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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334671/glucosamine-promotes-osteoblast-proliferation-by-modulating-autophagy-via-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#1
Chen Lv, Lu Wang, Xiongbai Zhu, Wenjun Lin, Xin Chen, Zhengxiang Huang, Lintuo Huang, Shengwu Yang
Glucosamine is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis; however, its effect on osteoporosis remains unclear. Decreased activity of osteoblasts is the main cause of osteoporosis. Here, we examined the effects of glucosamine on osteoblasts. The potential underlying mechanisms were explored. The results showed that glucosamine had a biphasic effect on the viability of hFOB1.19 osteoblasts. At low concentrations (<0.6 mM), glucosamine induced hFOB1.19 cell proliferation, whereas at high concentrations (>0...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331651/activation-of-p62-keap1-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway-in-the-early-stage-of-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#2
Zhenyu Shen, Yu Wang, Zhenhui Su, Ruirui Kou, Keqin Xie, Fuyong Song
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can cause severe liver failure even death. Nearly half of drug-induced liver injury is attributed to APAP in the US and many European countries. Oxidative stress has been validated as a critical event involved in APAP-induced liver failure. p62/SQSTM1, a selective autophagy adaptor protein, is reported to regulate Nrf2-ARE antioxidant pathway in response to oxidative stress. However, the exact role of p62-keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant pathway in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity remains unknown...
January 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331511/maresin-1-regulates-autophagy-and-inflammation-in-human-periodontal-ligament-cells-through-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-under-inflammatory-conditions
#3
Li Du, Yucheng Li, Weifeng Liu
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that maresin 1 (MaR-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects in many cell types and plays beneficial roles in inflammatory disease, such as peritonitis and colitis. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that MaR-1 play protective roles against localized aggressive periodontitis. However, the function and mechanism of MaR-1 in human periodontal ligament cells (PDL) cells from periodontitis are poorly understood. The present study aimed to clarify the effects and molecular mechanism of MaR-1 in PDL cell survival and inflammation...
December 23, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328494/pterostilbene-inhibits-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-apoptosis-in-primary-spinal-cord-neurons-by-activating-autophagy-via-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway
#4
Jing-Lan He, Xiao-Hui Dong, Zong-Hu Li, Xiao-Ying Wang, Zhi-An Fu, Na Shen
Autophagy is an important self-adaptive mechanism that is involved in inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) in spinal cord neurons. Pterostilbene, a natural plant extract, has been demonstrated to possess antioxidant effects; however, it has not yet been investigated whether pterostilbene could activate autophagy and protect spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress. In the present study, primary spinal cord neurons of Sprague Dawley rats were cultured. Cell counting kit‑8 analysis was used to detect cytotoxicity of pterostilbene...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328447/high-mobility-group-protein%C3%A2-b1-silencing-promotes-susceptibility-of-retinoblastoma-cells-to-chemotherapeutic-drugs-through-downregulating-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#5
Yong Chai, Juhua Xiao, Shouhua Zhang, Yunyan Du, Zhipeng Luo, Xin Zhou, Kai Huang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) silencing on the susceptibility of retinoblastoma (RB) cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot analysis revealed that vincristine (VCR), etoposide (ETO) and carboplatin (CBP) significantly increased the expression of HMGB1 in Weri‑Rb-1 and Y79 cells compared with the untreated control (P<0.01). siRNA HMGB1 and siRNA negative control (NC) were transfected to Y79 cells by Lipofectamine™ 2000 and, following VCR treatment, the expression of HMGB1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was analyzed...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328444/sp1-reduces-autophagic-flux-through-activating-p62-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#6
Xiao-Wu Xu, Chen-Wei Pan, Xiao-Min Yang, Lei Zhou, Zhi-Qiang Zheng, De-Chun Li
Gastric cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer, causing mortality worldwide. However, the underlying molecular mechanism in gastric cancer progression remains unclear. The autophagic flux was determined in gastric cancer cells overexpressing or inhibiting Sp1 transcription factor (SP1) using western blotting, reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. Luciferase and ChIP assays were performed to detect the potential underlying mechanism of SP1 in gastric cancer cells...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328421/antitumor-activity-of-curcumin-by-modulation-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-lung-cancer-a549-cells-through-inhibiting-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#7
Furong Liu, Song Gao, Yuxuan Yang, Xiaodan Zhao, Yameng Fan, Wenxia Ma, Danrong Yang, Aimin Yang, Yan Yu
Curcumin is known to exhibit anticancer effects on various cancers with selective cytotoxicity in tumor cells. In the present study, the effects of curcumin‑induced multiple PCDs on human non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and the potential molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and autophagy triggered by curcumin via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway were explored, further confirmed by co‑culture of curcumin with mTOR blocker rapamycin and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. The anti‑proliferation effect of different stimulus was measured by MTT assay...
January 4, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328391/effects-of-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-on-oxygen%C3%A2-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation%C3%A2-induced-injury
#8
Hua Ji, Linhao Xu, Zheng Wang, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu
Cerebral ischemia causes severe brain injury and results in selective neuronal death through programmed cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis and autophagy. Minimizing neuronal injury has been considered a hot topic among clinicians. The present study elucidated the effect of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) on neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in PC12 cells that were subjected to oxygen‑glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). The survival, apoptotic and autophagy rates of PC12 cells were investigated...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327381/oxidative-stress-impairs-myocyte-autophagy-resulting-in-myocyte-hypertrophy
#9
Jia-Pu Wang, Rui-Fang Chi, Ke Wang, Teng Ma, Xiao-Fei Guo, Xiao-Li Zhang, Bao Li, Fu-Zhong Qin, Xue-Bin Han, Bian-Ai Fan
Insufficient or excessive myocyte autophagy is associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Reactive oxygen species mediate myocyte hypertrophy in vitro and pressure overload-induced LV hypertrophy in vivo. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress induces autophagy impairment that results in myocyte hypertrophy. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to 10 and 50 μm hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 48 h pretreated with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or sham operation...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327301/lncrna-gas8-as1-inhibits-cell-proliferation-through-atg5-mediated-autophagy-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#10
Yuan Qin, Wei Sun, Hao Zhang, Ping Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Wenwu Dong, Liang He, Ting Zhang, Liang Shao, Wenqian Zhang, Changhao Wu
PURPOSE: The long non-coding RNA GAS8 antisense RNA 1 (lncRNA GAS8-AS1) is a tumor suppressor in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but the mechanisms underlying how GAS8-AS1 regulates PTC biology remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the molecular function of GAS8-AS1 in regulating autophagy in PTC cell lines. METHODS: GAS8-AS1 was overexpressed and knocked down in PTC cell lines by transfecting with expression plasmids or short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Cell proliferation was evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8)...
January 11, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325545/phthiocerol-dimycocerosates-promote-access-to-the-cytosol-and-intracellular-burden-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-lymphatic-endothelial-cells
#11
Thomas R Lerner, Christophe J Queval, Antony Fearns, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths, Maximiliano G Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIM), glycolipids found on the outer surface of virulent members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex, are a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of Mtb. Myelocytic cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, are the primary hosts for Mtb after infection and previous studies have shown multiple roles for PDIM in supporting Mtb in these cells. However, Mtb can infect other cell types. We previously showed that Mtb efficiently replicates in human lymphatic endothelial cells (hLECs) and that the hLEC cytosol acts as a reservoir for Mtb in humans...
January 4, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325369/-cd137-signaling-promotes-the-formation-of-plaque-calcification-via-inhibiting-the-fusion-of-autophagy-and-lysosomal-in-apo-e-mice
#12
X Y Li, R Chen, W Zhong, B Li, C Shao, Z Q Wang, J C Yan
Objective: To investigate whether CD137 signaling promoted the formation of atherosclerotic plaque calcification by inhibiting the fusion of autophagosome and lysosome. Methods: (1) In vivo, CD137 agonist antibody and anti-CD137 antibody were used to stimulate and inhibit the CD137 signaling, respectively. Fifteen Apo E(-/-) mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group (intraperitoneal injection of IgG2b 200 µg) , CD137 agonist group (intraperitoneal injection of CD137 agonist antibody 200 µg) , anti-CD137 group (pretreatment with 200 µg anti-CD137 antibody for 24 hours, then injection of CD137 agonist antibody) ...
December 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324976/ginsenoside-rg1-inhibits-apoptosis-by-increasing-autophagy-via-the-ampk-mtor-signaling-in-serum-deprivation-macrophages
#13
Ping Yang, Lu Ling, Wenjing Sun, Junquan Yang, Ling Zhang, Guoji Chang, Jiazhi Guo, Jun Sun, Lin Sun, Di Lu
Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has been widely used in a broad range of cardiovascular and cerebral-vascular diseases because of its unique therapeutic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms of Rg1 in the treatment of atherosclerosis have not been fully explored. This study sought to determine the precise molecular mechanisms on how Rg1 might be involved in regulating apoptosis in serum deprivation-induced Raw264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. Results demonstrated that Rg1 treatment effectively suppressed apoptosis and the expression of phosphorylation level of mTOR induced by serum deprivation in Raw264...
January 9, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324385/ameliorative-effects-of-selenium-on-arsenic-induced-cytotoxicity-in-pc12%C3%A2-cells-via-modulating-autophagy-apoptosis
#14
Md Mostafizur Rahman, Rachael A Uson-Lopez, Md Tajuddin Sikder, Gongxun Tan, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Takeshi Saito, Masaaki Kurasaki
Arsenic is well known toxicant responsible for human diseases including cancers. On the other hand, selenium is an essential trace element with significant chemopreventive effects, anticancer potentials and antioxidant properties. Although previous studies have reported antagonism/synergism between arsenic and selenium in biological systems, the biomolecular mechanism/s is still inconclusive. Therefore, to elucidate the molecular phenomena in cellular level, we hypothesized that co-exposure of selenium with arsenic may have suppressive effects on arsenic-induced cytotoxicity...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323338/ulinastatin-attenuates-lps-induced-inflammation-in-mouse-macrophage-raw264-7-cells-by-inhibiting-the-jnk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-activating-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-pathway
#15
Si-Tong Li, Qi Dai, Shu-Xian Zhang, Ya-Jun Liu, Qiu-Qiong Yu, Fei Tan, Shu-Hong Lu, Quan Wang, Jian-Wen Chen, He-Qing Huang, Pei-Qing Liu, Min Li
Ulinastatin (UTI) is a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor isolated and purified from human urine with strong anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions, which is widely used for the treatment of various diseases, such as pancreatitis and sepsis. Although the therapeutic effects of UTI are reported to be associated with a variety of mechanisms, the signaling pathways mediating the anti-inflammatory action of UTI remain to be elucidated. In the present study we carried out a systematic study on the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms of UTI and their relationships in LPS-treated RAW264...
January 11, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319126/autophagy-activation-promotes-removal-of-damaged-mitochondria-and-protects-against-renal-tubular-injury-induced-by-albumin-overload
#16
Jin Tan, Miaohong Wang, Shuling Song, Shuling Miao, Qiang Zhang
Proteinuria (albuminuria) is an important cause of aggravating tubulointerstitial injury. Previous studies have shown that autophagy activation can alleviate renal tubular epithelial cell injury caused by urinary protein, but the mechanism is not clear. Here, we investigated the role of clearance of damaged mitochondria in this protective effect. We found that albumin overload induces a significant increase in turnover of LC3-II and decrease in p62 protein level in renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells in vitro...
January 10, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317206/exendin-4-impairs-the-autophagic-flux-to-induce-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-acinar-ar42j-cells-by-down-regulating-lamp-2
#17
Zhiqiang Li, Shaihong Zhu, Lihua Huang, Mingming Shang, Can Yu, Hongwei Zhu, Duo Han, Hui Huang, Xiao Yu, Xia Li
This study aimed to explore the mechanism of impaired autophagy flux induced by exendin-4 and its role on cell apoptosis in pancreatic AR42J cells. The AR42J cells were treated with various concentration of exendin-4 for several time points to assess its cytotoxicity by MTT assay. Then the AR42J cells were treated by 10pM exendin-4 for 72 h, the cell death was analyzed by flow cytometry and caspase-3 level was examined by Western blot with or without the pretreatment of z-VAD-fmk to testify whether exendin-4 induces the cell apoptosis...
January 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316847/chloroquine-promotes-the-recovery-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury-by-inhibiting-autophagy-associated-inflammation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#18
Fenzan Wu, Xiaojie Wei, Yanqing Wu, Xiaoxia Kong, Aiping Hu, Songlin Tong, Yanlong Liu, Fanhua Gong, Ling Xie, Jinjing Zhang, Jian Xiao, Hongyu Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe nervous system disease that may lead to lifelong disability. Studies have shown that autophagy plays a key role in various diseases; however, the mechanisms regulating crosstalk between autophagy, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during SCI recovery remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which chloroquine (CQ) inhibits autophagy-associated inflammation and ER-stress in rats during their recovery from acute SCI. We evaluated the locomotor function, level of autophagy, and levels of inflammatory cytokines and ER-stress associated proteins and examined the degradation of the key regulator of inflammation I-κBα through autophagy by analyzing the colocalization of I-κBα, p62 and LC3-II...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315210/isoaaptamine-induces-t-47d-cells-apoptosis-and-autophagy-via-oxidative-stress
#19
Chih-Fung Wu, Man-Gang Lee, Mohamed El-Shazly, Kuei-Hung Lai, Seng-Chung Ke, Chiang-Wen Su, Shou-Ping Shih, Ping-Jyun Sung, Ming-Chang Hong, Zhi-Hong Wen, Mei-Chin Lu
Aaptos is a genus of marine sponge which belongs to Suberitidae and is distributed in tropical and subtropical oceans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Aaptos sp. methanolic extract resulted in the isolation of aaptamine, demethyloxyaaptamine, and isoaaptamine. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated revealing that isoaaptamine exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against breast cancer T-47D cells. In a concentration-dependent manner, isoaaptamine inhibited the growth of T-47D cells as indicated by short-(MTT) and long-term (colony formation) anti-proliferative assays...
January 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313411/inhibition-of-wnt-ctnnb1-signaling-upregulates-sqstm1-and-sensitizes-glioblastoma-cells-to-autophagy-blockers
#20
Mireia Nager, Marta Crespí Sallán, Anna Visa, Charumathi Pushparaj, Maria Santacana, Anna Macià, Andrée Yeramian, Carles Cantí, Judit Herreros
WNT-CTNN1B signaling promotes cancer cell proliferation and stemness. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that macroautophagy/autophagy regulates WNT signaling. Here we investigated the impact of inhibiting WNT signaling on autophagy in glioblastoma (GBM), a devastating brain tumor. Inhibiting TCF, or silencing TCF4 or CTNNB1/β-catenin upregulated SQSTM1/p62 in GBM at transcriptional and protein levels and, in turn, autophagy. DKK1/Dickkopf1, a canonical WNT receptor antagonist, also induced autophagic flux...
January 9, 2018: Autophagy
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