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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339595/does-starting-to-smoke-cigars-trigger-onset-of-cannabis-blunt-smoking
#1
Brian J Fairman, James C Anthony
Introduction: Among United States teens during the 1990s, increasing cigar use coincided with increasing use of tobacco cigar shells filled with cannabis, called "blunts." Cigar smokers are more likely to use cannabis, and we hypothesized that starting to smoke cigars might be a probabilistic "trigger" of blunt smoking. We turned to the case-crossover approach to evaluate this hypothesis. Methods: Within US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2009-2013, we identified a nationally representative sample of newly incident blunt smokers aged 12- to 21-years-old (n = 4868) and compared month-of-onsets for smoking of cigars and blunts...
January 25, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333039/corrigendum-to-in-vivo-evaluation-of-copper-release-and-acute-local-tissue-reactions-after-implantation-of-copper-coated-titanium-implants-in-rats
#2
Andreas Hoene, Cornelia Prinz, Uwe Walschus, Silke Lucke, Maciej Patrzyk, Lutz Wilhelm, Hans-Georg Neumann, Michael Schlosser
In the "Materials and methods" chapter of the article given above, in section 2.1 titled "Implant samples and preparation" on page 2 (top paragraph of the right column), an incorrect value of 1 μg mm-2 for the average Cu load of the surface was inadvertently specified. This was due to an accidental mix-up of electronic data sets from examination of different implant series. The correct value is 0.2 μg mm-2. No other data given in the article are affected. The authors kindly apologize for this mistake.
March 23, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330409/guidelines-on-constructing-funnel-plots-for-quality-indicators-a-case-study-on-mortality-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#3
Ilona Wm Verburg, Rebecca Holman, Niels Peek, Ameen Abu-Hanna, Nicolette F de Keizer
Funnel plots are graphical tools to assess and compare clinical performance of a group of care professionals or care institutions on a quality indicator against a benchmark. Incorrect construction of funnel plots may lead to erroneous assessment and incorrect decisions potentially with severe consequences. We provide workflow-based guidance for data analysts on constructing funnel plots for the evaluation of binary quality indicators, expressed as proportions, risk-adjusted rates or standardised rates. Our guidelines assume the following steps: (1) defining policy level input; (2) checking the quality of models used for case-mix correction; (3) examining whether the number of observations per hospital is sufficient; (4) testing for overdispersion of the values of the quality indicator; (5) testing whether the values of quality indicators are associated with institutional characteristics; and (6) specifying how the funnel plot should be constructed...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325442/a-two-stage-variable-selection-and-classification-approach-for-parkinson-s-disease-detection-by-using-voice-recording-replications
#4
Lizbeth Naranjo, Carlos J Pérez, Jacinto Martín, Yolanda Campos-Roca
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the scientific literature, there is a lack of variable selection and classification methods considering replicated data. The problem motivating this work consists in the discrimination of people suffering Parkinson's disease from healthy subjects based on acoustic features automatically extracted from replicated voice recordings. METHODS: A two-stage variable selection and classification approach has been developed to properly match the replication-based experimental design...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318480/supervision-in-motivational-interviewing-an-exploratory-study
#5
Maria Beckman, Benjamin Bohman, Lars Forsberg, Finn Rasmussen, Ata Ghaderi
BACKGROUND: Although supervision is believed to be an important strategy for training practitioners in evidence-based practice, little is known about how it should be organized and conducted to promote implementation fidelity. AIMS: To explore supervisor behaviours that might facilitate supervisees' proficiency in motivational interviewing. METHOD: In this exploratory study, ten supervisors from a primary prevention intervention of childhood obesity responded to semi-structured interviews about their supervision behaviours...
March 20, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294388/interpretable-inference-on-the-mixed-effect-model-with-the-box-cox-transformation
#6
K Maruo, Y Yamaguchi, H Noma, M Gosho
We derived results for inference on parameters of the marginal model of the mixed effect model with the Box-Cox transformation based on the asymptotic theory approach. We also provided a robust variance estimator of the maximum likelihood estimator of the parameters of this model in consideration of the model misspecifications. Using these results, we developed an inference procedure for the difference of the model median between treatment groups at the specified occasion in the context of mixed effects models for repeated measures analysis for randomized clinical trials, which provided interpretable estimates of the treatment effect...
March 10, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276183/dietitians-practice-in-giving-carbohydrate-advice-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-a-mixed-methods-study
#7
P D McArdle, S M Greenfield, A Avery, G G Adams, P S Gill
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate is accepted as the principal nutrient affecting blood glucose in diabetes; however, current guidelines are unable to specify the optimal quantity of carbohydrate for glycaemic control. No studies exist that describe current practice amongst healthcare professionals giving carbohydrate advice in type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to improve understanding of the degree of variation in the current practice of UK registered dietitians (RDs) by describing how RDs advise patients...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264739/remission-and-recovery-associated-with-lurasidone-in-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder-with-subthreshold-hypomanic-symptoms-mixed-features-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study-with-longer-term-extension
#8
Joseph F Goldberg, Daisy Ng-Mak, Cynthia Siu, Chien-Chia Chuang, Krithika Rajagopalan, Antony Loebel
OBJECTIVE: This post-hoc analysis assessed rates of symptomatic and functional remission, as well as recovery (combination of symptomatic and functional remission), in patients treated with lurasidone for major depressive disorder (MDD) associated with subthreshold hypomanic symptoms (mixed features). METHOD: Patients with MDD plus two or three manic symptoms (defined as per the DSM-5 mixed-features specifier) were randomly assigned to flexible-dose lurasidone 20-60 mg/day (n=109) or placebo (n=100) for 6 weeks, followed by a 3-month open-label, flexible-dose extension study for U...
March 7, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263043/the-relationship-between-method-of-anastomosis-and-anastomotic-failure-after-right-hemicolectomy-and-ileo-caecal-resection-an-international-snapshot-audit
#9
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Anastomosis technique following right sided colonic resection is widely variable and may affect patient outcomes. This study aimed to assess the association between leak and anastomosis technique (stapled versus handsewn) METHODS: This was a prospective, multicentre, international audit including patients undergoing elective or emergency right hemicolectomy or ileo-caecal resection operations over a two-month period in early 2015. The primary outcome measure was the presence of anastomotic leak within 30 days of surgery, using a pre-specified definition...
March 6, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262916/vitamin-e-supplementation-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Peter O Okebukola, Sonal Kansra, Joanne Barrett
BACKGROUND: People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended in cystic fibrosis and aims to ameliorate this deficiency. This is an updated version of the review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of any level of vitamin E supplementation on the frequency of vitamin E deficiency disorders in people with cystic fibrosis...
March 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260547/surrogate-inaccuracy-in-predicting-older-adults-desire-for-life-sustaining-interventions-in-the-event-of-decisional-incapacity-is-it-due-in-part-to-erroneous-quality-of-life-assessments
#11
Gina Bravo, Modou Sene, Marcel Arcand
BACKGROUND: Family members are often called upon to make decisions for an incapacitated relative. Yet they have difficulty predicting a loved one's desire to receive treatments in hypothetical situations. We tested the hypothesis that this difficulty could in part be explained by discrepant quality-of-life assessments. METHODS: The data come from 235 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and over who rated their quality of life and desire for specified interventions in four health states (current state, mild to moderate stroke, incurable brain cancer, and severe dementia)...
March 6, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249758/gaussian-process-based-independent-analysis-for-temporal-source-separation-in-fmri
#12
Ditte Høvenhoff Hald, Ricardo Henao, Ole Winther
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) gives us a unique insight into the processes of the brain, and opens up for analyzing the functional activation patterns of the underlying sources. Task-inferred supervised learning with restrictive assumptions in the regression set-up, restricts the exploratory nature of the analysis. Fully unsupervised independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms, on the other hand, can struggle to detect clear classifiable components on single-subject data. We attribute this shortcoming to inadequate modeling of the fMRI source signals by failing to incorporate its temporal nature...
February 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249488/a-cmos-application-specified-integrated-circuit-for-40-ghz-high-electron-mobility-transistors-automatic-biasing
#13
M De Matteis, M De Blasi, E A Vallicelli, M Zannoni, M Gervasi, A Bau, A Passerini, A Baschirotto
This paper presents the design and the experimental results of a CMOS Automatic Control System (ACS) for the biasing of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT). The ACS is the first low-power mixed-signal Application-Specified-Integrated-Circuit (ASIC) able to automatically set and regulate the operating point of an off-chip 6 HEMT Low-Noise-Amplifiers (LNAs), hence it composes a two-chip system (the ACS+LNAs) to be used in the Large Scale Polarization Explorer (LSPE) stratospheric balloon for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) signal observation...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247574/the-first-permanent-molar-spontaneous-eruption-after-a-five-year-failure
#14
Vinay N Mistry, Christopher S Barker, R James Spencer
BACKGROUND: It is rare for a first permanent molar (FPM) to temporarily exhibit clinical features of failure of eruption, followed by regeneration of full eruptive capacity 5 years later. Indeterminate failure of eruption (IFE) is a diagnosis of exclusion where the distinction between primary failure of eruption (PFE) and mechanical failure of eruption (MFE) is unclear, including patients too young to specify. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old girl attended the orthodontic clinic at Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust regarding an unerupted lower right FPM...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237954/what-is-the-influence-of-single-entry-models-on-access-to-elective-surgical-procedures-a-systematic-review
#15
Zaheed Damani, Barbara Conner-Spady, Tina Nash, Henry Tom Stelfox, Tom W Noseworthy, Deborah A Marshall
BACKGROUND: Single-entry models (SEMs) for the management of patients awaiting elective surgical services are designed to increase access and flow through the system of care. We assessed scope of use and influence of SEMs on access (waiting times/throughput) and patient-centredness (patient/provider acceptability). METHODS: Systematic review of articles published in 6 relevant electronic databases included studies from database inception to July 2016. Included studies needed to (1) report on the nature of the SEM; (2) specify elective service and (3) address at least 1 of 3 research questions related to (1) scope of use of SEMs; (2) influence on timeliness and access; (3) patient-centredness and acceptability...
February 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226391/closed-form-reml-estimators-and-sample-size-determination-for-mixed-effects-models-for-repeated-measures-under-monotone-missingness
#16
Yongqiang Tang
We derive the closed-form restricted maximum likelihood estimator and Kenward-Roger's variance estimator for fixed effects in the mixed effects model for repeated measures (MMRM) when the missing data pattern is monotone. As an important application of the analytic result, we present the formula for calculating the power of treatment comparison using the Wald t-test with the Kenward-Roger adjusted variance estimate in MMRM. It allows adjustment for baseline covariates without the need to specify the covariate distribution in randomized trials...
February 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207296/gambit-a-parameterless-model-based-evolutionary-algorithm-for-mixed-integer-problems
#17
Krzysztof L Sadowski, Dirk Thierens, Peter A N Bosman
Learning and exploiting problem structure is one of the key challenges in optimization. This is especially important for black-box optimization (BBO) where prior structural knowledge of a problem is not available. Existing model-based Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are very efficient at learning structure in both the discrete, and in the continuous domain. In this paper, discrete and continuous model-building mechanisms are integrated for the Mixed-Integer (MI) domain, comprising discrete and continuous variables...
February 16, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193242/process-evaluation-of-a-cluster-randomised-trial-testing-a-pressure-ulcer-prevention-care-bundle-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Shelley Roberts, Elizabeth McInnes, Tracey Bucknall, Marianne Wallis, Merrilyn Banks, Wendy Chaboyer
BACKGROUND: As pressure ulcers contribute to significant patient burden and increased health care costs, their prevention is a clinical priority. Our team developed and tested a complex intervention, a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle promoting patient participation in care, in a cluster-randomised trial. The UK Medical Research Council recommends process evaluation of complex interventions to provide insight into why they work or fail and how they might be improved. This study aimed to evaluate processes underpinning implementation of the intervention and explore end-users' perceptions of it, in order to give a deeper understanding of its effects...
February 13, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184334/mixed-states-in-bipolar-disorder-etiology-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Ather Muneer
Many bipolar disorder patients exhibit mixed affective states, which portend a generally more severe illness course and treatment resistance. In the previous renditions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual mixed states were narrowly defined in the context of bipolar I disorder, but with the advent of DSM-5 the term "mixed episode" was dropped and replaced by "mixed features" specifier which could be broadly applied to manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes in both the bipolar spectrum and major depressive disorders...
January 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179417/green-shoots-of-recovery-a-realist-evaluation-of-a-team-to-support-change-in-general-practice
#20
Maggie Bartlett, Ruth Basten, Robert K McKinley
OBJECTIVE: A multidisciplinary support team for general practice was established in April 2014 by a local National Health Service (NHS) England management team. This work evaluates the team's effectiveness in supporting and promoting change in its first 2 years, using realist methodology. SETTING: Primary care in one area of England. PARTICIPANTS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with staff from 14 practices, 3 key senior NHS England personnel and 5 members of the support team...
February 8, 2017: BMJ Open
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