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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908102/sex-related-differences-in-muscle-size-explained-by-amplitudes-of-higher-threshold-motor-unit-action-potentials-and-muscle-fiber-typing
#1
Michael A Trevino, Adam J Sterczala, Jonathan D Miller, Mandy E Wray, Hannah L Dimmick, Anthony B Ciccone, Joseph P Weir, Philip M Gallagher, Andrew C Fry, Trent J Herda
AIM: To investigate the relationships between motor unit action potential amplitudes (MUAPAMP ), muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) and composition (mEI), percent myosin heavy chain (%MHC) areas, and sex in the vastus lateralis (VL). METHODS: Ten males and 10 females performed a submaximal isometric trapezoid muscle action that included a linearly increasing, steady torque at 40% maximal voluntary contraction, and linearly decreasing segments. Surface electromyographic decomposition techniques were utilized to determine MUAPAMPS in relation to recruitment thresholds (RT)...
June 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907654/nadph-oxidase-5-is-a-pro-contractile-nox-isoform-and-a-point-of-cross-talk-for-calcium-and-redox-signaling-implications-in-vascular-function
#2
Augusto C Montezano, Livia De Lucca Camargo, Patrik Persson, Francisco J Rios, Adam P Harvey, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, Roberto Palacios, Ana Caroline P Gandara, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Karla B Neves, Maria Dulak-Lis, Chet E Holterman, Pedro Lagerblad de Oliveira, Delyth Graham, Christopher Kennedy, Rhian M Touyz
BACKGROUND: NADPH Oxidase 5 (Nox5) is a calcium-sensitive superoxide-generating Nox. It is present in lower forms and higher mammals, but not in rodents. Nox5 is expressed in vascular cells, but the functional significance remains elusive. Given that contraction is controlled by calcium and reactive oxygen species, both associated with Nox5, we questioned the role of Nox5 in pro-contractile signaling and vascular function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic mice expressing human Nox5 in a vascular smooth muscle cell-specific manner (Nox5 mice) and Rhodnius prolixus , an arthropod model that expresses Nox5 endogenoulsy, were studied...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906621/deoxynivalenol-decreased-the-growth-performance-and-impaired-intestinal-physical-barrier-in-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#3
Chen Huang, Pei Wu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Yun-Yun Zeng, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of animal feed worldwide and brings significant threats to the animal production. However, studies concerning the effect of DON on fish intestine are scarce. This study explored the effects of DON on intestinal physical barrier in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1440 juvenile grass carp (12.17 ± 0.01 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of DON (27, 318, 636, 922, 1243 and 1515 μg/kg diet) for 60 days...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903892/novel-association-of-germline-de-novo-myh9-mutation-with-congenital-hemangioma
#4
Elena I Fomchenko, Daniel Duran, Sheng Chih Jin, Weilai Dong, E Zeynep Erson-Omay, Prince Antwi, August Allocco, Jonathan R Gaillard, Anita Huttner, Murat Gunel, Michael L DiLuna, Kristopher T Kahle
Congenital hemangiomas are tumor-like vascular malformations with poorly understood pathogenesis. We report the case of a neonate with a massive congenital scalp hemangioma that required urgent neurosurgical removal on the second day of life due to concern for high-flow arteriovenous shunting. Exome sequencing identified a rare damaging de novo germline mutation in MYH9 (c.5308C>T, p.[Arg1770Cys]), encoding the MYH9 non-muscle myosin IIA. MYH9 has a probability of loss-of-function intolerance (pLI) score > 0...
June 14, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900535/high-throughput-proteomic-analysis-of-candidate-biomarker-changes-in-gingival-crevicular-fluid-after-treatment-of-chronic-periodontitis
#5
Y A Guzman, D Sakellari, K Papadimitriou, C A Floudas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Untargeted, high-throughput proteomics methodologies have great potential to aid in identifying biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontal disease. The application of such methods to the discovery of candidate biomarkers for the resolution of periodontal inflammation after periodontal therapy has been investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from 10 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis at baseline and 1, 5, 9 and 13 weeks after completion of mechanical periodontal treatment...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900280/data-on-whole-length-myosin-binding-protein-c-stabilizes-myosin-s2-as-measured-by-gravitational-force-spectroscopy
#6
Rohit R Singh, James W Dunn, Motamed M Qadan, Nakiuda Hall, Kathy K Wang, Douglas D Root
Data presented in this article relates to the research article entitled "Whole length myosin binding protein C stabilizes myosin subfragment-2 (S2) flexibility as measured by gravitational force spectroscopy." (Singh et al., 2018) [1]. The data exhibits the purified skeletal myosin binding protein C (MyBPC) from rabbit back muscle was of slow skeletal type confirmed by chromatography and in unphosphorylated state based on its isoelectric point (pI) by chromatofocussing. The competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) data displayed the site specificity of polyclonal anti-S2 antibody to myosin S2...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891843/establishment-of-a-novel-mouse-xenograft-model-of-human-uterine-leiomyoma
#7
Yusuke Suzuki, Masaaki Ii, Takashi Saito, Yoshito Terai, Yasuhiko Tabata, Masahide Ohmichi, Michio Asahi
Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumour in women, and an appropriate animal model for leiomyoma would be useful for exploring new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we have been challenged to develop a new simple mouse model for human leiomyoma. Leiomyoma tissues were harvested from myomas resected by different surgical procedures with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment and were subcutaneously implanted into BALB/c nude mice with an estradiol/progesterone-releasing pellet...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885024/septin-regulated-actin-dynamics-promote-salmonella-invasion-of-host-cells
#8
Kirsten C Boddy, Aggie Duan Gao, Dorothy Truong, Moshe S Kim, Carol D Froese, William S Trimble, John H Brumell
Actin nucleators and their binding partners play crucial roles during Salmonella invasion, but how these factors are dynamically coordinated remains unclear. Here, we show that septins, a conserved family of GTPases, play a role during the early stages of Salmonella invasion. We demonstrate that septins are rapidly recruited to sites of bacterial entry and contribute to the morphology of invasion ruffles. Expression of Septin 2, Septin 7 and Septin 9 is required for efficient bacterial invasion. We found that septins contribute to the recruitment of ROCK2 kinase during Salmonella invasion and the downstream activation of the actin nucleating protein FHOD1...
June 8, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881775/self-organized-stress-patterns-drive-state-transitions-in-actin-cortices
#9
Tzer Han Tan, Maya Malik-Garbi, Enas Abu-Shah, Junang Li, Abhinav Sharma, Fred C MacKintosh, Kinneret Keren, Christoph F Schmidt, Nikta Fakhri
Biological functions rely on ordered structures and intricately controlled collective dynamics. This order in living systems is typically established and sustained by continuous dissipation of energy. The emergence of collective patterns of motion is unique to nonequilibrium systems and is a manifestation of dynamic steady states. Mechanical resilience of animal cells is largely controlled by the actomyosin cortex. The cortex provides stability but is, at the same time, highly adaptable due to rapid turnover of its components...
June 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881723/recovering-actives-in-multi-antitarget-and-target-design-of-analogs-of-the-myosin-ii-inhibitor-blebbistatin
#10
Bart I Roman, Rita C Guedes, Christian V Stevens, Alfonso T García-Sosa
In multitarget drug design, it is critical to identify active and inactive compounds against a variety of targets and antitargets. Multitarget strategies thus test the limits of available technology, be that in screening large databases of compounds vs. a large number of targets, or in using in silico methods for understanding and reliably predicting these pharmacological outcomes. In this paper, we have evaluated the potential of several in silico approaches to predict the target, antitarget and physicochemical profile of ( S )-blebbistatin, the best-known myosin II ATPase inhibitor, and a series of analogs thereof...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880844/characterization-of-a-novel-myo3a-missense-mutation-associated-with-a-dominant-form-of-late-onset-hearing-loss
#11
Vitor G L Dantas, Manmeet H Raval, Angela Ballesteros, Runjia Cui, Laura K Gunther, Guilherme L Yamamoto, Leandro Ucela Alves, André Silva Bueno, Karina Lezirovitz, Sulene Pirana, Beatriz C A Mendes, Christopher M Yengo, Bechara Kachar, Regina C Mingroni-Netto
Whole-exome sequencing of samples from affected members of two unrelated families with late-onset non-syndromic hearing loss revealed a novel mutation (c.2090 T > G; NM_017433) in MYO3A. The mutation was confirmed in 36 affected individuals, showing autosomal dominant inheritance. The mutation alters a single residue (L697W or p.Leu697Trp) in the motor domain of the stereocilia protein MYO3A, leading to a reduction in ATPase activity, motility, and an increase in actin affinity. MYO3A-L697W showed reduced filopodial actin protrusion initiation in COS7 cells, and a predominant tipward accumulation at filopodia and stereocilia when coexpressed with wild-type MYO3A and espin-1, an actin-regulatory MYO3A cargo...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880681/a-lima1-variant-promotes-low-plasma-ldl-cholesterol-and-decreases-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption
#12
Ying-Yu Zhang, Zhen-Yan Fu, Jian Wei, Wei Qi, Gulinaer Baituola, Jie Luo, Ya-Jie Meng, Shu-Yuan Guo, Huiyong Yin, Shi-You Jiang, Yun-Feng Li, Hong-Hua Miao, Yong Liu, Yan Wang, Bo-Liang Li, Yi-Tong Ma, Bao-Liang Song
A high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although LDL-C levels vary among humans and are heritable, the genetic factors affecting LDL-C are not fully characterized. We identified a rare frameshift variant in the LIMA1 (also known as EPLIN or SREBP3 ) gene from a Chinese family of Kazakh ethnicity with inherited low LDL-C and reduced cholesterol absorption. In a mouse model, LIMA1 was mainly expressed in the small intestine and localized on the brush border membrane...
June 8, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879372/a-self-organized-actomyosin-drives-multiple-intercellular-junction-disruption-and-directly-promotes-neutrophil-recruitment-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury
#13
Bing Chen, Zhen Yang, Congwen Yang, Wenhan Qin, Jianteng Gu, Chuanmin Hu, An Chen, Jiaolin Ning, Bin Yi, Kaizhi Lu
Acute lung injury (ALI), with the hallmarks of vascular integrity disruption and neutrophil recruitment, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Enhanced actomyosin assembly contributes to endothelial cell contact dysfunction. However, the roles and mechanisms of actomyosin assembly in ALI are not totally clear. We investigated the dynamic alterations and roles of actomyosin in ALI in vivo and in vitro models induced by LPS. Pulmonary levels of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial-cadherin, occludin, myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, and thymosin β4 were decreased, and the number and activity of neutrophils and the levels of actomyosin, p-ρ-associated protein kinase, p-myosin light-chain kinase, and profilin1 were increased within 3 d after LPS administration, and then, those alterations were recovered within the next 4 d, which was consistent with the alterations of lung histology, vascular permeability, edema, and serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α...
June 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875314/hsc70-is-a-chaperone-for-wild-type-and-mutant-cardiac-myosin-binding-protein-c
#14
Amelia A Glazier, Neha Hafeez, Dattatreya Mellacheruvu, Venkatesha Basrur, Alexey I Nesvizhskii, Lap Man Lee, Hao Shao, Vi Tang, Jaime M Yob, Jason E Gestwicki, Adam S Helms, Sharlene M Day
Cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) is the most commonly mutated gene associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Haploinsufficiency of full-length MYBPC3 and disruption of proteostasis have both been proposed as central to HCM disease pathogenesis. Discriminating the relative contributions of these 2 mechanisms requires fundamental knowledge of how turnover of WT and mutant MYBPC3 proteins is regulated. We expressed several disease-causing mutations in MYBPC3 in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes...
June 7, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874125/structure-before-function-myosin-binding-protein-c-slow-is-a-structural-protein-with-regulatory-properties
#15
Janelle Geist, Christopher W Ward, Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos
Myosin binding protein-C slow (sMyBP-C) comprises a family of accessory proteins in skeletal muscles that bind both myosin and actin filaments. Herein, we examined the role of sMyBP-C in adult skeletal muscles using in vivo gene transfer and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats technology to knock down all known sMyBP-C variants. Our findings, confirmed in two different skeletal muscles, demonstrated efficient knockdown (KD) of sMyBP-C (>70%) resulting in notably decreased levels of thick, but not thin, filament proteins ranging from ∼50% for slow and fast myosin to ∼20% for myomesin...
June 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873724/can-strain-dependent-inhibition-of-cross-bridge-binding-explain-shifts-in-optimum-muscle-length
#16
N C Holt, C D Williams
Skeletal muscle force is generated by cross-bridge interactions between the overlapping contractile proteins, actin and myosin. The geometry of this overlap gives us the force-length relationship in which maximum isometric force is generated at an intermediate, optimum, length. However, the force-length relationship is not constant; optimum length increases with decreasing muscle activation. This effect is not predicted from actin-myosin overlap. Here we present evidence that this activation-dependent shift in optimum length may be due to series compliance within muscles...
June 4, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866882/high-throughput-screen-using-time-resolved-fret-yields-actin-binding-compounds-that-modulate-actin-myosin-structure-and-function
#17
Piyali Guhathakurta, Ewa Prochniewicz, Benjamin D Grant, Kurt C Peterson, David D Thomas
We have used a novel time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay to detect small-molecule modulators of actin-myosin structure and function. Actin-myosin interactions play crucial roles in the generation of cellular force and movement. Numerous mutations and post-translational modifications of actin or myosin disrupt muscle function and cause life-threatening syndromes. Here we used a FRET biosensor to identify modulators that bind to the actin-myosin interface and alter the structural dynamics of this complex...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866647/two-plastidial-coiled-coil-proteins-are-essential-for-normal-starch-granule-initiation-in-arabidopsis
#18
David Seung, Tina B Schreier, Léo Bürgy, Simona Eicke, Samuel C Zeeman
The mechanism of starch granule initiation in chloroplasts is not fully understood. Here we aimed to build on our recent discovery that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST) family members, PTST2 and PTST3, are key players in starch granule initiation, by identifying and characterising additional proteins involved in the process in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that PTST2 interacts with two plastidial coiled-coil proteins. Surprisingly, one of the proteins is the thylakoid-associated MAR-BINDING FILAMENT-LIKE PROTEIN (MFP1), which was proposed to bind plastid nucleoids...
June 4, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863359/mechanism-of-cardiac-tropomyosin-transitions-on-filamentous-actin-as-revealed-by-all-atom-steered-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#19
Michael R Williams, Jil C Tardiff, Steven D Schwartz
The three-state model of tropomyosin (Tm) positioning along filamentous actin allows for Tm to act as a gate for myosin head binding with actin. The blocked state of Tm prevents myosin binding, while the open state allows for strong binding. Intermediate to this transition is the closed state. The details of the transition from the blocked to the closed state and then finally to the open state by Tm have not been fully accessible to experiment. Utilizing steered molecular dynamics, we investigate the work required to move the Tm strand through the extant set of proposed transitions...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807794/synthesis-of-c-ring-modified-blebbistatin-derivatives-and-evaluation-of-their-myosin-ii-atpase-inhibitory-potency
#20
Bart I Roman, Sigrid Verhasselt, Christophe W Mangodt, Olivier De Wever, Christian V Stevens
(S)-Blebbistatin is a micromolar myosin II ATPase inhibitor that is extensively used in research. In search of analogs with improved potency, we have synthesized for the first time C-ring modified analogs. We introduced hydroxymethyl or allyloxymethyl functionalities in search of additional favorable interactions and a more optimal filling of the binding pocket. Unfortunately, the resulting compounds did not significantly inhibit the ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal-muscle myosin II. This and earlier reports suggest that rational design of potent myosin II inhibitors based on the architecture of the blebbistatin binding pocket is an ineffective strategy...
May 22, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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