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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672517/white-matter-alterations-in-the-internal-capsule-and-psychomotor-impairment-in-melancholic-depression
#1
Matthew P Hyett, Alistair Perry, Michael Breakspear, Wei Wen, Gordon B Parker
Emerging evidence suggests that structural brain abnormalities may play a role in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression. We set out to test whether diffusion-derived estimates of white matter structure were disrupted in melancholia in regions underpinning psychomotor function. We hypothesized that those with melancholia (and evidencing impaired psychomotor function) would show disrupted white matter organization in internal capsule subdivisions. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 22 melancholic depressed, 23 non-melancholic depressed, and 29 healthy control participants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652947/-predictors-of-remission-from-major-depressive-disorder-in-secondary-care
#2
Lilian Salvo, Sandra Saldivia, Carlos Parra, Manuel Cifuentes, Claudio Bustos, Paola Acevedo, Marcela Díaz, Mitza Ormazabal, Ivonne Guerra, Nicol Navarrete, Verónica Bravo, Andrea Castro
Background The knowledge of predictive factors in depression should help to deal with the disease. Aim To assess potential predictors of remission of major depressive disorders (MDD) in secondary care and to propose a predictive model. Material and Methods A 12 month follow-up study was conducted in a sample of 112 outpatients at three psychiatric care centers of Chile, with baseline and quarterly assessments. Demographic, psychosocial, clinical and treatment factors as potential predictors, were assessed. A clinical interview with the checklist of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, the Hamilton Depression Scale and the List of Threatening Experiences and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were applied...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613946/clinical-predictors-of-response-to-magnetic-seizure-therapy-in-depression-a-preliminary-report
#3
Sarah Kayser, Bettina H Bewernick, Stefanie Wagner, Thomas E Schlaepfer
OBJECTIVES: Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel convulsive brain stimulation method in clinical testing, which is used as an alternative for electroconvulsive therapy in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Preliminary studies have suggested that MST leads to fewer cognitive adverse effects than electroconvulsive therapy but has similar efficacy. However, the clinical predictors of response to MST have not been evaluated yet. This study aimed to investigate whether these predictors can be identified in patients with TRD...
April 2, 2018: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604382/the-role-of-depressive-subtypes-within-the-neuroinflammation-hypothesis-of-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Marie Woelfer, Vanessa Kasties, Sascha Kahlfuss, Martin Walter
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a very common disease that affects more than 350 million people worldwide, representing an enormous socioeconomic burden. From a clinical perspective, MDD can be divided into different subtypes, such as melancholic or atypical MDD. Interestingly, increasing evidence points towards an involvement of the immune system in MDD pathogenesis. However, inflammation does not seem to have the same impact on every MDD type. Here, we describe how inflammation can affect monoaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, which provides a possible mechanism for MDD onset...
March 28, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548306/psychopathological-and-sociodemographic-features-in-treatment-resistant-unipolar-depression-versus-bipolar-depression-a-comparative-study
#5
Nicolas A Nuñez, Stefano Comai, Eduard Dumitrescu, Maykel F Ghabrash, John Tabaka, Marie Saint-Laurent, Stephen Vida, Theodore Kolivakis, Allan Fielding, Nancy Low, Pablo Cervantes, Linda Booij, Gabriella Gobbi
BACKGROUND: Some authors have hypothesized that Treatment-Resistant Unipolar Depression (TRD-UP) should be considered within the bipolar spectrum disorders and that hidden bipolarity may be a risk factor for TRD-UP. However, there are neither studies comparing clinical and sociodemographic data of patients with TRD-UP versus Bipolar (BP) disorders nor are there any examining differences versus Bipolar type I (BP-I) and Bipolar type II (BP-II). METHODS: Charts analysis was conducted on 194 patients followed at the Mood Disorders Clinic of the McGill University Health Center...
March 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522944/inflammatory-markers-and-cortisol-parameters-across-depressive-subtypes-in-an-older-cohort
#6
REVIEW
E M Veltman, F Lamers, H C Comijs, M L Stek, R C van der Mast, D Rhebergen
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that inflammatory and cortisol dysregulation are underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the aetiology of major depressive disorder, particularly in younger adults. However, findings of biological disturbances in late-life depression have been divergent, probably due to the even greater heterogeneity of depression in older adults with aging processes influencing biological factors. Using empirically derived subtypes may enable the identification of biological disturbances underlying depression in older adults...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516593/lower-levels-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-are-associated-with-melancholic-psychomotor-retardation-among-depressed-inpatients
#7
Lucas Primo de Carvalho Alves, Neusa Sica da Rocha
OBJECTIVES: Melancholic depression is a type of depression which is closely related to biological variables than are other types of depression. Its clinical features can be assessed using six items on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6 ). Previous studies have shown, using item response theory, that the symptom depressed mood is the least severe melancholic feature; work and activities, somatic symptoms and psychic anxiety are of moderate severity; and feelings of guilt and psychomotor retardation are the most severe...
March 8, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505804/outcome-of-a-three-phase-treatment-algorithm-for-inpatients-with-melancholic-depression
#8
Marlijn Vermeiden, Astrid M Kamperman, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Walter W van den Broek, Tom K Birkenhäger
BACKGROUND: In patients suffering from major depressive disorder, non-response to initial antidepressant monotherapy is relatively common. The use of treatment algorithms may optimize and enhance treatment outcome. METHODS: A single-center 3-phase treatment algorithm was evaluated for inpatients with major depressive disorder, i.e. phase I (n = 85): 7 weeks optimal antidepressant monotherapy (imipramine or venlafaxine); phase II (n = 39): 4 weeks subsequent plasma level-targeted dose lithium addition in case of insufficient improvement of antidepressant monotherapy; and phase III (n = 8): subsequent electroconvulsive therapy in case of insufficient improvement of antidepressant‑lithium treatment...
March 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502785/exploring-the-path-to-death-through-barnes-s-older-characters-between-irony-and-melancholic-meditation
#9
Maricel Oró-Piqueras
This article aims at analysing four of Julian Barnes's novels with protagonists either entering or in their old age in order to discern to what extent conceptions of ageing, old age and death are depicted in Barnes's fiction and develop throughout his writing career. Barnes's memoir Nothing to Be Frightened Of (2008) will also be central in the discussion, since, in it, the author reflects on conceptions of old age and death from different philosophers and authors intermingling them with his own personal experience and that of his family, specially his parents...
March 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498147/subtypes-of-depression-and-their-overlap-in-a-naturalistic-inpatient-sample-of-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Richard Musil, Florian Seemüller, Sebastian Meyer, Ilja Spellmann, Mazda Adli, Michael Bauer, Klaus-Thomas Kronmüller, Peter Brieger, Gerd Laux, Wolfram Bender, Isabella Heuser, Robert Fisher, Wolfgang Gaebel, Rebecca Schennach, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Michael Riedel
Subtyping depression is important in order to further delineate biological causes of depressive syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and outcome characteristics of distinct subtypes of depression and to assess proportion and features of patients fulfilling criteria for more than one subtype. Melancholic, atypical and anxious subtypes of depression were assessed in a naturalistic sample of 833 inpatients using DSM-IV specifiers based on operationalized criteria. Baseline characteristics and outcome criteria at discharge were compared between distinct subtypes and their overlap...
March 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497189/psychiatric-morbidity-among-female-commercial-sex-workers
#11
Marboh Goretti Iaisuklang, Arif Ali
Context: Psychological distress is higher in women working in sex industry. The various psycho social issues are associated with female commercial sex workers (FCSWs). The host of psychosocial vulnerabilities including, childhood sexual abuse, exposure to childhood physical abuse, poverty, interpersonal violence in adulthood, sexually transmitted diseases, and substance use, forms a fertile ground for psychiatric morbidity. Aim: This study aims to assess the psychiatric morbidity among FCSWs in Shillong, India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492960/clinical-correlates-of-augmentation-combination-treatment-strategies-in-major-depressive-disorder
#12
M Dold, L Bartova, J Mendlewicz, D Souery, A Serretti, S Porcelli, J Zohar, S Montgomery, S Kasper
OBJECTIVE: This multicenter, multinational, cross-sectional study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes associated with augmentation/combination treatment strategies in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment features of 1410 adult MDD patients were compared between MDD patients treated with monotherapy and augmentation/combination medication using descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance (ancova), and Spearman's correlation analyses...
February 28, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436330/prediction-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-response-and-remission-in-major-depression-meta-analysis
#13
Linda van Diermen, Seline van den Ameele, Astrid M Kamperman, Bernard C G Sabbe, Tom Vermeulen, Didier Schrijvers, Tom K Birkenhäger
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be the most effective treatment in severe major depression. The identification of reliable predictors of ECT response could contribute to a more targeted patient selection and consequently increased ECT response rates. Aims To investigate the predictive value of age, depression severity, psychotic and melancholic features for ECT response and remission in major depression. METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA statement...
February 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422681/melancholic-response-to-war-destruction-and-the-emergence-of-a-group-assumption-of-post-ness
#14
Kalina Yordanova
What psychological response does war and forced displacement evoke in victims? How do survivors of war communicate their experiences to their children? Finally, what culture does the psychological response to loss shape? Using data collected through interviews, psychological consultations, and children's drawings from two sources-the ongoing Syrian civil war and the Bosnian war of 1992-1995, this paper suggests that the experience of the war generation becomes the organizing axis of their identity and that of their children...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251178/putamen-volume-differences-among-older-adults-depression-status-melancholia-and-age
#15
Natalie J Sachs-Ericsson, Greg Hajcak, Julia L Sheffler, Ian H Stanley, Edward A Selby, Guy G Potter, David C Steffens
BACKGROUND: Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) may exhibit smaller striatal volumes reflecting deficits in the reward circuit. Deficits may change with age and be more pronounced among the melancholic subtype. Limited research has investigated striatal volume differences in older adults and by depression subtypes. METHOD: We used baseline data from the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study. We examined volumetric differences in the putamen and caudate nucleus among older adults (60 years and older), comparing healthy control participants (n = 134) to depressed participants (n = 226), and comparing nonmelancholic depressed participants (n = 93) to melancholic depressed participants (n = 133)...
January 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247900/risk-factors-for-recurrence-in-depression-in-the-lundby-population-1947-1997
#16
Linnéa Nöbbelin, Mats Bogren, Cecilia Mattisson, Louise Brådvik
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common disorder in both men and women, and the recurrence rate is high. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrence in depression in the Lundby Study. METHODS: The Lundby Study is a community-based longitudinal study with focus on mental health. The study started in 1947 and three follow-ups have been carried out since, the last one in 1997. The population consists of 3563 subjects. Data from 508 subjects afflicted by depression was gathered...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218020/peripheral-immune-alterations-in-major-depression-the-role-of-subtypes-and-pathogenetic-characteristics
#17
Frank Euteneuer, Katharina Dannehl, Adriana Del Rey, Harald Engler, Manfred Schedlowski, Winfried Rief
Depression has been associated with peripheral inflammatory processes and alterations in cellular immunity. Growing evidence suggests that immunological alterations may neither be necessary nor sufficient to induce depression in general, but seem to be associated with specific features. Using baseline data from the Outcome of Psychological Interventions in Depression trial, this exploratory study examines associations between depression subtypes and pathogenetic characteristics (i.e., melancholic vs non-melancholic depression, chronic vs non-chronic depression, age of onset, cognitive-affective and somatic symptom dimensions) with plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and numbers of leukocyte subpopulations in 98 patients with major depression (MD) and 30 age and sex-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182201/-indian-humor-in-medical-knowledge-during-the-16th-and-17th-centuries
#18
Germán Morong R, Víctor Brangier P
During the first Modern Era (15th-17th c.), bodily health and expressions of physiognomy were explained under the doctrine of humors. This doctrine -based on Corpus Hipocraticum-established a close relation between humors (blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile), qualities (dry, moist, warm, and cold) and the elements (water, air, earth, and fire). One of these humors -black bile-, commonly a hallmark of the melancholic temperament, was associated to the complexion and nature of American Indians. This accusation was legitimized by the empirical examination of the physiognomy of a subject that was melancholic, sad and pusillanimous...
July 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167049/does-the-presence-of-multiple-sclerosis-impact-on-symptom-profile-in-depressed-patients
#19
Rosa E Boeschoten, Roxanne Schaakxs, Joost Dekker, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Aartjan T F Beekman, Johannes H Smit, Brenda W J H Penninx, Patricia van Oppen
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but may remain unrecognized because of overlapping symptoms and different presentation due to its specific MS-related neurobiological aetiology. We aimed to investigate the clinical profile of MDD in MS. METHODS: In a sample of MDD patients with MS (n=83) and without MS (n=782), MDD characteristics, 30 depressive symptoms, and sum scores of cognitive, somatic, atypical and melancholic symptom clusters were compared using logistic regression analyses and analysis of co-variance...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153629/elevated-fingernail-cortisol-levels-in-major-depressive-episodes
#20
Andres Herane-Vives, Susanne Fischer, Valeria de Angel, Toby Wise, Eric Cheung, Kia-Chong Chua, Danilo Arnone, Allan H Young, Anthony J Cleare
BACKGROUND: The extent to which cortisol levels are elevated in major depressive episodes (MDE), and hence could act as a biomarker of illness, remains unclear. Although patient characteristics may explain some of this variation - for example elevated cortisol being more often found in patients with severe, psychotic or melancholic depression - problems with the methods used to measure cortisol may also have contributed to the inconsistent findings. Fingernails are a novel sample that can be used to assess aggregate cortisol concentrations over a 15-day period, and may provide a more accurate reflection of longer term cortisol level changes in MDE and help clarify this issue...
November 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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