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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218020/peripheral-immune-alterations-in-major-depression-the-role-of-subtypes-and-pathogenetic-characteristics
#1
Frank Euteneuer, Katharina Dannehl, Adriana Del Rey, Harald Engler, Manfred Schedlowski, Winfried Rief
Depression has been associated with peripheral inflammatory processes and alterations in cellular immunity. Growing evidence suggests that immunological alterations may neither be necessary nor sufficient to induce depression in general, but seem to be associated with specific features. Using baseline data from the Outcome of Psychological Interventions in Depression trial, this exploratory study examines associations between depression subtypes and pathogenetic characteristics (i.e., melancholic vs non-melancholic depression, chronic vs non-chronic depression, age of onset, cognitive-affective and somatic symptom dimensions) with plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and numbers of leukocyte subpopulations in 98 patients with major depression (MD) and 30 age and sex-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182201/-indian-humor-in-medical-knowledge-during-the-16th-and-17th-centuries
#2
Germán Morong R, Víctor Brangier P
During the first Modern Era (15th-17th c.), bodily health and expressions of physiognomy were explained under the doctrine of humors. This doctrine -based on Corpus Hipocraticum-established a close relation between humors (blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile), qualities (dry, moist, warm, and cold) and the elements (water, air, earth, and fire). One of these humors -black bile-, commonly a hallmark of the melancholic temperament, was associated to the complexion and nature of American Indians. This accusation was legitimized by the empirical examination of the physiognomy of a subject that was melancholic, sad and pusillanimous...
July 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167049/does-the-presence-of-multiple-sclerosis-impact-on-symptom-profile-in-depressed-patients
#3
Rosa E Boeschoten, Roxanne Schaakxs, Joost Dekker, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Aartjan T F Beekman, Johannes H Smit, Brenda W J H Penninx, Patricia van Oppen
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but may remain unrecognized because of overlapping symptoms and different presentation due to its specific MS-related neurobiological aetiology. We aimed to investigate the clinical profile of MDD in MS. METHODS: In a sample of MDD patients with MS (n=83) and without MS (n=782), MDD characteristics, 30 depressive symptoms, and sum scores of cognitive, somatic, atypical and melancholic symptom clusters were compared using logistic regression analyses and analysis of co-variance...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153629/elevated-fingernail-cortisol-levels-in-major-depressive-episodes
#4
Andres Herane-Vives, Susanne Fischer, Valeria de Angel, Toby Wise, Eric Cheung, Kia-Chong Chua, Danilo Arnone, Allan H Young, Anthony J Cleare
BACKGROUND: The extent to which cortisol levels are elevated in major depressive episodes (MDE), and hence could act as a biomarker of illness, remains unclear. Although patient characteristics may explain some of this variation - for example elevated cortisol being more often found in patients with severe, psychotic or melancholic depression - problems with the methods used to measure cortisol may also have contributed to the inconsistent findings. Fingernails are a novel sample that can be used to assess aggregate cortisol concentrations over a 15-day period, and may provide a more accurate reflection of longer term cortisol level changes in MDE and help clarify this issue...
November 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150144/atypical-depression-and-non-atypical-depression-is-hpa-axis-function-a-biomarker-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Mario F Juruena, Mariia Bocharova, Bruno Agustini, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical subtype, and some researchers have suggested that as an antinomic depressive subtype, it may be associated with the opposite type, i...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103192/lipid-peroxidation-and-immune-biomarkers-are-associated-with-major-depression-and-its-phenotypes-including-treatment-resistant-depression-and-melancholia
#6
Magdalena Sowa-Kućma, Krzysztof Styczeń, Marcin Siwek, Paulina Misztak, Rafał J Nowak, Dominika Dudek, Janusz K Rybakowski, Gabriel Nowak, Michael Maes
To examine immune-inflammatory and oxidative (I&O) biomarkers in major depression (MDD) and its related phenotypes, we recruited 114 well-phenotyped depressed patients and 50 healthy controls and measured serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, soluble IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 60 and 80 kDa (sTNF-R1/R2), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Obtained results indicate that MDD is characterized by increased sIL-1RA, sTNF-R1, and TBARS concentrations...
November 4, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079491/biological-research-on-burnout-depression-overlap-long-standing-limitations-and-on-going-reflections
#7
Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Eric Laurent
In this commentary, we discuss seldom-noticed methodological problems affecting biological research on burnout and depression and make recommendations to overcome the limitations of past studies conducted in this area. First, we suggest that identified subtypes of depression (e.g., depression with melancholic features and depression with atypical features) should be taken into account in future biological research on burnout and depression, given that different subtypes of depression have been associated with distinct autonomic and neuroendocrine profiles...
October 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055250/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-diagnostic-uncertainty-of-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Taichi Mogi, Hiroyuki Toda, Aihide Yoshino
BACKGROUND: Physicians do not always confidently diagnose psychiatric disorders. The present study was conducted to identify the clinical characteristics of patients in whom a definitive diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) could not be established. METHODS: The participants were 199 consecutive outpatients with MDD, who were comprehensively diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The physician in charge of each patient quantified his/her sense of self-confidence in diagnosing the patient with MDD using the self-rating questionnaire in which the score ranged from 1 (not at all confident) to 5 (definitely MDD)...
October 16, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033570/atypical-depression-current-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Dorota Łojko, Janusz K Rybakowski
The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD) is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990833/prevalence-of-restless-legs-symptoms-according-to-depressive-symptoms-and-depression-type-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Piritta Auvinen, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Hannu Koponen, Hannu Kautiainen, Katariina Korniloff, Tiina Ahonen, Mauno Vanhala
BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder and it is associated with several other diseases especially mental illnesses. AIMS: To analyze the relationship between the symptoms of restless legs syndrome and the severity of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of restless legs symptoms in depression subtypes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of primary care patients in the Central Finland Hospital District. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was studied in 706 patients with increased depressive symptoms and 426 controls without a psychiatric diagnosis by using a structured questionnaire...
October 9, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980139/evidence-of-depression-associated-circadian-rhythm-disruption-and-regret-in-prostate-cancer-patients-after-surgery
#11
Joanne Christie, Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, David Christie
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) patients' regret that their surgery harmed them, and their scores on the two key symptoms of major depressive disorder (depressed mood, anhedonia) and a symptom of melancholic depression (disruption to circadian rhythm). METHODS: Forty PCa patients who had received surgery for their PCa completed a postal survey including background information, regret about surgery that 'did them a lot of harm' and three items drawn from the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale measuring depressed mood, anhedonia and circadian rhythm disruption...
December 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958456/associations-between-symptoms-of-depression-and-heart-rate-variability-an-exploratory-study
#12
Lucas Borrione, Andre R Brunoni, Bernardo Sampaio-Junior, Luana M Aparicio, Andrew H Kemp, Isabela Benseñor, Paulo A Lotufo, Renerio Fraguas
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity by many, but not all studies. This inconsistency could be due to the association of HRV with specific depressive symptoms. Here, we investigated the association of HRV parameters with components of depressive symptoms from 120 MDD patients, at baseline of a published trial comparing the effect of sertraline to transcranial direct current stimulation. We used Principal Component Analysis to extract components of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17), the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Beck Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (BDI)...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956628/rotation-therapy-for-maniacs-melancholics-and-idiots-theory-practice-and-perception-in-european-medical-and-literary-case-histories
#13
Sheila Dickson
This article examines the development and use of rotation therapy in the emerging field of psychiatry at the beginning of the 19th century, and the cross-fertilization between British, Irish, German, French and other European proponents of 'Cox's Swing'. Its short-lived popularity is linked to prevalent Enlightenment thought, to the development of an industrial and technological society, to the modern medical theories of irritability, and to the new practice of 'moral management' of the mentally ill. Case studies documenting the use of the Swing are considered from these perspectives, and are compared with contemporary public reactions in the form of publications in newspapers and of a literary text by German Romantic author Ludwig Achim von Arnim...
September 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929992/mood-disorders-and-circulating-levels-of-inflammatory-markers-in-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#14
J Glaus, R von Känel, A M Lasserre, M-P F Strippoli, C L Vandeleur, E Castelao, M Gholam-Rezaee, C Marangoni, E-Y N Wagner, P Marques-Vidal, G Waeber, P Vollenweider, M Preisig, K R Merikangas
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing evidence that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with mood disorders. However, the findings have been inconsistent because of heterogeneity across studies and methodological limitations. Our aim is to prospectively evaluate the bi-directional associations between inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with mood disorders. METHODS: The sample consisted of 3118 participants (53...
September 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844556/nocturnal-motor-activity-and-light-exposure-objective-actigraphy-based-marks-of-melancholic-and-non-melancholic-depressive-disorder-brief-report
#15
André Comiran Tonon, Daniel Fernando Paludo Fuchs, William Barbosa Gomes, Rosa Levandovski, Marcelo Pio de Almeida Fleck, Maria Paz Loayza Hidalgo, Luciano da Silva Alencastro
Differentiation of melancholic (MEL) and non-melancholic (N-MEL) depression results from subjective assessment of psychomotor disturbance, which obscures their accurate diagnosis. CORE instrument assigned participants with severe or refractory depression to MEL or N-MEL group. Participants underwent 7 days of actigraphy. Data was fitted to a cosinusoidal curve corresponding to a 24-h rhythm. Nocturnal activity was significantly higher in N-MEL. ROC curve shows that average night activity discriminate participants with 71% sensitivity and 100% specificity (area under the curve = 0...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840042/a-review-of-the-conceptualisation-and-risk-factors-associated-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#16
REVIEW
Jenifer A Murphy, Jerome Sarris, Gerard J Byrne
Major depression does not always remit. Difficult-to-treat depression is thought to contribute to the large disease burden posed by depression. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is the conventional term for nonresponse to treatment in individuals with major depression. Indicators of the phenomenon are the poor response rates to antidepressants in clinical practice and the overestimation of the efficacy of antidepressants in medical scientific literature. Current TRD staging models are based on anecdotal evidence without an empirical rationale to rank one treatment strategy above another...
2017: Depression Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818612/epidemiological-and-clinical-variables-related-with-the-predominant-polarity-on-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#17
Jesús García-Jiménez, Marisol Álvarez-Fernández, Lidia Aguado-Bailón, Luis Gutiérrez-Rojas
INTRODUCTION: Current classification of bipolar disorder (BD) in type i or type ii, however useful, may be insufficient to provide relevant clinical information in some patients. As a result, complementary classifications are being proposed, like the predominant polarity (PP) based, which is defined as a clear tendency in the patient to present relapses in the manic or depressive poles. METHODS: We carried out a search in PubMed and Web of Science databases, following the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses -PRISMA- guidelines, to identify studies about BD reporting PP...
August 14, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738849/immune-suppression-of-igg-response-against-dairy-proteins-in-major-depression
#18
Leszek Rudzki, Dariusz Pawlak, Krystyna Pawlak, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Aleksandra Małus, Beata Konarzewska, Mirosława Gałęcka, Anna Bartnicka, Lucyna Ostrowska, Agata Szulc
BACKGROUND: Interactions between the digestive system, brain functions and immunoglobulin G (IgG) mediated immunity against food antigens became recently a topic of growing interest in psychiatry research. Psychological stress can activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) with subsequent hypercortisolemia. It can also influence intestinal permeability and dynamics of IgG response. Major depression can by accompanied either by activation of inflammatory response or by immune suppression (e...
July 24, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710953/partially-distinct-combinations-of-psychological-metabolic-and-inflammatory-risk-factors-are-prospectively-associated-with-the-onset-of-the-subtypes-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-midlife
#19
Dominique A Rudaz, Caroline L Vandeleur, Sirak Z Gebreab, Mehdi Gholam-Rezaee, Marie-Pierre F Strippoli, Aurélie M Lasserre, Jennifer Glaus, Enrique Castelao, Giorgio Pistis, Roland von Känel, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider, Martin Preisig
BACKGROUND: Given the well known heterogeneity of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), dividing this complex disorder into subtypes is likely to be a more promising approach to identify its determinants than to study it as a whole. METHODS: In a prospective population-based cohort study (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) with 5.5 years of follow-up, 1524 participants without MDD at baseline, aged 35-66 years (mean age 51.4 years, 43.4% females), participated in the physical and psychiatric baseline and the psychiatric follow-up evaluations...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671276/love-and-melancholia-in-the-analysis-of-women-by-women
#20
Rosine Jozef Perelberg
This paper suggests that in the analysis of women by women a melancholic core may be encountered at the centre of the transference/countertransference situation that is an expression of the loss of the primary maternal object that has never been mourned. The attachment to the primary, lost object may be preserved in a melancholic, invisible way, and the longing that it is connected to might only reach representation in the après coup of the analytic process. The links between this primary love, melancholia and the unrepresentable in the analysis of women will be explored...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
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