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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074910/myosin-phosphatase-and-rhoa-activated-kinase-modulate-arginine-methylation-by-the-regulation-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#1
Adrienn Sipos, Judit Iván, Bálint Bécsi, Zsuzsanna Darula, István Tamás, Dániel Horváth, Katalin F Medzihradszky, Ferenc Erdődi, Beáta Lontay
Myosin phosphatase (MP) holoenzyme is a protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) type Ser/Thr specific enzyme that consists of a PP1 catalytic (PP1c) and a myosin phosphatase target subunit-1 (MYPT1). MYPT1 is an ubiquitously expressed isoform and it targets PP1c to its substrates. We identified the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) enzyme of the methylosome complex as a MYPT1-binding protein uncovering the nuclear MYPT1-interactome of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It is shown that PRMT5 is regulated by phosphorylation at Thr80 by RhoA-associated protein kinase and MP...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070554/marrow-inspired-matrix-cues-rapidly-affect-early-fate-decisions-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#2
Ji Sun Choi, Brendan A C Harley
Hematopoiesis is the physiological process where hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) continuously generate the body's complement of blood and immune cells within unique regions of the bone marrow termed niches. Although previous investigations have revealed gradients in cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) content across the marrow, and matrix elasticity and ligand type are believed to be strong regulators of stem cell fate, the impact of biophysical signals on HSC response is poorly understood. Using marrow-inspired ECM ligand-coated polyacrylamide substrates that present defined stiffness and matrix ligand cues, we demonstrate that the interplay between integrin engagement and myosin II activation processes affects the morphology, proliferation, and myeloid lineage specification of primary murine HSCs within 24 hours ex vivo...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068085/cyclocurcumin-an-antivasoconstrictive-constituent-of-curcuma-longa-turmeric
#3
Keunyoung Kim, Jung-Jun Kim, Yeryeon Jung, Ji-Yoon Noh, Ahmed Shah Syed, Chul Young Kim, Moo-Yeol Lee, Kyung-Min Lim, Ok-Nam Bae, Jin-Ho Chung
Despite the increasing attention on the therapeutic potential of Curcuma longa (turmeric), the biological activities of curcuminoids other than curcumin are not well understood. Here, we investigated antivasoconstrictive activities of C. longa extract and its ingredients using freshly isolated rat aortic rings. C. longa extract significantly suppressed agonist-stimulated vasoconstriction, and cyclocurcumin was found to be the most potent (IC50 against phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction: 14.9 ± 1.0 μM) among the 10 tested ingredients including four curcuminoids...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063950/dietary-alpha-linolenic-acid-linoleic-acid-ratios-modulate-immune-response-physical-barrier-and-related-signaling-molecules-mrna-expression-in-the-gills-of-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#4
Yun-Yun Zeng, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study was conducted to explore the possible effects of dietary ALA/LNA ratios on the gill immunity, tight junction and antioxidant capacity, and the related signaling factor mRNA levels of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets with different ALA/LNA ratios (0.01, 0.34, 0.68, 1.03, 1.41, 1.76 and 2.15) for 60 days. The present results showed that ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly enhanced lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 contents, promoted mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin and liver expression antimicrobial peptide-2), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1) and inhibitor protein κBα, whereas suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor a and interferon γ2), and signal molecules (IκB kinase β, IκB kines γ and nuclear factor κB p65) mRNA levels in the gill, indicating that optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio improve gill immunity of juvenile fish...
January 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063919/proteomic-analysis-of-the-protective-effects-of-aqueous-bark-extract-of-terminalia-arjuna-roxb-on-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-rats
#5
Santosh Kumar, Md Jahangir Alam, Pankaj Prabhakar, Sayeed Ahmad, Subir K Maulik, Manish Sharma, Shyamal K Goswami
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062507/brown-adipose-tissue-regulates-small-artery-function-through-nadph-oxidase-4-derived-hydrogen-peroxide-and-redox-sensitive-protein-kinase-g-1%C3%AE
#6
Malou Friederich-Persson, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Patrik Persson, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz
OBJECTIVE: Biomedical interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has increased since the discovery of functionally active BAT in adult humans. Although white adipose tissue (WAT) influences vascular function, vascular effects of BAT are elusive. Thus, we investigated the regulatory role and putative vasoprotective effects of BAT, focusing on hydrogen peroxide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4), and redox-sensitive signaling. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Vascular reactivity was assessed in wild-type and Nox4-knockout mice (Nox4(-/-)) by wire myography in the absence and presence of perivascular adipose tissue of different phenotypes from various adipose depots: (1) mixed WAT/BAT (inguinal adipose tissue) and (2) WAT (epididymal visceral fat) and BAT (intrascapular fat)...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062247/severe-apical-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-with-ser-236-gly-mutation-in-mybpc3-a-three-year-follow-up-investigation
#7
XueJiang Cen, JianLei Zheng, XueLie Hu, BaiMing Qu
Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) is a relatively rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and usually involved with genetic variations encoding sarcomeric proteins. In this report, a 68-year-old male presented with exertional angina and giant negative T-waves in the precordial leads V3-V6 was eventually diagnosed with severe AHCM by echocardiography and left ventriculogram. The entire coding Sequences of the most frequent HCM-causing genes were analyzed. A novel mutation of Ser 236 Gly in myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) gene was discovered...
January 3, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039755/myosin-phosphorylation-on-stress-fibers-predicts-contact-guidance-behavior-across-diverse-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Juan Wang, Ian C Schneider
During cancer progression the extracellular matrix is remodeled, forming aligned collagen fibers that proceed radially from the tumor, resulting in invasion. We have recently shown that different invasive breast cancer cells respond to epitaxially grown, aligned collagen fibrils differently. This article develops insight into why these cells differ in their contact guidance fidelity. Small changes in contractility or adhesion dramatically alter directional persistence on aligned collagen fibrils, while migration speed remains constant...
November 28, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035903/drosophila-non-muscle-myosin-ii-motor-activity-determines-the-rate-of-tissue-folding
#9
Claudia G Vasquez, Sarah M Heissler, Neil Billington, James R Sellers, Adam C Martin
Non-muscle cell contractility is critical for tissues to adopt shape changes. Although, the non-muscle myosin II holoenzyme (myosin) is a molecular motor that powers contraction of actin cytoskeleton networks, recent studies have questioned the importance of myosin motor activity cell and tissue shape changes. Here, combining the biochemical analysis of enzymatic and motile properties for purified myosin mutants with in vivo measurements of apical constriction for the same mutants, we show that in vivo constriction rate scales with myosin motor activity...
December 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035529/hereditary-retinal-dystrophy
#10
Thomas C Hohman
As our understanding of the genetic basis for inherited retinal disease has expanded, gene therapy has advanced into clinical development. When the gene mutations associated with inherited retinal dystrophies were identified, it became possible to create animal models in which individual gene were altered to match the human mutations. The retina of these animals were then characterized to assess whether the mutated genes produced retinal phenotypes characteristic of disease-affected patients. Following the identification of a subpopulation of patients with the affected gene and the development of techniques for the viral gene transduction of retinal cells, it has become possible to deliver a copy of the normal gene into the retinal sites of the mutated genes...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029333/biochemical-and-organoleptic-characteristics-of-muscle-from-early-and-late-maturing-bulls-in-different-production-systems
#11
G B Mezgebo, F J Monahan, M McGee, E G O'Riordan, B Picard, R I Richardson, A P Moloney
In grass-based beef production systems (PS), early maturing (EM) breed types may be preferable to late maturing (LM) breed types in achieving adequate carcass fat cover. Biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of muscle from suckler bulls were investigated in EM and LM (n=28/breed) assigned to one of two PS (ad libitum concentrates and grass silage to slaughter (C) or ad libitum silage plus 2 kg concentrate daily during winter followed by 99 days at pasture and then an indoor finishing period on C (GSPC)) in a 2 breed type×2 PS factorial arrangement of treatments...
December 28, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024953/immune-protection-conferred-by-recombinant-mrlc-myosin-regulatory-light-chain-antigen-in-titermax-gold%C3%A2-adjuvant-against-experimental-fasciolosis-in-rats
#12
Luan C Henker, Claiton I Schwertz, Neuber J Lucca, Manoela M Piva, Keila C Prior, Piotr Baska, Luke Norbury, Kamil Januszkiewicz, Diogenes Dezen, Marta M M F Duarte, Rafael N Moresco, Liana Bertagnolli da Rosa, Ricardo E Mendes
Protection against experimental fasciolosis in rats immunized with recombinant myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in TiterMax Gold® adjuvant was assessed. The experimental trial consisted of four groups of 15 animals; group 1 was unimmunized and infected, group 2 was immunized with MRLC in adjuvant and infected, group 3 was infected and immunized with adjuvant only and group 4 was unimmunized and uninfected. Immunization with MRLC in TiterMax Gold® adjuvant (group 2) induced a reduction in fluke burdens of 51...
December 23, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018664/altered-expression-of-pectoral-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-corresponds-to-migration-status-in-the-white-crowned-sparrow-zonotrichia-leucophrys-gambelii
#13
Brandy P Velten, Kenneth C Welch, Marilyn Ramenofsky
Birds undergo numerous changes as they progress through life-history stages, yet relatively few studies have examined how birds adapt to both the dynamic energetic and mechanical demands associated with such transitions. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, often linked with muscle fibre type, is strongly correlated with a muscle's mechanical power-generating capability, thus we examined several morphological properties, including MyHC expression of the pectoralis, in a long-distance migrant, the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) throughout the progression from winter, spring departure and arrival on breeding grounds...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995422/entry-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus
#14
REVIEW
Fei Yuan, Aihua Zheng
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a globe-shaped virus covered by a dense icosahedral array of glycoproteins Gn/Gc that mediate the attachment of the virus to host cells and the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Several membrane factors are involved in virus entry, including C-type lectins and nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA. The post-fusion crystal structure of the Gc protein suggests that it is a class II membrane fusion protein, similar to the E/E1 protein of flaviviruses and alphaviruses...
December 16, 2016: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994558/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-accelerates-relaxation-and-ca-2-transient-decay-and-desensitizes-myofilaments-in-healthy-and-mybpc3-targeted-knock-in-cardiomyopathic-mice
#15
Felix W Friedrich, Frederik Flenner, Mahtab Nasib, Thomas Eschenhagen, Lucie Carrier
Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac muscle disease with left ventricular hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Increased myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity could be the underlying cause of diastolic dysfunction. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), a catechin found in green tea, has been reported to decrease myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in HCM models with troponin mutations. However, whether this is also the case for HCM-associated thick filament mutations is not known...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989674/non-junctional-e-cadherin-clusters-regulate-the-actomyosin-cortex-in-the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-zygote
#16
Anup Padmanabhan, Hui Ting Ong, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
Classical cadherins are well known for their essential function in mediating cell-cell adhesion via their extra-cellular cadherin domains and intra-cellular connections to the actin cytoskeleton [1-3]. There is evidence, however, of adhesion-independent cadherin clusters existing outside of cell-cell junctions [4-6]. What function, if any, these clusters have is not known. HMR-1, the sole classical cadherin in Caenorhabditis elegans, plays essential roles during gastrulation, blastomere polarity establishment, and epidermal morphogenesis [7-11]...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983476/tnf-superfamily-members-promote-hepatitis-c-virus-entry-via-an-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-myosin-light-chain-kinase-dependent-pathway
#17
Nicola Fletcher, Andrew R Clark, Peter Balfe, Jane McKeating
Preventing viral induced liver disease begins with an understanding of the host factors that define susceptibility to infection. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a global health issue with an estimated 170 million infected individuals at risk of developing liver disease including fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver is the major reservoir supporting HCV replication and this hepatocellular tropism is defined by HCV engagement of cellular entry receptors. Hepatocytes are polarised in vivo and this barrier function limits HCV entry...
December 15, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977899/individual-evaluation-of-cardiac-marker-expression-and-self-beating-during-cardiac-differentiation-of-p19cl6-cells-on-different-culture-substrates
#18
Tetsuji Yamaoka, Mitsuhi Hirata, Takaaki Dan, Atsushi Yamashita, Akihisa Otaka, Takahiko Nakaoki, Azizi Miskon, Sachiro Kakinoki, Atsushi Mahara
Cell-based therapies using self-beating cardiomyocytes have been attracting great attention for use in cardiac regeneration, although an effective procedure to improve cardiac differentiation and self-beating induction is required. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of the culture substrate on cardiac maturation by separately evaluating the cardiac differentiation step and the beating induction step in vitro. To this end, the well-studied cardiomyocyte-like progenitor cell line P19CL6 and neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs) were selected and cultured on substrates coated with collagen type I (Col-I), gelatin (Gel), fibronectin (FN), or poly-L-lysine (PLL)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974811/recessive-piezo2-stop-mutation-causes-distal-arthrogryposis-with-distal-muscle-weakness-scoliosis-and-proprioception-defects
#19
Goknur Haliloglu, Kerstin Becker, Cagri Temucin, Beril Talim, Nalan Küçükşahin, Matthias Pergande, Susanne Motameny, Peter Nürnberg, Ustun Aydingoz, Haluk Topaloglu, Sebahattin Cirak
The genetic work-up of arthrogryposis is challenging due to the diverse clinical and molecular etiologies. We report a-18(3/12)-year-old boy, from a 2nd degree consanguineous family, who presented at 3(6/12) years with hypotonia, distal laxity, contractures, feeding difficulties at birth. He required surgery for progressive scoliosis at 16 years of age, and walked independently since then with an unstable gait and coordination defects. His latest examination at 18 years of age revealed a proprioceptive defect and loss-of-joint position sense in the upper limbs...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965581/triptolide-upregulates-myocardial-forkhead-helix-transcription-factor-p3-expression-and-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy
#20
Yuan-Yuan Ding, Jing-Mei Li, Feng-Jie Guo, Ya Liu, Yang-Fei Tong, Xi-Chun Pan, Xiao-Lan Lu, Wen Ye, Xiao-Hong Chen, Hai-Gang Zhang
The forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Fox) p3 can regulate the expression of various genes, and it has been reported that the transfer of Foxp3-positive T cells could ameliorate cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Triptolide (TP) can elevate the expression of Foxp3, but its effects on cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. In the present study, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) were isolated and stimulated with angiotensin II (1 μmol/L) to induce hypertrophic response. The expression of Foxp3 in NRVM was observed by using immunofluorescence assay...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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