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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933736/structural-insight-into-the-anti-prion-compound-inhibition-mechanism-of-native-prion-folding-over-misfolding
#1
Jiwon Choi, Rajiv Gandhi Govindaraj, Jae Wook Hyeon, Kyungro Lee, SongLing Ma, Su Yeon Kim, Jeongmin Lee, Kyoung Tai No
Transition of a physiological folded prion (PrP(C) ) into a pathogenic misfolded prion (PrP(S)(c) ) causes lethal neurodegenerative disorders and prion diseases. Anti-prion compounds have been developed to prevent this conversion; however, their mechanism of action remains unclear. Recently, we reported two anti-prion compounds, BMD29 and 35, identified by in silico and in vitro screening. In this study, we used extensive explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations to investigate ligand binding inhibition by anti-prion compounds in prion folding over misfolding behavior at acidic pH...
December 9, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933731/independent-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-skin-erosion-due-to-incontinence-incontinence-associated-dermatitis-category-2-in-nursing-home-residents-results-from-a-multivariate-binary-regression-analysis
#2
Nele Van Damme, Karen Van den Bussche, Dorien De Meyer, Ann Van Hecke, Sofie Verhaeghe, Dimitri Beeckman
The aim of this study was to identify characteristics independently associated with a higher risk of developing skin damage because of incontinence [incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) category 2] in nursing home residents. As part of a larger randomised controlled trial, IAD incidence was monitored for 1 month in a sample of 381 incontinent residents using a validated IAD Severity Categorisation Tool. Data on demographical, physical, functional and psychological characteristics were collected. The overall IAD incidence (category 1-2) was 30·0%, and 6% of the participants developed skin damage (IAD category 2)...
December 9, 2016: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933721/shared-molecular-networks-in-orofacial-and-neural-tube-development
#3
Youssef A Kousa, Tamer A Mansour, Haitham Seada, Samaneh Matoo, Brian C Schutte
BACKGROUND: Single genetic variants can affect multiple tissues during development. Thus it is possible that disruption of shared gene regulatory networks might underlie syndromic presentations. In this study, we explore this idea through examination of two critical developmental programs that control orofacial and neural tube development and identify shared regulatory factors and networks. Identification of these networks has the potential to yield additional candidate genes for poorly understood developmental disorders and assist in modeling and perhaps managing risk factors to prevent morbidly and mortality...
December 9, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933716/risks-and-treatment-strategies-for-de-novo-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-from-anti-hbc-positive-donors-in-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#4
Chong Dong, Wei Gao, Nan Ma, Chao Sun, Wei-Ping Zheng, Kai Wang, Zhong-Yang Shen
The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and risk factors of de novo HBV infection in pediatric patients receiving living donor liver transplants (LDLT) from HBcAb-positive donors, and to explore its treatment strategies. The data of 101 pediatric recipients receiving LDLT in Tianjin First Central Hospital between September 2006 and December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The HBV markers were regularly tested before and after the surgery, including HBsAb, HBsAg, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb. The median follow-up period was 25...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933713/antipsychotic-adjunctive-therapy-to-mood-stabilizers-and-1-year-rehospitalization-rates-in-bipolar-disorder-a-cohort-study
#5
Eldar Hochman, Amir Krivoy, Ayal Schaffer, Abraham Weizman, Avi Valevski
OBJECTIVES: Antipsychotic adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizers (MSs) may improve relapse prevention; however, only a few naturalistic studies, reflecting more generalizable bipolar disorder (BD) samples, support this notion. We compared the 1-year rehospitalization rates of manic patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) who were discharged with MS (lithium or valproate) monotherapy or with adjunctive atypical or typical antipsychotic therapy. METHODS: A total of 201 patients with BD-I who were hospitalized with manic episodes between 2005 and 2013 were retrospectively followed for 1-year rehospitalization rates according to treatment at discharge: MS monotherapy, MS with atypical antipsychotics, and MS with typical antipsychotics...
December 9, 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933686/risk-of-incident-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-south-korea
#6
S N Hong, H J Kim, K H Kim, S-J Han, I M Ahn, H S Ahn
BACKGROUND: The low incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and lack of adequate controls have prevented researchers from estimating tuberculosis (TB) risk in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. AIM: To evaluate the risk of incident TB among IBD patients. METHODS: Using the 2011-2013 data of the South Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system, we calculated the incidence rates (IRs), standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and number needed to screen (NNS) for incident TB in IBD patients compared to the general population in terms of subtype, age, gender and IBD medications...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933678/trends-in-serious-quit-attempts-in-the-united-states-2009-2014
#7
Joe G Gitchell, Saul Shiffman, Mark A Sembower
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Quitting smoking is the most potent way to reduce the health risks associated with smoking cigarettes, and public health objectives in the USA include dramatic increases in the proportion of smokers making a serious quit attempt each year. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has, since 2000, set as its Healthy People 2020 objective to get 80% of smokers to make a serious quit attempt per year. This study assessed the trend in quit attempts from 2009 to 2014...
December 9, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933671/causal-inference-in-obesity-research
#8
REVIEW
P W Franks, N Atabaki-Pasdar
Obesity is a risk factor for a plethora of severe morbidities and premature death. Most supporting evidence comes from observational studies that are prone to chance, bias and confounding. Even data on the protective effects of weight loss from randomized controlled trials will be susceptible to confounding and bias if treatment assignment cannot be masked, which is usually the case with lifestyle and surgical interventions. Thus, whilst obesity is widely considered the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, its causes and consequences are often difficult to determine...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933637/association-of-temporal-variations-in-staffing-with-hospital-acquired-pressure-injury-in-military-hospitals
#9
Patricia A Patrician, Mary S McCarthy, Pauline Swiger, Dheeraj Raju, Sara Breckenridge-Sproat, Xiaogang Su, Kelly H Randall, Lori A Loan
To more precisely evaluate the effects of nurse staffing on hospital-acquired pressure injury (HAPI) development, data on nursing care hours per patient day (NCHPPD), nursing skill mix, patient turnover (i.e., admissions, transfers, and discharges), and patient acuity were merged with patient information from pressure injury prevalence surveys that were collected annually for the Military Nursing Outcomes Database (MilNOD) project. The MilNOD included staffing and adverse events from 56 medical-surgical, stepdown, and critical care units in 13 military hospitals over a 4-year-period...
December 9, 2016: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933614/antiviral-agents-for-infectious-mononucleosis-glandular-fever
#10
REVIEW
Muireann De Paor, Kirsty O'Brien, Tom Fahey, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome, usually caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EPV), characterised by lymphadenopathy, fever and sore throat. Most cases of symptomatic IM occur in older teenagers or young adults. Usually IM is a benign self-limiting illness and requires only symptomatic treatment. However, occasionally the disease course can be complicated or prolonged and lead to decreased productivity in terms of school or work. Antiviral medications have been used to treat IM, but the use of antivirals for IM is controversial...
December 8, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933593/inflammation-induced-cd69-kupffer-cell-feedback-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-membrane-bound-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#11
Xiang Zhang, Zhengping Jiang, Yan Gu, Yanfang Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yanmei Han
Kupffer cells, tissue-resident macrophage lineage cell, are enriched in vertebrate liver. The mouse F4/80(+) Kupffer cells have been subclassified into two subpopulations according to their phenotype and function: CD68(+) subpopulation with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytic capacities, and CD11b(+) subpopulation with a potent capacity to produce T helper 1 cytokines. In addition, CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages may be migrated from the bone marrow or spleen, especially in inflammatory conditions of the liver...
December 6, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933590/three-dimensional-rotational-angiography-for-assessment-of-coronary-arteries-during-melody-valve-implantation-introducing-a%C3%A2-technique-that-may-improve-outcomes
#12
C R Pockett, J W Moore, H G El-Said
BACKGROUND: Adverse events from Melody valve implantation may be catastrophic. To date a role for three dimensional rotational angiography of the aortic root (3DRAA) during Melody valve implantation has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To describe the role of 3DRAA in the assessment of Melody valve candidacy and to demonstrate that it may improve outcomes. METHODS: All patients who underwent cardiac catheterisation for Melody valve implantation and 3DRAA between August 2013 and February 2015 were reviewed...
December 8, 2016: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933582/microrna-181c-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#13
Chen Fang, Qian Li, Guowen Min, Min Liu, Jing Cui, Jing Sun, Liang Li
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) characterized by global cerebral ischemia is an important risk factor contributing to the development of dementia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the cellular adaptation to long-term ischemia/hypoxia by turning off or on the expression of target genes. MiR-181c is widely expressed in the nervous system, and tripartite motif 2 (TRIM2) is one of its target genes. In this work, we had identified that progressive spatial memory deficiency was induced in the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2-VO) rat models...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933574/-long-term-hrv-analysis-shows-stress-reduction-by-magnesium-intake
#14
Elmar Wienecke, Claudia Nolden
BACKGROUND: Mental pressure and stress represent an ever-increasing socio-political challenge. The heart rate variability (HRV) measurement, which has its origin in the cardiac function diagnosis, gives information on the neurovegetative activity. A low HRV shows an imbalance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and thus is an indicator of stress. METHOD: A randomized, controlled, two-armed parallel study with 100 participants and a period of 90 days was performed...
December 2016: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933569/decision-making-in-clinical-practice-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-in-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-and-a-single-additional-stroke-risk-factor
#15
REVIEW
Tatjana S Potpara, Nikolaos Dagres, Nebojša Mujović, Dragan Vasić, Milika Ašanin, Milan Nedeljkovic, Francisco Marin, Laurent Fauchier, Carina Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Gregory Y H Lip
Approximately 1 in 3-4 patients presenting with an ischemic stroke will also have atrial fibrillation (AF), and AF-related strokes can be effectively prevented using oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC), either with well-controlled vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). In addition, OAC use (both VKAs and NOACs) is associated with a 26% reduction in all-cause mortality (VKAs) or an additional 10% mortality reduction with NOACs relative to VKAs. The decision to use OAC in individual AF patient is based on the estimated balance of the benefit from ischemic stroke reduction against the risk of major OAC-related bleeding [essentially intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)]...
December 8, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933567/impact-of-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-in-prospective-liver-transplant-recipients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-lymphadenopathy
#16
Narendra S Choudhary, Rajesh Puri, Sanjiv Saigal, Prashant Bhangui, Neeraj Saraf, Vinit Shah, Mukesh Nasa, Haimanti Sarin, Mridula Guleria, Randhir Sud, Arvinder S Soin
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of metastatic disease is important in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to prevent futile liver transplantation. Some of these patients have metastatic lymphadenopathy; however, it is difficult to perform percutaneous fine-needle aspiration due to presence of collateral and anatomic location. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of lymph nodes offers several advantages like real-time vision, proximity to target, and avoidance of collaterals...
December 8, 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933516/costs-of-diabetes-medication-among-male-former-elite-athletes-in-later-life
#17
M K Laine, R Kujala, J G Eriksson, H Kautiainen, S Sarna, U M Kujala
AIMS: Regular physical activity plays a major role, in both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Less is known whether vigorous physical activity during young adulthood is associated with costs of diabetes medication in later life. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1314 former elite-class athletes and 860 matched controls. The former athletes were divided into three groups based on their active career sport: endurance, mixed and power sports...
December 8, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933483/covalent-immobilization-of-human-placental-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-onto-glutaraldehyde-activated-silica-coupled-with-lc-tof-ms-for-anti-cancer-drug-screening-applications
#18
Yin Bai, Wen-Di Zhou, Xian-Min Mu, Qian Zhang, Chen Yu, Bin Di, Meng-Xiang Su
Human 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1), a potential target in breast cancer prevention and therapy, was extracted from human placenta and immobilized on nonporous silica (∼5 μm) with a covalent method for the first time. The optimum initial enzyme concentration and immobilization time during the immobilization process were 0.42 mg mL(-1) and 12 h, repectively. The binding was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). It could improve the pH, thermal and storage stability compared to free enzyme...
December 8, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933473/high-percentage-of-ibd-patients-with-indefinite-fecal-calprotectin-levels-additional-value-of-a-combination-score
#19
Alexander G L Bodelier, Daisy Jonkers, Tim van den Heuvel, Evelien de Boer, Wim Hameeteman, Ad A M Masclee, Marie J Pierik
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Monitoring mucosal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is of major importance to prevent complications and improve long-term disease outcome. The correlation of clinical activity indices with endoscopic disease activity is, however, moderate. Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a better predictor of mucosal inflammation, but values between 100 and 250 µg/g are difficult to interpret in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of indefinite FC levels in a real-life IBD cohort and study the additional value of a combination of biochemical markers and clinical activity indices...
December 8, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933462/what-do-you-need-to-get-male-partners-of-pregnant-women-tested-for-hiv-in-resource-limited-settings-the-baby-shower-cluster-randomized-trial
#20
Echezona E Ezeanolue, Michael C Obiefune, Wei Yang, Chinenye O Ezeanolue, Jennifer Pharr, Alice Osuji, Amaka G Ogidi, Aaron T Hunt, Dina Patel, Gbenga Ogedegbe, John E Ehiri
Male partner involvement has the potential to increase uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Finding cultural appropriate strategies to promote male partner involvement in PMTCT programs remains an abiding public health challenge. We assessed whether a congregation-based intervention, the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), would lead to increased uptake of HIV testing among male partners of pregnant women during pregnancy. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of forty churches in Southeastern Nigeria randomly assigned to either the HBI (intervention group; IG) or standard of care referral to a health facility (control group; CG) was conducted...
December 8, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
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