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Myosin C

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339731/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-development-of-metabolic-cardiomyopathy2-3
#1
C Y Chen, Y F Huang, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333386/myofilaments-movers-and-rulers-of-the-sarcomere
#2
Brian Leei Lin, Taejeong Song, Sakthivel Sadayappan
Striated cardiac and skeletal muscles play very different roles in the body, but they are similar at the molecular level. In particular, contraction, regardless of the type of muscle, is a precise and complex process involving the integral protein myofilaments and their associated regulatory components. The smallest functional unit of muscle contraction is the sarcomere. Within the sarcomere can be found a sophisticated ensemble of proteins associated with the thick filaments (myosin, myosin binding protein-C, titin, and obscurin) and thin myofilaments (actin, troponin, tropomyosin, nebulin, and nebulette)...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331075/myosin-activity-drives-actomyosin-bundle-formation-and-organization-in-contractile-cells-of-the-c-elegans-spermatheca
#3
Alison C E Wirshing, Erin J Cram
Stress fibers, contractile actomyosin bundles, are important for cellular force production and adaptation to physical stress and have been well-studied within the context of cell migration. However, less is known about actomyosin bundle formation and organization in vivo and in specialized contractile cells, such as smooth muscle and myoepithelial cells. The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a bag-like organ of 24 myoepithelial cells that houses the sperm and is the site of fertilization. During ovulation, spermathecal cells are stretched by oocyte entry and then coordinately contract to expel the fertilized embryo into the uterus...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329691/myocardial-infarction-primes-autoreactive-t-cells-through-activation-of-dendritic-cells
#4
Katrien Van der Borght, Charlotte L Scott, Veronika Nindl, Ann Bouché, Liesbet Martens, Dorine Sichien, Justine Van Moorleghem, Manon Vanheerswynghels, Sofie De Prijck, Yvan Saeys, Burkhard Ludewig, Thierry Gillebert, Martin Guilliams, Peter Carmeliet, Bart N Lambrecht
Peripheral tolerance is crucial for avoiding activation of self-reactive T cells to tissue-restricted antigens. Sterile tissue injury can break peripheral tolerance, but it is unclear how autoreactive T cells get activated in response to self. An example of a sterile injury is myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that tissue necrosis is an activator of dendritic cells (DCs), which control tolerance to self-antigens. DC subsets of a murine healthy heart consisted of IRF8-dependent conventional (c)DC1, IRF4-dependent cDC2, and monocyte-derived DCs...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320305/intermolecular-interactions-of-myosin-subfragment-1-induced-by-the-n-terminal-extension-of-essential-light-chain-1
#5
D S Logvinova, O P Nikolaeva, D I Levitsky
We applied dynamic light scattering (DLS) to compare aggregation properties of two isoforms of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) containing different "essential" (or "alkali") light chains, A1 or A2, which differ by the presence of an N-terminal extension in A1. Upon mild heating (up to 40°C), which was not accompanied by thermal denaturation of the protein, we observed a significant growth in the hydrodynamic radius of the particles for S1(A1), from ~18 to ~600-700 nm, whereas the radius of S1(A2) remained unchanged and equal to ~18 nm...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317338/release-of-calcium-into-the-myofibrillar-space-in-response-to-active-shortening-of-striated-muscle
#6
K A P Edman, C Caputo
AIM: The study was undertaken to explore whether shortening of striated muscle during activity is associated with release of bound Ca(2+) into the myofibrillar space as has previously been proposed in order to explain the depressant effect of active shortening. METHODS: The experiments were carried out on single muscle fibres isolated from the anterior tibialis muscle of Rana temporaria. The fibres were loaded with the calcium sensitive indicator Fluo-3. The fibres, stimulated to produce a partially fused isometric tetanus, were subjected to a shortening ramp or, alternatively, to a stretch ramp during activity while force, fibre length, sarcomere length and the Fluo-3 signal were recorded...
March 19, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315668/cmybp-c-was-decreased-via-klhl3-mediated-proteasomal-degradation-in-congenital-heart-diseases
#7
Leitong Wang, Guangrui Lai, Guoming Chu, Xiaoyan Liang, Yanyan Zhao
Cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) is a cardiac structural and regulatory protein; mutations of cMyBP-C are frequently associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Cardiac special transcription factors may regulate the expression of cMyBP-C. However, the role of cMyBP-C in congenital heart diseases (CHD) remains poorly understood. In the current study, western blotting and the MRM approach showed that cMyBP-C expression was significantly reduced in fetuses with CHD compared to those without...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315163/activity-of-metabolic-enzymes-and-muscle-specific-gene-expression-in-parr-and-smolts-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-of-different-age-groups
#8
Maria V Churova, Olga V Meshcheryakova, Aleksey E Veselov, Denis A Efremov, Nina N Nemova
This study was conducted to characterize the energy metabolism level and the features of muscle growth regulation during the development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) inhabiting the Indera River (Kola Peninsula, Russia). The activities of aerobic and anaerobic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and aldolase) were measured in muscle and liver tissue. Gene expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC), myostatin (MSTN-1a), and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs-MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MyoD1c, Myf5, myogenin) were measured in the white muscles of salmon parr of ages 0+, 1+, 2+, and 3+ and smolts of ages 2+ and 3+...
March 18, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306190/natural-polymeric-hydrogel-evaluation-for-skeletal-muscle-tissue-engineering
#9
Beth E Pollot, Christopher R Rathbone, Joseph C Wenke, Teja Guda
Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to repair/regenerate after most types of injuries, there is limited regeneration after volumetric muscle loss (VML). A number of scaffold materials have been used in the development of grafts to treat VML, however, there is still a need to better understand the most appropriate material with regards to its ability to maintain mechanical integrity while also supporting myogenesis. Five commonly used natural polymeric materials (Collagen I, Agarose, Alginate, Fibrin, and Collagen Chitosan) used in skeletal muscle tissue engineering grafts were evaluated for their mechanical properties and myogenic capacity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303410/downregulation-of-myogenic-micrornas-in-sub-chronic-but-not-in-sub-acute-model-of-daunorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy
#10
Gabriel Doka, Eva Malikova, Kristina Galkova, Giampiero La Rocca, Peter Kruzliak, Mariusz Adamek, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Krenek, Jan Klimas
Cardiac muscle-related microRNAs play important roles in cardiac development and disease by translational silencing of mRNAs, the dominant mechanism of microRNA action. To test whether they could be involved in daunorubicin-associated cardiomyopathy (DACM), we determined expression patterns of myomiRs in two distinct models of DACM. We used 10-12 weeks old male Wistar rats. In the sub-acute model, rats were administered with six doses of daunorubicin (DAU-A, 3 mg/kg, i.p., every 48 h). Rats were sacrificed two days after the last dose...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300565/the-shift-in-gh3-cell-shape-and-cell-motility-is-dependent-on-mlck-and-rock
#11
Dulce Ávila-Rodríguez, Carmen Solano Agama, Sirenia González-Pozos, Juan Vicente Méndez-Méndez, Alma Ortiz Plata, Laura Arreola-Mendoza, María E Mendoza-Garrido
Cytoskeletal organization, actin-myosin contractility and the cell membrane together regulate cell morphology in response to the cell environment, wherein the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an indispensable component. Plasticity in cell shape enables cells to adapt their migration mode to their surroundings. GH3 endocrine cells respond to different ECM proteins, acquiring different morphologies: a rounded on collagen I-III (C I-III) and an elongated on collagen IV (C IV). However, the identities of the molecules that participate in these responses remain unknown...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300193/interplay-of-myosin-phosphatase-and-protein-phosphatase-2a-in-the-regulation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-phosphorylation-and-nitric-oxide-production
#12
Róbert Bátori, Bálint Bécsi, Dénes Nagy, Zoltán Kónya, Csaba Hegedűs, Zsuzsanna Bordán, Alexander Verin, Beáta Lontay, Ferenc Erdődi
The inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) at Thr497 (eNOS(pThr497)) by protein kinase C or RhoA-activated kinase is a major regulatory determinant of eNOS activity. The signalling mechanisms involved in the dephosphorylation of eNOS(pThr497) have not yet been clarified. This study identifies myosin phosphatase (MP) holoenzyme consisting of protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) and MP target subunit-1 (MYPT1) as an eNOS(pThr497) phosphatase. In support of this finding are: (i) eNOS and MYPT1 interacts in various endothelial cells (ECs) and in in vitro binding assays (ii) MYPT1 targets and stimulates PP1c toward eNOS(pThr497) substrate (iii) phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr696 (MYPT1(pThr696)) controls the activity of MP on eNOS(pThr497)...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298491/cyk-4-regulates-rac-but-not-rho-during-cytokinesis
#13
Yelena Zhuravlev, Sophia M Hirsch, Shawn N Jordan, Julien Dumont, Mimi Shirasu-Hiza, Julie C Canman
Cytokinesis is driven by constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring that is controlled by Rho family small GTPases. Rho, activated by the Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) ECT-2, is upstream of both myosin-II activation and diaphanous formin-mediated filamentous actin (f-actin) assembly, which drive ring constriction. The role for Rac and its regulators is more controversial but, based on the finding that Rac inactivation can rescue cytokinesis failure when the GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) CYK-4 is disrupted, Rac activity was proposed to be inhibitory to contractile ring constriction and thus specifically inactivated by CYK-4 at the division plane...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296247/comprehensive-proteome-analysis-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-cachexia-and-sarcopenia-a-pilot-study
#14
H Alexander Ebhardt, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Alain Schilb, Neil Johns, Carolyn A Greig, Kenneth C H Fearon, Ruedi Aebersold, Carsten Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia (cancer-induced muscle wasting) is found in a subgroup of cancer patients leaving the patients with a poor prognosis for survival due to a lower tolerance of the chemotherapeutic drug. The cause of the muscle wasting in these patients is not fully understood, and no predictive biomarker exists to identify these patients early on. Skeletal muscle loss is an inevitable consequence of advancing age. As cancer frequently occurs in old age, identifying and differentiating the molecular mechanisms mediating muscle wasting in cancer cachexia vs...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295033/myosin-xi-is-associated-with-fitness-and-adaptation-to-aridity-in-wild-pearl-millet
#15
I S Ousseini, Y Bakasso, N A Kane, M Couderc, L Zekraoui, C Mariac, D Manicacci, B Rhoné, A Barnaud, C Berthouly-Salazar, A Assoumane, D Moussa, T Moussa, Y Vigouroux
Phenotypic changes in plants can be observed along many environmental gradients and are determined by both environmental and genetic factors. The identification of alleles associated with phenotypic variations is a rapidly developing area of research. We studied the genetic basis of phenotypic variations in 11 populations of wild pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on two North-South aridity gradients, one in Niger and one in Mali. Most of the 11 phenotypic traits assessed in a common garden experiment varied between the populations studied...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287133/activated-full-length-myosin-x-moves-processively-on-filopodia-with-large-steps-toward-diverse-two-dimensional-directions
#16
Osamu Sato, Hyun Suk Jung, Satoshi Komatsu, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Tomonobu M Watanabe, Kazuaki Homma, Mitsuo Ikebe
Myosin-X, (Myo 10), is an unconventional myosin that transports the specific cargos to filopodial tips, and is associated with the mechanism underlying filopodia formation and extension. To clarify the innate motor characteristic, we studied the single molecule movement of a full-length myosin-X construct with leucine zipper at the C-terminal end of the tail (M10(Full)LZ) and the tail-truncated myosin-X without artificial dimerization motif (BAP-M10(1-979)HMM). M10(Full)LZ localizes at the tip of filopodia like myosin-X full-length (M10(Full))...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285997/ccm-3-promotes-c-%C3%A2-elegans-germline-development-by-regulating-vesicle-trafficking-cytokinesis-and-polarity
#17
Swati Pal, Benjamin Lant, Bin Yu, Ruilin Tian, Jiefei Tong, Jonathan R Krieger, Michael F Moran, Anne-Claude Gingras, W Brent Derry
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular defects of the CNS that arise from loss of integrity of the endothelial cells lining blood capillaries, causing leakage of blood into the brain [1]. This results in headaches, seizures, and/or hemorrhagic stroke, depending on the location of the lesion. CCM affects 0.5% of the population and follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern caused by mutations in one of the three genes: CCM1 (gene name KRIT1), CCM2 (also known as malcavernin or OSM), and CCM3 (gene name PDCD10) [2, 3], with the earliest onset and most severe prognosis occurring in CCM3 patients [4]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285996/a-sterile-20-family-kinase-and-its-co-factor-ccm-3-regulate-contractile-ring-proteins-on-germline-intercellular-bridges
#18
Kathryn Rehain-Bell, Andrew Love, Michael E Werner, Ian MacLeod, John R Yates, Amy Shaub Maddox
Germ cells in most animals are connected by intercellular bridges, actin-based rings that form stable cytoplasmic connections between cells promoting communication and coordination [1]. Moreover, these connections are required for fertility [1, 2]. Intercellular bridges are proposed to arise from stabilization of the cytokinetic ring during incomplete cytokinesis [1]. Paradoxically, proteins that promote closure of cytokinetic rings are enriched on stably open intercellular bridges [1, 3, 4]. Given this inconsistency, the mechanism of intercellular bridge stabilization is unclear...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284018/chemical-shift-assignments-of-the-first-and-second-rrms-of-nrd1-a-fission-yeast-mapk-target-rna-binding-protein
#19
Ayaho Kobayashi, Teppei Kanaba, Ryosuke Satoh, Yutaka Ito, Reiko Sugiura, Masaki Mishima
Negative regulator differentiation 1 (Nrd1), a fission yeast RNA binding protein, modulates cytokinesis and sexual development and contributes to stress granule formation in response to environmental stresses. Nrd1 comprises four RRM domains and binds and stabilizes Cdc4 mRNA that encodes the myosin II light chain. Nrd1 binds the Cpc2 fission-yeast RACK1 homolog, and the interaction promotes Nrd1 localization to stress granules. Interestingly, Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates Thr40 in the unstructured N-terminal region and Thr126 in the first RRM domain of Nrd1...
March 11, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274425/changes-in-the-myosin-secondary-structure-and-shrimp-surimi-gel-strength-induced-by-dense-phase-carbon-dioxide
#20
Minghui Guo, Shucheng Liu, Marliya Ismail, Mohammed M Farid, Hongwu Ji, Weijie Mao, Jing Gao, Chengyong Li
Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) could induce protein conformation changes. Myosin and shrimp surimi from Litopenaeus vannamei were treated with DPCD at 5-25MPa and 40-60°C for 20min. Myosin secondary structure was investigated by circular dichroism and shrimp surimi gel strength was determined using textural analysis to develop correlations between them. DPCD had a greater effect on secondary structure and gel strength than heating. With increasing pressure and temperature, the α-helix content of DPCD-treated myosin decreased, while the β-sheet, β-turn and random coil contents increased, and the shrimp surimi gel strength increased...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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