examined whether lower IC interacts with increased PC to predict greater migraine severity as measured by pain intensity, attack frequency, and duration...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
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