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Roopa Mehta, Rafael Zubiran, Alexandro Martagon, Alejandra Vazquez-Cardenas, Yayoi Segura-Kato, Maria Teresa Tusie-Luna, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas
The burden caused by familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) varies among countries and ethnic groups. The prevalence and characteristics of FH in Latin American (LA) countries is largely unknown. We present a systematic review (following the PRISMA statement) of FH in LA countries. The epidemiology, genetics, screening, management and unique challenges encountered in these countries are discussed. Published reports discussing FH in Hispanic or LA groups was considered for analysis. Thirty studies were included representing 10 countries...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Yanlin Wu, Romain Prulho, Marcello Brigante, Wenbo Dong, Khalil Hanna, Gilles Mailhot
In this study, the activation of persulfate induced by Fe(III) species, including 5 kinds of iron oxhydroxides (IOs) and dissolved Fe(3+) under dark condition were investigated. Ferrihydrite (FH) and akaganeite (AK) showed the highest activity in 4-tert-butylphenol (4tBP) removal. The 4tBP degradation rate constant decreased as the solution pH increased from pH 3.2 to 7.8 in FH/S2O8(2-) system. However, the pH value had no significant effect on the 4tBP degradation in AK/S2O8(2-) system. The degradation of 4tBP in Fe(3+)/S2O8(2-) system was also performed to investigate the role of ferric species in persulfate activation...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Felix Lankester, Ahmed Lugelo, Dirk Werling, Nicholas Mnyambwa, Julius Keyyu, Rudovick Kazwala, Dawn Grant, Sarah Smith, Nevi Parameswaran, Sarah Cleaveland, George Russell, David Haig
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal disease of cattle that, in East Africa, follows contact with wildebeest excreting alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1). Recently an attenuated vaccine (atAlHV-1) was tested under experimental challenge on Friesian-Holstein (FH) cattle and gave a vaccine efficacy (VE) of approximately 90%. However testing under field conditions on an East African breed, the shorthorn zebu cross (SZC), gave a VE of 56% suggesting that FH and SZC cattle may respond differently to the vaccine...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
L Baila-Rueda, A Cenarro, I Lamiquiz-Moneo, R Mateo-Gallego, A M Bea-Sanz, S Perez-Calahorra, V Marco-Benedi, F Civeira
Some oxysterols are precursors of bile acid synthesis and play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. However, if they are involved in the pathogeny of genetic hypercholesterolemia has not been previously explored. We have studied non-cholesterol sterol markers of cholesterol synthesis (lanosterol and desmosterol) and oxysterols (7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 24S-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol) in 200 affected subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, negative for mutations in LDLR, APOB, PCSK9 and APOE genes (non-FH GH) and 100 normolipemic controls...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
A D Wibawa, N Verdonschot, J P K Halbertsma, J G M Burgerhof, R L Diercks, G J Verkerke
This study focused on comparing muscle activities predicted by the Musculoskeletal Modeling System with EMG from ten healthy subjects who performed normal walking, one-legged forward hopping and side jumping. Eight EMG electrodes measured the activity of eight right leg muscles. Specific thresholds per muscle were applied on the EMG prior comparison. These thresholds were determined by equalizing the duration of EMG to AMS muscle activity. Three graph variables, number of onsets, offsets and hills were used to quantify the level of agreement by using Cohen׳s kappa analysis...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Viktória E Varga, Hajnalka Lőrincz, Noémi Zsíros, Péter Fülöp, Ildikó Seres, György Paragh, József Balla, Mariann Harangi
BACKGROUND: Selective low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is commonly used to treat patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Chemerin is an adipokine with putative roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism. METHODS: In our pilot study, we measured serum chemerin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in six severe heterozygous FH patients before and after their first LDL apheresis treatments using the technique of direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI)...
October 18, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Juan D Gispert, Karine Fauria, José Luis Molinuevo, Nina Gramunt
INTRODUCTION: Repetitive administration of neuropsychological tests can lead to performance improvement merely due to previous exposure. The magnitude of such practice effects (PEs) may be used as a marker of subtle cognitive impairment because they are diminished in healthy individuals subsequently developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: To explore the relationship between sociodemographic factors, AD family history (FH), and APOE ε4 status, and the magnitude of PE, four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV were administered twice to 400 middle-aged healthy individuals, most of them first-degree descendants of AD patients...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Nadeesha H Koralegedara, Souhail R Al-Abed, Sanjeewa K Rodrigo, Ranju R Karna, Kirk G Scheckel, Dionysios D Dionysiou
This is the first study to evaluate the potential application of FGDG as an in situ Pb stabilizer in contaminated soils with two different compositions and to explain the underlying mechanisms. A smelter Pb contaminated soil (SM-soil), rich in ferrihydrite bound Pb (FH-Pb), cerussite and litharge with a total Pb content of 65,123mg/kg and an organic matter rich orchard soil (BO-soil), rich in FH-Pb and humic acid bound Pb with a total Pb content of 1532mg/kg were amended with 5% FGDG (w/w). We subjected the two soils to three leaching tests; toxicity characteristic leaching protocol (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching protocol (SPLP), kinetic batch leaching test (KBLT) and in-vitro bioaccessibility assay (IVBA) in order to evaluate the FGDG amendment on Pb stabilization...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Georgios Daniil, Fabio L Fernandes-Rosa, Jean Chemin, Iulia Blesneac, Jacques Beltrand, Michel Polak, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Sheerazed Boulkroun, Laurence Amar, Tim M Strom, Philippe Lory, Maria-Christina Zennaro
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Mutations in KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3 and CACNA1D are found in aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and familial hyperaldosteronism (FH). A recurrent mutation in CACNA1H (coding for Cav3.2) was identified in a familial form of early onset PA. Here we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in patients with different types of PA to identify new susceptibility genes. Four different heterozygous germline CACNA1H variants were identified. A de novo Cav3...
October 4, 2016: EBioMedicine
Qinglin Zhang, Zhi Liang, Yongxiang Gao, Maikun Teng, Liwen Niu
It has been reported that tumor growth and proliferation correspond to mitochondrial dysfunction and that the tumor cellular microenvironment plays a key role in tumor progression, representing an area that might be manipulated to confer therapeutic anti-tumor benefits. In this article, we have identified mitochondrial genes, largely nuclear-encoded genes, which are differentially expressed in breast cancer epithelial and stromal cells compared to cells from normal breast tissues. We determined that gene expression of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain complex I and IV and ATP synthesis were reduced in both in epithelial and stromal cancer cells compared to normal breast cells...
October 6, 2016: Gene
Felipe R Blasco, David J McKenzie, Edwin W Taylor, F Tadeu Rantin
Clarias gariepinus is a facultative air-breathing catfish that exhibits changes in heart rate (ƒH) associated with air-breaths (AB). A transient bradycardia prior to the AB is followed by sustained tachycardia during breath-hold. This study evaluated air-breathing and cardiac responses to sustained aerobic exercise in juveniles (total length ~20 cm), and how exercise influenced variations in fH associated with AB. In particular, it investigated the role of adrenergic and cholinergic control in cardiac responses, and effects of pharmacological abolition of this control on air-breathing responses...
October 5, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Dineke Westra, Elena B Volokhina, Renate G van der Molen, Thea J A M van der Velden, Annelies Jeronimus-Klaasen, Joop Goertz, Valentina Gracchi, Eiske M Dorresteijn, Antonia H M Bouts, Mandy G Keijzer-Veen, Joanna A E van Wijk, Jaap A Bakker, Anja Roos, Lambert P van den Heuvel, Nicole C A J van de Kar
BACKGROUND: The role of complement in the atypical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) has been investigated extensively in recent years. As the HUS-associated bacteria Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can evade the complement system, we hypothesized that complement dysregulation is also important in infection-induced HUS. METHODS: Serological profiles (C3, FH, FI, AP activity, C3d, C3bBbP, C3b/c, TCC, αFH) and genetic profiles (CFH, CFI, CD46, CFB, C3) of the alternative complement pathway were prospectively determined in the acute and convalescent phase of disease in children newly diagnosed with STEC-HUS or aHUS...
October 7, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Ying-Bei Chen, Jianing Xu, Anders Jacobsen Skanderup, Yiyu Dong, A Rose Brannon, Lu Wang, Helen H Won, Patricia I Wang, Gouri J Nanjangud, Achim A Jungbluth, Wei Li, Virginia Ojeda, A Ari Hakimi, Martin H Voss, Nikolaus Schultz, Robert J Motzer, Paul Russo, Emily H Cheng, Filippo G Giancotti, William Lee, Michael F Berger, Satish K Tickoo, Victor E Reuter, James J Hsieh
Renal cell carcinomas with unclassified histology (uRCC) constitute a significant portion of aggressive non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas that have no standard therapy. The oncogenic drivers in these tumours are unknown. Here we perform a molecular analysis of 62 high-grade primary uRCC, incorporating targeted cancer gene sequencing, RNA sequencing, single-nucleotide polymorphism array, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays. We identify recurrent somatic mutations in 29 genes, including NF2 (18%), SETD2 (18%), BAP1 (13%), KMT2C (10%) and MTOR (8%)...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
L Bonanni, A Cutolo, M Dalla Vestra
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal disorder characterized by increased levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.The extent of underdiagnosis and undertreatment of individuals with FH is largely unknown.The LDL-lowering capacity of statins in combination with other lipid-lowering drugs is maximally around 50-60%. FH patients have a strongly elevated LDL-C and in most cases maximal current treatment is not sufficient to reach the desired LDL targets.Therefore, FH patients have a large residual cardiovascular risk despite the use of statins and there is a medical need for new additional drugs to further lower LDL-C in patients with FH to improve their prognosis...
October 6, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Bernard Silvi, Henryk Ratajczak
Delocalization of the electron density in the proton donor fragment has been studied for 21 complexes, A-HB (A = F, Cl; B = Ne, Ar, CO2, N2, FH, ClH, H2O, PH3, NH3, Cl(-), F(-), covering the whole range of hydrogen bond strength. The proton donor and proton acceptor fragments are defined by a minimum variance principle achieved by the ELF partition. It is shown that the variance of the proton donor population as well as the charge transfer between the fragments calculated from the ELF partition is always smaller than that evaluated within the QTAIM framework...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ashley Acheson, Sarah L Lake, Bethany C Bray, Yuanyuan Liang, Charles W Mathias, Stacy R Ryan, Nora E Charles, Donald M Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Problem substance use often begins in adolescence. This vulnerability likely stems, at least partially, from relatively rapid increases in sensation seeking occurring in early to mid-adolescence and more gradual improvements in impulse control occurring through later adolescence. Better understanding how these processes develop in high-risk youth may lead to enhanced substance use disorder treatment and prevention strategies. METHODS: We characterized trajectories of self-reported impulsivity and sensation seeking in 305 FH+ youths who at minimum had a father with a history of alcohol or other drug use disorders and 81 youths with no family histories of substance use disorders (FH-)...
October 5, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Leonardo C Mangili, Otavio C Mangili, Márcio S Bittencourt, Márcio H Miname, Paulo H Harada, Leonardo M Lima, Carlos E Rochitte, Raul D Santos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder characterized by elevated blood cholesterol, increased prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis and high risk of premature coronary heart disease. However, this risk is not explained solely by elevated LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and other factors may influence atherosclerosis development. There is evidence that increased adiposity may predispose to atherosclerosis in FH. Epicardial fat has been associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in the general population...
September 9, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Stefanie Horndasch, Sophie O'Keefe, Anneka Lamond, Katie Brown, Ciara McCabe
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown increased anticipatory and consummatory neural responses to rewarding and aversive food stimuli in women recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN). AIMS: To determine whether these differences are trait markers for AN, we examined the neural response in those with a familial history but no personal history of AN. METHOD: Thirty-six volunteers were recruited: 15 who had a sister with anorexia nervosa (family history) and 21 control participants...
July 2016: BJPsych Open
(no author information available yet)
: Retraction: "Response to dual blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 in nonsmall cell lung cancer may be dependent on the EGFR mutational status of the tumor" by Gadgeel SM, Ali S, Philip PA, Ahmed F, Wozniak A, Sarkar FH. The above article, published in Wiley Online Library (, has been retracted by agreement amongst the journal Editor in Chief, Fadlo R. Khuri; Wiley Periodicals, Inc.; and the American Cancer Society following an investigation by Wayne State University into the research activities of the second and last authors...
October 15, 2016: Cancer
(no author information available yet)
: Retraction: "Genistein enhances the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and inhibits nuclear factor kappa B in nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines" by Gadgeel SM, Ali S, Philip PA, Wozniak A, Sarkar FH. The above article, published in Wiley Online Library (, has been retracted by agreement amongst the journal Editor in Chief, Fadlo R. Khuri; Wiley Periodicals, Inc.; and the American Cancer Society following an investigation by Wayne State University into the research activities of the second and last authors...
October 15, 2016: Cancer
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