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Myosin C

Hirotake Ishida, Shin-Ya Saito, Eita Hishinuma, Tomoaki Kitayama, Tomohisa Ishikawa
Our previous studies have shown that α1 -adrenoceptors, in addition to α2 -adrenoceptors, are involved in enhanced contraction of cutaneous blood vessels during cooling. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying it. In tail and iliac arteries isolated from rats, isometric contraction was measured using a myograph and the phosphorylation level of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) was quantified by western blotting. The phenylephrine-induced contraction was enhanced by cooling to 24°C in tail arteries, but was suppressed in iliac arteries...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Zhongwei Liu, Raouf A Khalil
Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular function. Identifying the mechanisms of VSM contraction has been a major research goal in order to determine the causes of vascular dysfunction and exaggerated vasoconstriction in vascular disease. Major discoveries over several decades have helped to better understand the mechanisms of VSM contraction. Ca 2+ has been established as a major regulator of VSM contraction, and its sources, cytosolic levels, homeostatic mechanisms and subcellular distribution have been defined...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Dan F Smelter, Willem J De Lange, Wenxuan Cai, Ying Ge, John C Ralphe
Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a functional sarcomeric protein that regulates contractility in response to contractile demand, and many mutations in cMyBP-C lead to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). To gain insight into the effects of disease-causing cMyBP-C missense mutations on contractile function, we expressed the pathogenic W792R mutation in mouse cardiomyocytes lacking endogenous cMyBP-C and studied the functional effects using three-dimensional engineered cardiac tissue (mECT) constructs...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Glaucia E Callera, Malou Friederich-Persson, Ana Sanchez, Maria Gabriela Dulak-Lis, Sofia Tsiropoulou, Augusto C Montezano, Ying He, Ana M Briones, Frederic Jaisser, Rhian M Touyz
Activation of aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) has been implicated in vascular dysfunction of diabetes. Underlying mechanisms are elusive. Therefore, we investigated the role of Rho kinase (ROCK) in aldosterone/MR signaling and vascular dysfunction in a model of diabetes. Diabetic obese mice (db/db) and control counterparts (db/+) were treated with MR antagonist (MRA, potassium canrenoate, 30 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks) or ROCK inhibitor, fasudil (30 mg/kg/day, 3 weeks). Plasma aldosterone was increased in db/db versus db/+...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nils C Gauthier, Pere Roca-Cusachs
Integrin-mediated adhesions between cells and the extracellular matrix are fundamental for cell function, and one of their main roles is to sense and respond to mechanical force. Here we discuss the different mechanisms that can confer mechanosensitivity to adhesions. We first address molecular mechanisms mediated by force-induced changes in molecular properties, such as binding dynamics or protein conformation. Then, we discuss recent evidence on how these mechanisms are integrated with cellular and extracellular parameters such as myosin and actin activity, membrane tension, and ECM properties, endowing cells with an exquisite ability to both detect and respond to physical and mechanical cues from their environment...
January 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Hidemitsu Nakagawa, Satoru Sasagawa, Kazuyuki Itoh
Sodium butyrate (SB), a short chain (C-4) saturated fatty acid, is present in the human bowel at increased concentrations (~2 mM) as a food metabolite. It has been demonstrated that SB exerts an anti-tumor effect as a histone deacetylase inhibitor; however, its precise mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. The present study focused on the mechanisms underlying the effects of SB on glioblastoma (GB) cell proliferation, motility and invasion. In human GB A172 cells, flow cytometry and a Boyden chamber assay demonstrated that physiological concentrations of SB (0...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Edward C Eckels, Rafael Tapia-Rojo, Jamie Andrés Rivas-Pardo, Julio M Fernández
Single-molecule atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers experiments have demonstrated that titin immunoglobulin (Ig) domains are capable of folding against a pulling force, generating mechanical work that exceeds that produced by a myosin motor. We hypothesize that upon muscle activation, formation of actomyosin cross bridges reduces the force on titin, causing entropic recoil of the titin polymer and triggering the folding of the titin Ig domains. In the physiological force range of 4-15 pN under which titin operates in muscle, the folding contraction of a single Ig domain can generate 200% of the work of entropic recoil and occurs at forces that exceed the maximum stalling force of single myosin motors...
February 10, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
A Zawadzki, C Alloo, A B Grossi, E S P do Nascimento, L C Almeida, S Bogusz Junior, L H Skibsted, D R Cardoso
Addition of β-acids extracted from hop at different levels (0, 30mgkg-1, 60mgkg-1, 240mgkg-1) to the diet of broiler chickens demonstrated significant effects on the average concentration of polar metabolites and fatty acids of relevance for meat quality. The largest metabolic differences between control group and chicken fed different levels of β-acids were achieved using 30mgkg-1 of supplement. As determined by EPR spin-trapping, increased redox stability was also obtained for meat from chicken fed 30mgkg-1 of β-acids which also had highest level of endogenous antioxidants, especially anserine, carnosine, NADH and PUFAs...
March 2018: Food Research International
Ye Lu, Diana Zhou, Rebecca King, Shuang Zhu, Claire L Simpson, Byron C Jones, Wenbo Zhang, Eldon E Geisert, Lu Lu
Purpose: Usher syndrome (US) is characterized by a loss of vision due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and deafness. US has three clinical subtypes, but even within each subtype, the severity varies. Myosin VIIA, coded by Myo7a, has been identified as one of the causal genes of US. This study aims to identify pathways and other genes through which Myo7a interacts to affect the presentation of US symptoms. Methods: In this study, we used the retinal tissue of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice to examine the expression of Myo7a and perform genetic mapping...
2018: Molecular Vision
Papungkorn Sangsawad, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, David D Kitts, Xiu-Min Chen, Guangtao Meng, Eunice C Y Li-Chan, Jirawat Yongsawatdigul
Korat-chicken breast and thigh were subjected to heating at 70, 100 or 121 °C for 30 min and simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. At 70 or 100 °C heating, digests of breast possessed higher ACE inhibitory activity than those of thigh. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was found in the digest of breast cooked at 70 °C (B/H-70), whereas breast heated at 121 °C (B/H-121) exhibited the lowest. The 1-kDa permeate of the B/H-70 digest revealed higher permeability through colorectal adenocarcinoma monolayers and ACE inhibitory activity than did B/H-121...
June 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Brian Leei Lin, Amy Li, Ji Young Mun, Michael J Previs, Samantha Beck Previs, Stuart G Campbell, Cristobal G Dos Remedios, Pieter de P Tombe, Roger Craig, David M Warshaw, Sakthivel Sadayappan
Muscle contraction, which is initiated by Ca2+, results in precise sliding of myosin-based thick and actin-based thin filament contractile proteins. The interactions between myosin and actin are finely tuned by three isoforms of myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C): slow-skeletal, fast-skeletal, and cardiac (ssMyBP-C, fsMyBP-C and cMyBP-C, respectively), each with distinct N-terminal regulatory regions. The skeletal MyBP-C isoforms are conditionally coexpressed in cardiac muscle, but little is known about their function...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Han-Rong Zhang, Shu-Yu Lai, Li-Jun Huang, Zhen-Fei Zhang, Jie Liu, Si-Rong Zheng, Ke Ding, Xin Bai, Jue-Yu Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests an important role of Myosin 1b (Myo1b) in the progression of several cancers, including prostate cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the contribution of Myo1b to cervical cancer (CC) remains elusive. METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and western blotting assays were used to confirm the expression of Myo1b in CC tissues compared with matched non-tumor tissues and CC cells, and analyze its clinical significance...
January 27, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Rhian M Touyz, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Francisco J Rios, Livia L Camargo, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, Anders Arner, Augusto C Montezano
Hypertension is a major risk factor for many common chronic diseases, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, vascular dementia and chronic kidney disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of hypertension include increased vascular resistance, determined in large part by reduced vascular diameter due to increased vascular contraction and arterial remodelling. These processes are regulated by complex interacting systems such as the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), sympathetic nervous system, immune activation and oxidative stress, which influence vascular smooth muscle function...
January 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Xuelian Sui, Xiaojuan Liu, Wenwu Lin, Zujian Wu, Liang Yang
The nonstructural protein pc6 encoded by rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) plays a significant role in viral cell-to-cell movement, presumably by transport through plasmodesmata (PD). We confirmed the association of pc6 with PD, and also elucidated the mechanisms of protein targeting to PD. Several inhibitor treatments showed conclusively that pc6 is targeted to PD via the ER-to-Golgi secretory system and actin filaments. In addition, VIII-1 myosin was also found to be involved in pc6 PD targeting. Deletion mutants demonstrated that C-terminal amino acid residues 209-229 (transmembrane domain 2; TM2) are essential for pc6 to move through PD...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Virology
Karthik Suresh, Laura Servinsky, Haiyang Jiang, Zahna Bigham, Xin Yun, Corinne Kliment, John C Huetsch, Mahendra Damarla, Larissa A Shimoda
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease characterized by elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure, in part due to formation of occlusive lesions in the distal arterioles of the lung. These complex lesions may comprise multiple cell types, including endothelial cells (ECs). To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying EC dysfunction in PAH, lung microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were isolated from normoxic rats (N-MVEC) and rats subjected to SU5416 plus hypoxia (SuHx), an experimental model of PAH...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Jeffrey Kroon, Antje Schaefer, Jos van Rijssel, Mark Hoogenboezem, Floris van Alphen, Peter Hordijk, Erik S G Stroes, Staffan Strömblad, Jacco van Rheenen, Jaap D van Buul
Leukocyte transendothelial migration is key to inflammation. Leukocytes first start rolling over the inflamed endothelium, followed by firmly adhering to it. Under inflammatory conditions, endothelial cells express small finger-like protrusions that stick out into the lumen. The function and regulation of these structures are unclear. We present evidence that these ICAM-1- and F-actin-rich endothelial finger-like protrusions are filopodia and function as adhesive structures for leukocytes to transit from rolling to crawling but are dispensable for diapedesis...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jae-Gyu Kim, Rokibul Islam, Jung Yoon Cho, Hwalrim Jeong, Kim-Cuong Cap, Yohan Park, Abu Jubayer Hossain, Jae-Bong Park
RhoA GTPase plays a variety of functions in regulation of cytoskeletal proteins, cellular morphology and migration along with various proliferation and transcriptional activity in cells. RhoA activity is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and the guanine nucleotide dissociation factor (GDI). The RhoA-RhoGDI complex exists in the cytosol and the active GTP-bound form of RhoA is located to the membrane. GDI displacement factors (GDFs) including IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) dissociate the RhoA-GDI complex, allowing activation of RhoA through GEFs...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Qunzhou Zhang, Phuong D Nguyen, Shihong Shi, Justin C Burrell, Qilin Xu, Kacy D Cullen, Anh D Le
Non-genetic induction of somatic cells into neural crest stem-like cells (NCSCs) is promising for potential cell-based therapies for post-traumatic peripheral nerve regeneration. Here, we report that human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) could be reproducibly and readily induced into NCSCs via non-genetic approaches. Compared to parental GMSCs, induced NCSC population had increased expression in NCSC-related genes and displayed robust differentiation into neuronal and Schwann-like cells. Knockdown of the expression of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a critical mechanosensor and mechanotransducer, attenuated the expression of NCSC-related genes; specific blocking of RhoA/ROCK activity and non-muscle myosin II (NM II)-dependent contraction suppressed YAP1 and NCSC-related genes and concurrently abolished neural spheroid formation in NCSCs...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Jordan Bunda, William Gittings, Rene Vandenboom
Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) potentiates rodent fast twitch muscle but is an ATP requiring process. Our objective was to investigate the effect of skMLCK-catalyzed RLC phosphorylation on the energetic cost of contraction and the contractile economy (ratio of mechanical output to metabolic input) of mouse fast muscle in vitro (25° C). To this end, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from Wildtype and from skMLCK devoid (skMLCK-/-) mice were subjected to repetitive low-frequency stimulation (10 Hz for 15 s) to produce staircase potentiation of isometric twitch force after which muscles were quick frozen for determination of high-energy phosphate consumption (HEPC)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Pei Wu, Fei-Yu Pan, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Yang Liu
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) on the physical barrier and immune defence in the gill of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total 630 young grass carp with an average initial weight of 259.70 ± 0.47 g were fed graded levels of MHA (0, 2.4, 4.4, 6.4, 8.5 and 10.5 g/kg diet) and one DL-methionine (DLM) group (6.4 g/kg diet) for 8 weeks. After feeding trial, 15 fish from each treatment were challenged with Flavobacterium columnare...
January 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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