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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543538/clinical-and-histopathological-features-of-myofibrillar-myopathy-in-warmblood-horses
#1
S J Valberg, A M Nicholson, S S Lewis, R A Reardon, C J Finno
BACKGROUND: To report a novel exertional myopathy, myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), in Warmblood horses. OBJECTIVES: To 1) describe the distinctive clinical and myopathic features of MFM in Warmblood horses, 2) investigate the potential inheritance of MFM in a Warmblood family. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective selection of MFM cases and prospective evaluation of a Warmblood family. METHODS: Retrospectively, muscle biopsies were selected from Warmblood horses diagnosed with MFM and clinical histories obtained (n = 10)...
May 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538763/myosin-binding-protein-c-compound-heterozygous-variant-effect-on-the-phenotypic-expression-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#2
Julianny Freitas Rafael, Fernando Eugênio Dos Santos Cruz, Antônio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Ilan Gottlieb, José Guilherme Cazelli, Ana Paula Siciliano, Glauber Monteiro Dias
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins. It is the major cause of sudden cardiac death in young high-level athletes. Studies have demonstrated a poorer prognosis when associated with specific mutations. The association between HCM genotype and phenotype has been the subject of several studies since the discovery of the genetic nature of the disease. This study shows the effect of a MYBPC3 compound variant on the phenotypic HCM expression...
April 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538157/cell-and-tissue-scale-forces-coregulate-fgfr2-dependent-tetrads-and-rosettes-in-the-mouse-embryo
#3
Jun Wen, Hirotaka Tao, Kimberly Lau, Haijiao Liu, Craig A Simmons, Yu Sun, Sevan Hopyan
What motivates animal cells to intercalate is a longstanding question that is fundamental to morphogenesis. A basic mode of cell rearrangement involves dynamic multicellular structures called tetrads and rosettes. The contribution of cell-intrinsic and tissue-scale forces to the formation and resolution of these structures remains unclear, especially in vertebrates. Here, we show that Fgfr2 regulates both the formation and resolution of tetrads and rosettes in the mouse embryo, possibly in part by spatially restricting atypical protein kinase C, a negative regulator of non-muscle myosin IIB...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533262/acute-and-chronic-changes-in-rat-soleus-muscle-after-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#4
Kelsey H Collins, David A Hart, Ian C Smith, Anthony M Issler, Raylene A Reimer, Ruth A Seerattan, Jaqueline L Rios, Walter Herzog
The effects of obesity on different musculoskeletal tissues are not well understood. The glycolytic quadriceps muscles are compromised with obesity, but due to its high oxidative capacity, the soleus muscle may be protected against obesity-induced muscle damage. To determine the time-course relationship between a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) metabolic challenge and soleus muscle integrity, defined as intramuscular fat invasion, fibrosis and molecular alterations over six time points. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFS diet (n = 64) and killed at serial short-term (3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks, 28 weeks) time points...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530094/troponin-c-mutations-partially-stabilize-the-active-state-of-regulated-actin-and-fully-stabilize-the-active-state-when-paired-with-%C3%AE-14-tnt
#5
Tamatha Baxley, Dylan Johnson, Jose Renato Pinto, Joseph Michael Chalovich
Striated muscle contraction is regulated by the actin associated proteins tropomyosin and troponin. Activation of myosin ATPase activity is lowest in the absence of both Ca2+ and activating crossbridges (i.e. S1-ADP or rigor S1). Binding of activating species of myosin to actin at saturating Ca2+ stabilizes the most active state (M state) of actin-tropomyosin-troponin (regulated actin). Ca2+ binding alone produces partial stabilization of the active state. The extent of stabilization at saturating Ca2+ depends on the isoform of the troponin subunits, the phosphorylation state of troponin and, in the case of cardiac muscle, the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy producing mutants of troponin T and troponin I...
May 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529490/microgravity-induced-transcriptome-adaptation-in-mouse-paraspinal-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-highlights-insulin-resistance-linked-genes
#6
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity as well as chronic muscle disuse are two causes of low back pain originated at least in part from paraspinal muscle deconditioning. At present no study investigated the complexity of the molecular changes in human or mouse paraspinal muscles exposed to microgravity. The aim of this study was to evaluate longissimus dorsi adaptation to microgravity at both morphological and global gene expression level. C57BL/N6 male mice were flown aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite for 30 days (BF) or housed in a replicate flight habitat on ground (BG)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526784/trpv4-mediates-the-calcium-influx-required-for-flightless-non-muscle-myosin-interaction-and-collagen-remodeling
#7
P D Arora, M Di Gregorio, P He, C A McCulloch
Collagen remodeling by phagocytosis requires cell extension formation, which in turn involves interaction of the actin binding protein Flightless I (FliI) with non-muscle myosin IIA (NMMIIA) at cell-matrix adhesion sites. As Ca(2+) plays a central role in controlling actomyosin-dependent functions, we examined how Ca(2+) controls the generation of cell extensions and collagen remodeling. Ratio fluorimetry demonstrated localized Ca(2+) influx at extensions of fibroblasts. Western Blotting and qPCR showed high expression levels of the Ca(2+)-permeable, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) channel, which co-immunoprecipitated with β1 integrin and localized to adhesions...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525898/ginsenoside-rg3-inhibits-the-senescence-of-prostate-stromal-cells-through-down-regulation-of-interleukin-8-expression
#8
Yanfei Peng, Ran Zhang, Lingfei Kong, Yongmei Shen, Da Xu, Fang Zheng, Jianwei Liu, Qian Wu, Bona Jia, Ju Zhang
Senescent stromal cells support the development of prostate cancer and are considered potential therapeutic targets. This research evaluated the regulatory effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on the senescence of prostatic stromal cells pre-incubated in medium supplemented with 0.5% fetal bovine serum. The results revealed that ginsenoside Rg3 decreased the number of stromal cells positively stained with a senescent cell marker (senescence-associated β-galactosidase). Ginsenoside Rg3 also increased the viability of stromal cells and promoted cell cycle transition from G0/G1 to S phase, as well as inhibited the carcinoma-associated fibroblast-like phenotype in prostate stromal cells, through the up-regulation of smooth muscle cell markers SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524628/myenteric-neuroprotective-role-of-aspirin-in-acute-and-chronic-experimental-infections-with-trypanosoma-cruzi
#9
J Y Oda, M O Belém, T M Carlos, R Gouveia, B F C Luchetti, N M Moreira, C L Massocatto, S M Araújo, D M G Sant Ana, N C Buttow, P Pinge-Filho, E J A Araújo
BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical studies have shown that myenteric neuron cell death during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi mainly occurs in the esophagus and colon, resulting in megaesophagus and megacolon, respectively. Evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) is involved in the T. cruzi invasion process. The use of low-dose aspirin (ASA), a COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce infection with T. cruzi. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of treatment with low-dose ASA on myenteric colonic neurons during murine infection with T...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513289/detection-of-meat-species-adulteration-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-a-proteogenomics-strategy
#10
Alberto Ruiz Orduna, Erik Husby, Charles T Yang, Dipankar Ghosh, Francis Beaudry
Due to the internationalization of food production and distribution, there has been a significant increase of food fraud in recent years. Food fraud can have serious health implications, and occurs when food manufacturers implement unethical practices such as making false label claims as well as using additives and fillers within their products to increase profitability. This has been a serious concern. Meat adulteration was examined using a well-defined proteogenomic annotation, carefully selected surrogate tryptic peptides and high-resolution mass spectrometry...
May 17, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512143/diverse-roles-of-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factors-in-regulating-collective-cell-migration
#11
Assaf Zaritsky, Yun-Yu Tseng, M Angeles Rabadán, Shefali Krishna, Michael Overholtzer, Gaudenz Danuser, Alan Hall
Efficient collective migration depends on a balance between contractility and cytoskeletal rearrangements, adhesion, and mechanical cell-cell communication, all controlled by GTPases of the RHO family. By comprehensive screening of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers, we identified GEFs that are required for collective migration at large, such as SOS1 and β-PIX, and RHOA GEFs that are implicated in intercellular communication. Down-regulation of the latter GEFs differentially enhanced front-to-back propagation of guidance cues through the monolayer and was mirrored by down-regulation of RHOA expression and myosin II activity...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510117/novex-3-the-tiny-titin-of-muscle
#12
REVIEW
Dalma Kellermayer, John E Smith, Henk Granzier
The giant multi-functional striated muscle protein titin is the third most abundant muscle protein after myosin and actin. Titin plays a pivotal role in myocardial passive stiffness, structural integrity and stress-initiated signaling pathways. The complete sequence of the human titin gene contains three isoform-specific mutually exclusive exons [termed novel exons (novex)] coding for the I-band sequence, named novex-1 (exon 45), novex-2 (exon 46) and novex-3 (exon 48). Transcripts containing either the novex-1 or novex-2 exons code for the novex-1 and novex-2 titin isoforms...
April 7, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510043/pseudophosphorylation-of-cardiac-myosin-regulatory-light-chain-a-promising-new-tool-for-treatment-of-cardiomyopathy
#13
REVIEW
Sunil Yadav, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary
Many genetic mutations in sarcomeric proteins, including the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) encoded by the MYL2 gene, have been implicated in familial cardiomyopathies. Yet, the molecular mechanisms by which these mutant proteins regulate cardiac muscle mechanics in health and disease remain poorly understood. Evidence has been accumulating that RLC phosphorylation has an influential role in striated muscle contraction and, in addition to the conventional modulation via Ca(2+) binding to troponin C, it can regulate cardiac muscle function...
February 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502794/mir-125a-5p-modulates-phenotypic-switch-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-by-targeting-ets-1
#14
C Gareri, C Iaconetti, S Sorrentino, C Covello, S De Rosa, C Indolfi
MicroRNAs are key regulators of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotypic switch, one of the main events responsible for bare metal stent restenosis (ISR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). miR-125a-5p is an important modulator of differentiation, proliferation and migration in different cell types; however, its role in VSMCs is still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of miR-125a-5p in VSMCs phenotypic switch. Our results suggest that miR-125a-5p is highly expressed in VSMCs, but it is down-regulated after vascular injury in vivo...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501558/effects-of-prolonged-exposure-to-co2-on-behaviour-hormone-secretion-and-respiratory-muscles-in-young-female-rats
#15
J M Martrette, C Egloff, C Clément, K Yasukawa, S N Thornton, M Trabalon
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased significantly over the last century and continuing increases are expected to have significant effects on current ecosystems. This study evaluated the behavioural and physiological (hormone status, muscle structure) effects of prolonged CO2 exposure in young female Wistar rats exposed at 700ppm of CO2 during 6h a day for 15days. Prolonged CO2 exposure, though not continuous, produced significant disturbances in behaviour with an increase in drinking, grooming and resting, and a reduction in rearing, jumping-play and locomotor activity...
May 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495878/local-amplifiers-of-il-4r%C3%AE-mediated-macrophage-activation-promote-repair-in-lung-and-liver
#16
Carlos M Minutti, Lucy H Jackson-Jones, Belén García-Fojeda, Johanna A Knipper, Tara E Sutherland, Nicola Logan, Emma Rinqvist, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, David A Ferenbach, Antonio Artigas, Cordula Stamme, Zissis C Chroneos, Dietmar M Zaiss, Cristina Casals, Judith E Allen
The type 2 immune response controls helminth infection and maintains tissue homeostasis but can lead to allergy and fibrosis if not adequately regulated. We have discovered local tissue-specific amplifiers of type-2 mediated-macrophage activation. In the lung, surfactant protein A (SP-A) enhanced IL-4-dependent macrophage proliferation and activation, accelerating parasite clearance and reducing pulmonary injury following infection with a lung-migrating helminth. In the peritoneal cavity and liver, C1q enhancement of type 2 macrophage activation was required for liver repair following bacterial infection, but resulted in fibrosis following peritoneal dialysis...
May 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485793/lipoxin-a4-mitigates-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis-by-regulating-inflammatory-response-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-mice
#17
Y Shi, H Pan, H-Z Zhang, X-Y Zhao, J Jin, H-Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: Myocarditis, an acute inflammation disease of the heart, is a potentially lethal disease and can lead to sudden death. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) on experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) and to explore the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EAM was induced in BALB/c mice by injection of porcine cardiac myosin and LAX4 at doses of 10 or 50 μg/kg was administrated from day 1 to 21. The severity of myocarditis was evaluated by detection of heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio and histopathological examination of the heart...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485791/the-protective-effects-of-taurine-on-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis
#18
Y-F Lu, Q-Y Zhang, L-H Wang, X-Y Liu, S-X Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of taurine on experimental autoimmune myocarditis and its mechanisms. BALB/c mice were immunized with porcine cardiac myosin to induce experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered taurine (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg) or vehicle to EAM mice daily. On day 21, the severity of myocarditis was evaluated by determination of heart weight/body weight ratio (Hw/Bw), histopathological and echocardiographic examination of heart tissue...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484504/effect-of-qskl-on-mapk-and-rhoa-pathways-in-a-rat-model-of-heart-failure
#19
Kai Xia, Qiyan Wang, Chun Li, Zifan Zeng, Yong Wang, Wei Wang
Qishenkeli (QSKL) is one of the Chinese medicine formulae for treating heart failure and has been shown to have an antifibrotic effect. However, the mechanism of its therapeutic effects remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore whether QSKL could exert an antifibrotic effect by attenuating ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group, QSKL group, and positive control group. Heart failure was induced by ligation of the left ventricle anterior descending artery...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481356/the-myosin-mesa-and-the-basis-of-hypercontractility-caused-by-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-mutations
#20
Suman Nag, Darshan V Trivedi, Saswata S Sarkar, Arjun S Adhikari, Margaret S Sunitha, Shirley Sutton, Kathleen M Ruppel, James A Spudich
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is primarily caused by mutations in β-cardiac myosin and myosin-binding protein-C (MyBP-C). Changes in the contractile parameters of myosin measured so far do not explain the clinical hypercontractility caused by such mutations. We propose that hypercontractility is due to an increase in the number of myosin heads (S1) that are accessible for force production. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate myosin tail (S2)-dependent functional regulation of actin-activated human β-cardiac myosin ATPase...
May 8, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
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