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Junji Uno, Keisuke Obara, Hiroko Suzuki, Satomi Miyatani, Daisuke Chino, Takashi Yoshio, Yoshio Tanaka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the potential inhibitory effects of 18 clinically available antidepressants on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractions in guinea pig urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) in order to predict whether they may induce voiding impairment. METHODS: Concentration-response curves for ACh-induced contractions in guinea pig UBSM strips were obtained in the absence or presence of selected antidepressants. When inhibitory effects indicated competitive antagonism, pA2 values against ACh were calculated and compared to plausible antidepressant blood concentrations...
October 22, 2016: Pharmacology
Masaaki Iwata, Hisahito Ishida, Koichi Kaneko, Yukihiko Shirayama
An accumulating body of evidence has demonstrated that inflammation is associated with the pathology of depression. We recently found that psychological stress induces inflammation in the hippocampus of the rat brain through the inflammasome, a component of the innate immune system. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, play a central role in the innate immune system and express inflammasomes; thus, we hypothesized that hippocampal microglia would be key mediators in the development of depression via stress-induced inflammation...
October 18, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
En-Ping Lin, Tai-Chia Chiu, Ming-Mu Hsieh
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was combined with acetonitrile stacking in capillary electrophoresis for the identification of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluoxetine, and fluvoxamine) in human fluids such as urine and plasma. Parameters that affect the extraction and stacking efficiency, such as the type and volume of the extraction and disperser solvent, extraction time, salt addition for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and sample matrices, pH, and concentration of the separation buffer for stacking, were investigated and optimized...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Mika Naganawa, Shu-Fei Lin, Keunpoong Lim, David Labaree, Jim Ropchan, Paul Harris, Yiyun Huang, Masanori Ichise, Richard E Carson, Gary W Cline
INTRODUCTION: (18)F-Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ((18)F-FP-(+)-DTBZ) is a vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to quantify human β-cell mass. Renal cortex and spleen have been suggested as reference regions, however, little is known about (18)F-FP-(+)-DTBZ binding in these regions including the fraction of radiometabolite. We compared the kinetics of (18)F-FP-(+)-DTBZ and its inactive enantiomer (18)F-FP-(-)-DTBZ in baboons, estimated the non-displaceable binding (VND) of the tracers, and used ex vivo studies to measure radiometabolite fractions...
September 2, 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
C-S Wu, S-C Liao, Y-T Tsai, S-S Chang, H-J Tsai
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative risk of self-harm associated with the use of different antidepressants. METHOD: A cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2001 to 2012. A total of 751 606 new antidepressant users with depressive disorders were included. The study outcome was hospitalization due to self-harm (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes: E950-E958 and E980-E988)...
September 23, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Jacek C Szepietowski, Radomir Reszke
Pruritus is a bothersome and prevalent symptom reported by patients suffering from both cutaneous and extracutaneous diseases. Psychogenic pruritus, also referred to as functional itch disorder, is a distinct clinical entity. According to the definition proposed by the French Psychodermatology Group (FPDG) in 2007, the disorder is characterized by pruritus which is the chief complaint and psychologic factors that contribute to eliciting, worsening, and sustaining the symptoms. Specific diagnostic criteria were proposed, including 3 compulsory and 7 optional, of which 3 have to be met in order to establish the diagnosis...
2016: Current Problems in Dermatology
Ernest Dallé, Willie M U Daniels, Musa V Mabandla
Cytokine dysfunction is associated with both depression and Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology. Inflammatory cytokines in neural and behavioral processes are involved in the production and/or maintenance of depression in PD. In this study we looked at how Fluvoxamine treatment regulates depressive-like signs, motor impairments and the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β and IL-10 cytokines in the striatum of a stressed Parkinsonian rat model. Early maternal separation was used to model stress and depressive-like signs in rats...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Chenjuan Tao, Weiwei Yan, Yuan Li, Xiaodong Lu
Cognitive deficits are a core symptom of schizophrenia. It is controversial whether antidepressants could improve cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. The present study was designed to identify the therapeutic effect of antidepressants on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In the present study, adolescent rats were repeatedly exposed to dizocilpine, which can induce cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Then these rats were treated by six antidepressants (fluvoxamine, sertraline, paroxetine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, mirtazapine) or vehicle...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Hirofumi Hirakawa, Takeshi Terao, Toshiko Tanaka, Hiroaki Sato, Reiji Yoshimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
N V Kudryashov, T S Kalinina, L A Zhmurenko, T A Voronina
Anticompulsive activity of a novel compound GIZh-72 (4,6-dimethyl-2-(4-chlorphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-C]Pyridine-3-on, chloral hydrate) in a dose of 20 mg/kg (single, subchronic, and chronic administration) in comparison with fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) was studied in the marble burying test in the model of unpredictable chronic mild stress on BALB/c mice. GIZh-72 produced an anticompulsive effect that increased with increasing treatment duration under stress conditions in contrast to fluvoxamine that induced inversion of this effect after long-term administration...
July 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sophia Esalatmanesh, Zoha Abrishami, Atefeh Zeinoddini, Fatemeh Rahiminejad, Majid Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza Najarzadegan, Mohammad-Reza Shalbafan, Shahin Akhondzadeh
AIM: Several lines of evidence implicate glutamatergic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), presenting this neurotransmitter as a target for the development of novel pharmacotherapy. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of minocycline as an augmentative agent to fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with OCD. METHODS: One hundred and two patients with the diagnosis of moderate-to-severe OCD were recruited to this study...
August 4, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Elias Patetsos, Emilia Horjales-Araujo
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a major role in both nociception and mood regulation. Alterations in the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HT) system have been reported in chronic pain patients. In recent years, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been suggested as an alternative treatment for chronic pain due to the fact that they are better tolerated presenting less secondary effects than other antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants. Although several clinical trials have been published, the effectiveness of SSRI as treatment for pain conditions is inconclusive...
2016: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Kristine Skoglund Ask, Turgay Bardakci, Marthe Petrine Parmer, Trine Grønhaug Halvorsen, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, Astrid Gjelstad
Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic solvent used as supported liquid membranes (SLMs), and into 50μL aqueous acceptor solutions. The acceptor solutions were subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using in-source fragmentation and monitoring the m/z 184→184 transition for investigation of phosphatidylcholines (PC), sphingomyelins (SM), and lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PC)...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yanke Yu, Cho-Ming Loi, Justin Hoffman, Diane Wang
Palbociclib is an orally available CDK4/6 inhibitor. In humans, palbociclib undergoes metabolism mediated primarily by CYP3A and SULT2A1, and it is also a weak time-dependent CYP3A inhibitor. The objectives of the current study are to (1) develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of palbociclib based on the in silico, in vitro, and in vivo pharmacokinetic data of palbociclib, (2) verify the PBPK model with clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) results of palbociclib with strong CYP3A inhibitor (itraconazole), inducer (rifampin), and a sensitive CYP3A substrate (midazolam), and (3) predict the DDI risk of palbociclib with moderate/weak CYP3A inhibitors...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Toshi A Furukawa, Georgia Salanti, Lauren Z Atkinson, Stefan Leucht, Henricus G Ruhe, Erick H Turner, Anna Chaimani, Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Hissei Imai, Kiyomi Shinohara, Aya Suganuma, Norio Watanabe, Sarah Stockton, John R Geddes, Andrea Cipriani
INTRODUCTION: Many antidepressants are indicated for the treatment of major depression. Two network meta-analyses have provided the most comprehensive assessments to date, accounting for both direct and indirect comparisons; however, these reported conflicting interpretation of results. Here, we present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis aimed at updating the evidence base and comparing all second-generation as well as selected first-generation antidepressants in terms of efficacy and acceptability in the acute treatment of major depression...
2016: BMJ Open
Arata Horii, Takao Imai, Tadashi Kitahara, Atsuhiko Uno, Yuka Morita, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Hidenori Inohara
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidities are an important issue in the treatment of chronic dizziness patients. OBJECTIVE: To test the correlation between psychiatric status and subjective handicaps and to examine the effects of milnacipran on handicaps. METHODS: Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and handicaps were assessed by a questionnaire before and eight weeks after milnacipran treatment (50 mg/day) in 29 consecutive patients with chronic dizziness...
July 2, 2016: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
L de Zwart, J Snoeys, J de Jong, J Sukbuntherng, E Mannaert, M Monshouwer
Based on ibrutinib pharmacokinetics and potential sensitivity towards CYP3A4-mediated DDI, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic approach was developed to mechanistically describe DDI with various CYP3A4 perpetrators in healthy men under fasting conditions. These models were verified using clinical data for ketoconazole (strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) and used to prospectively predict and confirm the inducing effect of rifampin (strong CYP3A4 inducer); DDIs with mild (fluvoxamine, azithromycin) and moderate inhibitors (diltiazem, voriconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, erythromycin), and moderate (efavirenz) and strong CYP3A4 inducers (carbamazepine) were also predicted...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yukio Ago, Shigeru Hasebe, Naoki Hiramatsu, Kazuya Mori, Yuji Watabe, Yusuke Onaka, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Takuma, Toshio Matsuda
RATIONALE: We previously reported that the fluvoxamine-induced increase in prefrontal dopamine levels is enhanced by adrenalectomy/castration (which results in circulating neurosteroid deficiency), via combined activation of serotonin1A (5-HT1A) and σ1 receptors. However, the mechanistic details of the interaction between 5-HT1A and σ1 receptors are unknown. OBJECTIVES: Because most neurosteroids have affinity for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors, in the present study, we examined the involvement of GABAA receptors in this process...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
Ernest Dallé, Willie M U Daniels, Musa V Mabandla
Exposure to early life stress has been shown to result in anxiety-like symptoms and exacerbates degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). First line treatment for anxiety disorders includes the use of Fluvoxamine maleate (FM). In this study, we investigated whether treating anxiety-like symptoms with FM has an effect in alleviating the neurotoxic effects of 6-OHDA in a parkinsonian rat model. Early maternal separation was used to create a rat model that depicts anxiety-like symptoms...
October 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Petros Skapinakis, Deborah M Caldwell, William Hollingworth, Peter Bryden, Naomi A Fineberg, Paul Salkovskis, Nicky J Welton, Helen Baxter, David Kessler, Rachel Churchill, Glyn Lewis
BACKGROUND: Several interventions are available for management of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults, but few studies have compared their relative efficacy in a single analysis. We aimed to simultaneously compare all available treatments using both direct and indirect data. METHODS: In this systematic review and network meta-analysis, we searched the two controlled trials registers maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration Common Mental Disorders group for trials published up to Feb 16, 2016...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
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