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Myosin C

Jonathan S Coravos, Adam C Martin
Actomyosin networks generate contractile force that changes cell and tissue shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments and myosin II appear in a polarized structure called a sarcomere, in which myosin II is localized in the center. Nonmuscle cortical actomyosin networks are thought to contract when nonmuscle myosin II (myosin) is activated throughout a mixed-polarity actin network. Here, we identified a mutant version of the myosin-activating kinase, ROCK, that localizes diffusely, rather than centrally, in epithelial cell apices...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Cell
Svetlana Demyanenko, Anatoly Uzdensky
In ischemic stroke, cell damage propagates from infarct core to surrounding tissue. To reveal proteins involved in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection, we explored the protein profile in penumbra surrounding the photothrombotic infarct core induced in rat cerebral cortex by local laser irradiation after Bengal Rose administration. Using antibody microarrays, we studied changes in expression of 224 signaling proteins 1, 4, or 24 h after photothrombotic infarct compared with untreated contralateral cortex...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Luca Fusi, Valentina Percario, Elisabetta Brunello, Marco Caremani, Pasquale Bianco, Joseph D Powers, Massimo Reconditi, Vincenzo Lombardi, Gabriella Piazzesi
KEY POINTS: Myosin filament mechanosensing determines the efficiency of the contraction by adapting the number of switched ON motors to the load. Accordingly, the unloaded shortening velocity (V0 ) is already set at the end of the latency relaxation (LR), ∼10 ms after the start of stimulation, when the myosin filament is still in the OFF state. Here the number of actin-attached motors per half-myosin filament (n) during V0 shortening imposed either at the end of LR or at the plateau of the isometric contraction is estimated from the relation between half-sarcomere compliance and force during the force redevelopment after the shortening...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Kangwook Lee, Sung-Gook Cho, Sang-Mi Woo, Ah Jeong Kim, Kang Min Lee, Ho Yeon Go, Seung-Ho Sun, Tae-Hun Kim, Ki-Yong Jung, You-Kyung Choi, Eun Mee Lim, Yun-Kyung Song, Jong-Hyeong Park, Chan-Yong Jun, Seong-Gyu Ko
Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Senggang-Tang (DSGOST), one of the traditional Chinese medicines, has long been prescribed for patients suffering from Raynaud phenomenon (RP) in Northeast Asian countries, including China, Japan and Korea. Although a previous in vitro study from our laboratory revealed that DSGOST prevents cold (25˚C)‑induced RhoA activation and endothelin‑1 (ET‑1) production in endothelial cells (ECs), the mechanisms by which DSGOST is able to alleviate the symptoms of RP have yet to be fully elucidated...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Hilma Holm, Patrick Sulem, Gisli Masson, Asmundur Oddsson, Olafur Th Magnusson, Jona Saemundsdottir, Hafdis Th Helgadottir, Hannes Helgason, Hrefna Johannsdottir, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Sigurjon A Gudjonsson, Inger Njølstad, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Larry Baum, Ronald C W Ma, Gunnlaugur Sigfusson, Augustine Kong, Guðmundur Thorgeirsson, Jon Th Sverrisson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, David O Arnar
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in man, causing substantial morbidity and mortality with a major worldwide public health impact. It is increasingly recognized as a highly heritable condition. This study aimed to determine genetic risk factors for early-onset AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We sequenced the whole genomes of 8453 Icelanders and imputed genotypes of the 25.5 million sequence variants we discovered into 1799 Icelanders with early-onset AF (diagnosed before 60 years of age) and 337 453 controls...
October 14, 2016: European Heart Journal
Matthias Schuppler, Felix C Keber, Martin Kröger, Andreas R Bausch
Cells set up contractile actin arrays to drive various shape changes and to exert forces to their environment. To understand their assembly process, we present here a reconstituted contractile system, comprising F-actin and myosin II filaments, where we can control the local activation of myosin by light. By stimulating different symmetries, we show that the force balancing at the boundaries determine the shape changes as well as the dynamics of the global contraction. Spatially anisotropic attachment of initially isotropic networks leads to a self-organization of highly aligned contractile fibres, being reminiscent of the order formation in muscles or stress fibres...
October 14, 2016: Nature Communications
Pavlos E Evangelidis, Garry J Massey, Richard A Ferguson, Patrick C Wheeler, Matthew T G Pain, Jonathan P Folland
Hamstrings muscle fiber composition may be predominantly fast-twitch and could explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injuries. However, hamstrings muscle composition in vivo, and its influence on knee flexor muscle function, remains unknown. We investigated biceps femoris long head (BFlh) myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition from biopsy samples, and the association of hamstrings composition and hamstrings muscle volume (using MRI) with knee flexor maximal and explosive strength. Thirty-one young men performed maximal (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and explosive (isometric) contractions...
October 13, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Hyunhoo Cho, Seong Ho Ok, Seong Chun Kwon, Soo Hee Lee, Jiseok Baik, Sebin Kang, Jiah Oh, Ju-Tae Sohn
BACKGROUND: The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of lipid emulsion on vasodilation caused by toxic doses of bupivacaine and mepivacaine during contraction induced by a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), in an isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. METHODS: The effects of lipid emulsion on the dose-response curves induced by bupivacaine or mepivacaine in an isolated aorta precontracted with PDBu were assessed...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pain
C Bening, K Hamouda, R Leyh
BACKGROUND: The impact of sex on cardiac morphology and function in chronic volume overload has been described in detail. However, the relation between sex and contractile properties at the actin-myosin level has not been well defined. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of sex on the contractile capacities of patients with chronic volume overload. METHODS: In 36 patients (18 males, 65 ± 9 years; 18 females, 65 ± 13 years) scheduled for elective mitral valve surgery due to severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with preserved left ventricular function, right auricle samples were obtained prior to extracorporal circulation...
October 14, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Wei Miao, Xiujuan Wu, Kang Wang, Wenjing Wang, Yumei Wang, Zhigang Li, Jingjing Liu, Li Li, Luying Peng
As a physiological small molecular product from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, butyrate plays an important role in maintaining intestinal health. Our previous works have proved that the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on the intestinal barrier function is mediated by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the detailed pathway involved remains unknown. Using the calcium switch assay in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model, we found here that NaB activated AMPK mainly by increasing the calcium level, but not the ATP concentration, via promoting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE)...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
M Moazzem Hossain, Guangyi Zhao, Moon-Sook Woo, James H-C Wang, Jian-Ping Jin
Cell traction force (CTF) plays a critical role in controlling cell shape, enabling cell motility, and maintaining cellular homeostasis in many biological processes such as angiogenesis, development, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Calponin is an actin filament-associated cytoskeletal protein in smooth muscles and multiple types of non-muscle cells. An established biochemical function of calponin is the inhibition of myosin ATPase in smooth muscle cells. Vertebrates have three calponin isoforms. Among them, calponin 2 is expressed in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, myoblasts and fibroblasts, and plays a role in regulating cytoskeleton activities such as cell adhesion, migration and cytokinesis...
October 13, 2016: Biochemistry
Iman A Mohamed, Navaneethakrishnan T Krishnamoorthy, Gheyath K Nasrallah, Sahar Da'as
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common autosomal dominant genetic cardiovascular disorder marked by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Mutations in the gene encodes the cardiac myosin-binding protein C, cMYBPC3 is amongst the various sarcomeric genes that are associated with HCM. These mutations produce mutated mRNAs and truncated cMyBP-C proteins. In this review, we will discuss the implications and molecular mechanisms involved in MYBPC3 different mutations. Further, we will highlight the novel targets that can be developed into potential therapeutics for the treatment of HMC...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ling Zong, Kaitian Chen, Xuan Wu, Min Liu, Hongyan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Identification of rare deafness genes for inherited congenital sensorineural hearing impairment remains difficult, because a large variety of genes are implicated. In this study we applied targeted capture and next-generation sequencing to uncover the underlying gene in a three-generation Han family segregating recessive inherited hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. METHODS: After excluding mutations in common deafness genes GJB2, SLC26A4 and the mitochondrial gene, genomic DNA of the proband of a Han family was subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Jhonan A Mendoza, Ana M Barreto, Lina S Poveda, Lina K Sanchez, Laura C Poveda, Katherine T Mora
Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
Xue-Jiao Chang, Chao-Qun Zheng, Yu-Wei Wang, Chuang Meng, Xiao-Lu Xie, Hai-Peng Liu
Gradually increasing atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8...
October 7, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Katharine A Michie, Ann H Kwan, Chang-Shung Tung, J Mitchell Guss, Jill Trewhella
The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the tri-helix bundle (THB) of the m-domain plus C2 (ΔmC2) of myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) has revealed a highly flexible seven-residue linker between the structured THB and C2. Bioinformatics shows significant patterns of conservation across the THB-linker sequence, with the linker containing a strictly conserved serine in all MyBP-C isoforms. Clinically linked mutations further support the functional significance of the THB-linker region. NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering, and binding studies show the THB-linker plus the first ten residues of C2 undergo dramatic changes when ΔmC2 binds Ca(2+)-calmodulin, with the linker and C2 N-terminal residues contributing significantly to the affinity...
October 4, 2016: Structure
Abderahim Gaceb, Luisa Vergori, M C Martinez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Microvesicles, small membrane vesicles released from cells, have beneficial and/or deleterious effects in sepsis. We previously reported that non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) deletion protects mice against endotoxic shock by reducing inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the consequences of nmMLCK deletion on microvesicle phenotypes and their effects on mouse aortic endothelial cells in association with vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction during endotoxic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Seong-Ho Ok, Seong-Chun Kwon, Jiseok Baik, Jeong-Min Hong, Jiah Oh, Jeong Yeol Han, Ju-Tae Sohn
Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, produces vasoconstriction, which leads to transiently increased blood pressure. The goal of this study was to investigate specific protein kinases and the associated cellular signal pathways responsible for the increased calcium sensitization induced by dexmedetomidine in isolated rat aortas, with a particular focus on phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory protein of myosin phosphatase (CPI-17). The effect of Y-27632 and chelerythrine on the dexmedetomidine-induced intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and tension were assessed using fura-2-loaded aortic strips...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuhee Ryu, Li Jin, Hae Jin Kee, Zhe Hao Piao, Jae Yeong Cho, Gwi Ran Kim, Sin Young Choi, Ming Quan Lin, Myung Ho Jeong
Gallic acid, a type of phenolic acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects in inflammation, vascular calcification, and metabolic diseases. The present study was aimed at determining the effect and regulatory mechanism of gallic acid in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol (ISP) in mice and primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. Gallic acid pretreatment attenuated concentric cardiac hypertrophy. It downregulated the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and beta-myosin heavy chain in vivo and in vitro...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kelsey A Thomas, Michael C Gibbons, John G Lane, Anshuman Singh, Samuel R Ward, Adam J Engler
Full thickness rotator cuff tendon (RCT) tears have long-term effects on RC muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, with lasting damage even after surgical tendon repair. Skeletal muscle progenitor cells (SMPs) are critical for muscle repair in response to injury, but the inability of RC muscles to recover from chronic RCT tear indicates possible deficits in repair mechanisms. Here we investigated if muscle injury state was a crucial factor during human SMP expansion and differentiation ex vivo. SMPs were isolated from muscles in patients with no, partial-thickness (PT), or full-thickness (FT) RCT tears...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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