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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666623/autoimmunity-to-tropomyosin-specific-peptides-induced-by-mycobacterium-leprae-in-leprosy-patients-identification-of-mimicking-proteins
#1
Itu Singh, Asha Ram Yadav, Keshar Kunja Mohanty, Kiran Katoch, Prashant Sharma, Vinay Kumar Pathak, Deepa Bisht, Umesh D Gupta, Utpal Sengupta
Background: It has been shown earlier that there is a rise in the levels of autoantibodies and T cell response to cytoskeletal proteins in leprosy. Our group recently demonstrated a rise in both T and B cell responses to keratin and myelin basic protein in all types of leprosy patients and their associations in type 1 reaction (T1R) group of leprosy. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the association of levels of autoantibodies and lymphoproliferation against myosin in leprosy patients across the spectrum and tried to find out the mimicking proteins or epitopes between host protein and protein/s of Mycobacterium leprae ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664925/actin-and-myosin-ii-modulate-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Liana C Boraas, Emma T Pineda, Tabassum Ahsan
Use of stem cell-based therapies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is hindered by efficient means of directed differentiation. For pluripotent stem cells, an initial critical differentiation event is specification to one of three germ lineages: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Differentiation is known to be regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular factors, but the role of the cytoskeleton during specification, or early differentiation, is still unknown. In these studies, we used agonists and antagonists to modulate actin polymerization and the actin-myosin molecular motor during spontaneous differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661847/the-ajuba-lim-protein-wtip-regulates-actomyosin-contractility-during-vertebrate-neural-tube-closure
#3
Chih-Wen Chu, Bo Xiang, Olga Ossipova, Andriani Ioannou, Sergei Y Sokol
Ajuba LIM proteins are implicated in the assembly of cell junctions and have been reported to antagonize Hippo signaling in response to cytoskeletal tension. To assess a role of these proteins in actomyosin contractility, we examined the localization and function of Wtip, a member of the Ajuba family, in Xenopus early embryos. Targeted in vivo depletion of Wtip inhibited apical constriction in neuroepithelial cells and elicited neural tube defects. Fluorescent protein-tagged Wtip showed predominant punctate localization along the cell junctions in the epidermis and a linear junctional pattern in the neuroectoderm...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660778/injection-of-natural-protease-inhibitors-and-evaluation-of-their-impact-on-cooked-pacific-whiting-merluccius-productus-fillets
#4
Silvana Dinaintang Harikedua, Christina A Mireles DeWitt
Brine injection of natural proteases, dried egg white (EW), and dried potato extract (PE), was investigated as a means to prevent softening during cooking of Pacific whiting fillets. Treatments included fillets injected with Water (W), 3% sodium chloride and 3% sodium tripolyphosphate brine (B), B with 0.1% xanthan gum (BXG ), B with 1%, 2%, or 3% EW (B1-3EW ), B with 1%, 2%, or 3% PE (B1-3PE ) or non-injected (NI). Non-injected Pacific cod (Cod) was also utilized as a reference for texture analysis. Fillets were subsequently cooked using cooking protocol 1 (90 °C for 20 min) or cooking protocol 2 (60 °C for 30 min then 90 °C for 20 min)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660437/deoxycholylglycine-a-conjugated-secondary-bile-acid-reduces-vascular-tone-by-attenuating-ca-2-sensitivity-via-rho-kinase-pathway
#5
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Menaka C Thounaojam, Manuela Bartoli, Sandeep Khurana
Patients with cirrhosis have reduced systemic vascular resistance and elevated circulating bile acids (BAs). Previously, we showed that secondary conjugated BAs impair vascular tone by reducing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) Ca2+ influx. In this study, we investigated the effect of deoxycholylglycine (DCG), on Ca2+ sensitivity in reducing vascular tone. First, we evaluated the effects of DCG on U46619- and phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA)-induced vasoconstriction. DCG reduced U46619-induced vascular tone but failed to reduce PMA-induced vasoconstriction...
April 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660398/molecular-phenotypes-of-the-human-kidney-myoid-stromal-cells-telocytes-and-myoepithelial-cells
#6
M C Rusu, L Mogoantă, F Pop, M A Dobra
The connective stromal and epithelial compartments of the kidney have regenerative potential and phenotypic flexibility. A few studies have shown that cells appertaining to both compartments can exhibit myoid phenotypes. The purpose of our study was to investigate the myoid pattern of kidney and its association with the kidney niches containing stromal cells/telocytes (SC/TCs). We performed an immunohistochemical study using a panel of endothelial, myoid, mesenchymal and stem/progenitor markers, namely CD31, CD34, CD105 (endoglin), CD117/c-kit, nestin, desmin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the heavy chain of smooth muscle myosin (SMM)...
April 13, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656163/myofibrilar-functional-dysregulation-in-fish-a-new-biomarker-of-damage-to-pesticides
#7
Andrea C Crupkin, Fernando G Iturburu, Marcos Crupkin, Mirta L Menone
Endosulfan (ES) modifies the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle fibers and causes changes to the swimming behavior of fish. The objectives of the present work were to evaluate, in fishes of Australoheros facetus, 1) the integrity of myofibrils (Mf) by the analysis of SDS-PAGE profiles, and 2) the functionality of Mf through the microscopically monitoring of the contraction and changes in Mg2+ Ca2+ - ATPase and Mg2+ (EGTA) -ATPase activities. As expected, after the addition of the contraction buffer, control fish Mf contracted...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624112/cathepsin-s-is-associated-with-degradation-of-collagen-i-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#8
Veronika Klaus, Fadwa Schmies, Christian Reeps, Matthias Trenner, Sarah Geisbüsch, Fabian Lohoefer, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Jaroslav Pelisek
BACKGROUND: Cathepsins have been described in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), their exact role, especially in collagen degradation, is still unclear. The aim of the present study was therefore to analyse relevant cathepsins in human AAA tissue samples in relation to collagen I, III, and their degradation products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 37 AAA patients obtained from elective open surgical repair and eight healthy non-aneurysmatic aortas from kidney donors were included...
April 6, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622201/short-term-frozen-storage-enhances-cross-linking-that-was-induced-by-transglutaminase-in-surimi-gels-from-silver-carp-hypophthalmichthys-molitrix
#9
Yueqi An, Juan You, Shanbai Xiong, Tao Yin
To enhance the application of transglutaminase (TGase) in processing and preserving of frozen surimi, the mechanism that enhances surimi gelation induced by TGase after short-term freezing was investigated. Gel properties and cross-linking extent of surimi gels increased when surimi was frozen at -18 °C for 5-7 days. However when storage time exceeded 10 days, textural properties and water-holding capacity decreased significantly. Moreover, the difference of breaking force and hardness between surimi gels with and without TGase reached the maximum after 3-5 days of frozen storage...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614254/mechanistic-studies-of-a-cell-permeant-peptide-designed-to-enhance-myosin-light-chain-phosphorylation-in-polarized-intestinal-epithelia
#10
Khaled Almansour, Alistair Taverner, Ian M Eggleston, Randall J Mrsny
Tight junction (TJ) structures restrict the movement of solutes between adjacent epithelial cells to maintain homeostatic conditions. A peptide, termed PIP 640, with the capacity to regulate the transient opening of intestinal TJ structures through an endogenous mechanism involving the induction of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation at serine 19 (MLC-pS19 ) has provided a promising new method to enhance the in vivo oral bioavailability of peptide therapeutics. PIP 640 is a decapeptide composed of all D-amino acids (rrdykvevrr-NH2 ) that contains a central sequence designed to emulates a specific domain of C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor-17 kDa (CPI-17) surrounded by positively-charged amino acids that provide a cell penetrating peptide (CPP)-like character...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610350/myosin-iia-interacts-with-the-spectrin-actin-membrane-skeleton-to-control-red-blood-cell-membrane-curvature-and-deformability
#11
Alyson S Smith, Roberta B Nowak, Sitong Zhou, Michael Giannetto, David S Gokhin, Julien Papoin, Ionita C Ghiran, Lionel Blanc, Jiandi Wan, Velia M Fowler
The biconcave disk shape and deformability of mammalian RBCs rely on the membrane skeleton, a viscoelastic network of short, membrane-associated actin filaments (F-actin) cross-linked by long, flexible spectrin tetramers. Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) motors exert force on diverse F-actin networks to control cell shapes, but a function for NMII contractility in the 2D spectrin-F-actin network of RBCs has not been tested. Here, we show that RBCs contain membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA puncta, identified as bipolar filaments by superresolution fluorescence microscopy...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606495/listeria-adhesion-protein-induces-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-for-bacterial-translocation
#12
Rishi Drolia, Shivendra Tenguria, Abigail C Durkes, Jerrold R Turner, Arun K Bhunia
Intestinal epithelial cells are the first line of defense against enteric pathogens, yet bacterial pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, can breach this barrier. We show that Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction to promote bacterial translocation. These disruptions are attributed to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, which is observed in mice challenged with WT and isogenic strains lacking the surface invasion protein Internalin A (ΔinlA), but not a lap- mutant...
March 28, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604277/jip3-deficiency-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-suppression-of-jnk-pathway
#13
Qinghua Ma, Yuxiu Liu, Lianghua Chen
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms revealing the disease is still unclear. In the present study, we suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein 3 (JIP3), involved in various cellular processes, played an essential role in regulating pathological cardiac hypertrophy through in vivo and in vitro studies. JIP3 was highly expressed in human hearts with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and in mouse hypertrophic hearts...
March 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581909/mechanically-induced-ca-2-oscillations-in-osteocytes-release-extracellular-vesicles-and-enhance-bone-formation
#14
Andrea E Morrell, Genevieve N Brown, Samuel T Robinson, Rachel L Sattler, Andrew D Baik, Gehua Zhen, Xu Cao, Lynda F Bonewald, Weiyang Jin, Lance C Kam, X Edward Guo
The vast osteocytic network is believed to orchestrate bone metabolic activity in response to mechanical stimuli through production of sclerostin, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin (OPG). However, the mechanisms of osteocyte mechanotransduction remain poorly understood. We've previously shown that osteocyte mechanosensitivity is encoded through unique intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) dynamics. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Ca2+ and actin dynamics in single cells exposed to fluid shear flow, we detected actin network contractions immediately upon onset of flow-induced Ca2+ transients, which were facilitated by smooth muscle myosin and further confirmed in native osteocytes ex vivo...
2018: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568952/whole-exome-sequencing-identifies-novel-candidate-mutations-in-a-chinese-family-with-left-ventricular-noncompaction
#15
Ye Zhou, Zhiyong Qian, Jing Yang, Meng Zhu, Xiaofeng Hou, Yao Wang, Hongping Wu, Jiangang Zou
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy involving numerous genes. To identify novel candidate causal mutations, a whole exome sequencing study was performed on a Chinese LVNC family. Exons of the most prevalent pathogenic genes of LVNC (myosin heavy chain 7 and actin, α‑cardiac muscle 1) were sequenced, although no mutations were identified. Following this, Burrows‑Wheeler Aligner, PICARD and Genome Analysis Toolkit (v.2.8) were used to analyze the exome sequencing data. Non‑silent single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that were identified in patients with LVNC, although not in the healthy individual, were investigated further using SNV prioritization via the integration of genomic data (SPRING) based on P‑values...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555974/successful-knock-in-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-mutation-r723g-into-the-myh7-gene-mimics-hcm-pathology-in-pigs
#16
J Montag, B Petersen, A K Flögel, E Becker, A Lucas-Hahn, G J Cost, C Mühlfeld, T Kraft, H Niemann, B Brenner
Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease. About 30% of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding the ß-myosin heavy chain (MyHC). Hallmarks of HCM are cardiomyocyte disarray and hypertrophy of the left ventricle, the symptoms range from slight arrhythmias to sudden cardiac death or heart failure. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of the diseases' etiology we aimed to generate genome edited pigs with an HCM-mutation. We used TALEN-mediated genome editing and successfully introduced the HCM-point mutation R723G into the MYH7 gene of porcine fibroblasts and subsequently cloned pigs that were heterozygous for the HCM-mutation R723G...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544934/stress-induced-protein-s-glutathionylation-and-phosphorylation-crosstalk-in-cardiac-sarcomeric-proteins-impact-on-heart-function
#17
Nourdine Chakouri, Cyril Reboul, Doria Boulghobra, Adrien Kleindienst, Stéphane Nottin, Sandrine Gayrard, François Roubille, Stefan Matecki, Alain Lacampagne, Olivier Cazorla
BACKGROUND: The interplay between oxidative stress and other signaling pathways in the contractile machinery regulation during cardiac stress and its consequences on cardiac function remains poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of the crosstalk between β-adrenergic and redox signaling on post-translational modifications of sarcomeric regulatory proteins, Myosin Binding Protein-C (MyBP-C) and Troponin I (TnI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We mimicked in vitro high level of physiological cardiac stress by forcing rat hearts to produce high levels of oxidized glutathione...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543918/chlamydia-trachomatis-inclusion-membrane-protein-mrca-interacts-with-the-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptor-type-3-itpr3-to-regulate-extrusion-formation
#18
Phu Hai Nguyen, Erika I Lutter, Ted Hackstadt
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion. At the end of their intracellular developmental cycle, chlamydiae are released either by lysis of the host cell or extrusion of the intact inclusion. The inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted inclusion membrane proteins, Incs, which contribute to inclusion membrane structure and facilitate host-pathogen interactions. An interaction was identified between the inclusion membrane protein, MrcA, and the Ca2+ channel inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 (ITPR3)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542272/pathways-of-airway-oxidant-formation-by-house-dust-mite-allergens-and-viral-rna-converge-through-myosin-motors-pannexons-and-toll-like-receptor-4
#19
Jihui Zhang, Jie Chen, Shannon C Mangat, Chathuri Perera Baruhupolage, David R Garrod, Clive Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Intracellular reactive oxidant species (ROS) are generated in human airway epithelial cells by the prothrombinase action of Group 1 house dust mite (HDM) allergens and by ligation of viral RNA sensor Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We explored signaling convergence between HDM allergens and TLRs in ROS generation because epithelial cells form the primary barrier against inhaled substances and dictate host responses to allergens and viruses. METHODS: ROS formation by Calu-3 human airway cells was studied by measuring dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidation after activation by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (to activate TLR3), CL097 (to activate TLR7), a natural mixture of HDM allergens, or BzATP...
March 15, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527830/muscle-phenotype-is-related-to-motor-unit-behavior-of-the-vastus-lateralis-during-maximal-isometric-contractions
#20
Ryan J Colquhoun, Mitchel A Magrini, Cody T Haun, Tyler W D Muddle, Patrick M Tomko, Micheal J Luera, Cameron S Mackey, Christopher G Vann, Jeffrey S Martin, Kaelin C Young, Jason M DeFreitas, Michael D Roberts, Nathaniel D M Jenkins
Previous investigations have reported a relationship between skeletal muscle phenotype and motor unit (MU) firing parameters during submaximal contractions. The purpose of the current investigation, however, was to examine the relationships between motor unit firing behavior during a maximal voluntary contraction, Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) isoform content, and various molecular neuromuscular targets of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in resistance-trained men. Ten resistance-trained males completed a trapezoidal ramp contraction up to 100% of their maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
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