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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895651/invertebrate-biosecurity-challenges-in-high-productivity-grassland-the-new-zealand-example
#1
REVIEW
Stephen L Goldson, Barbara I P Barratt, Karen F Armstrong
To protect productive grasslands from pests and diseases, effective pre- and at-border planning and interventions are necessary. Biosecurity failure inevitably requires expensive and difficult eradication, or long-term and often quite ineffective management strategies. This is compared to the early intervention more likely for sectors where there is public and political interest in plants of immediate economic and/or social value, and where associated pests are typically located above-ground on host plantings of relatively limited distribution...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889134/neural-adaptive-observer-based-sensor-and-actuator-fault-detection-in-nonlinear-systems-application-in-uav
#2
Alireza Abbaspour, Payam Aboutalebi, Kang K Yen, Arman Sargolzaei
A new online detection strategy is developed to detect faults in sensors and actuators of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems. In this design, the weighting parameters of the Neural Network (NN) are updated by using the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Online adaptation of these weighting parameters helps to detect abrupt, intermittent, and incipient faults accurately. We apply the proposed fault detection system to a nonlinear dynamic model of the WVU YF-22 unmanned aircraft for its evaluation. The simulation results show that the new method has better performance in comparison with conventional recurrent neural network-based fault detection strategies...
November 23, 2016: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869763/crash-risk-prediction-modeling-based-on-the-traffic-conflict-technique-and-a-microscopic-simulation-for-freeway-interchange-merging-areas
#3
Shen Li, Qiaojun Xiang, Yongfeng Ma, Xin Gu, Han Li
This paper evaluates the traffic safety of freeway interchange merging areas based on the traffic conflict technique. The hourly composite risk indexes (HCRI) was defined. By the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photography and video processing techniques, the conflict type and severity was judged. Time to collision (TTC) was determined with the traffic conflict evaluation index. Then, the TTC severity threshold was determined. Quantizing the weight of the conflict by direct losses of different severities of freeway traffic accidents, the calculated weight of the HCRI can be obtained...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861967/drone-transportation-of-blood-products
#4
Timothy Amukele, Paul M Ness, Aaron A R Tobian, Joan Boyd, Jeff Street
BACKGROUND: Small civilian unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) are a novel way to transport small goods. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies examining the impact of drone transport on blood products, describing approaches to maintaining temperature control, or component physical characteristics during drone transport. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Six leukoreduced red blood cell (RBC) and six apheresis platelet (PLT) units were split using sterile techniques...
November 11, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854267/development-of-cloud-based-uav-monitoring-and-management-system
#5
Mason Itkin, Mihui Kim, Younghee Park
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques...
November 15, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835670/robust-satisficing-decision-making-for-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-complex-missions-under-severe-uncertainty
#6
Xiaoting Ji, Yifeng Niu, Lincheng Shen
This paper presents a robust satisficing decision-making method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) executing complex missions in an uncertain environment. Motivated by the info-gap decision theory, we formulate this problem as a novel robust satisficing optimization problem, of which the objective is to maximize the robustness while satisfying some desired mission requirements. Specifically, a new info-gap based Markov Decision Process (IMDP) is constructed to abstract the uncertain UAV system and specify the complex mission requirements with the Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827991/epipolar-rectification-with-minimum-perspective-distortion-for-oblique-images
#7
Jianchen Liu, Bingxuan Guo, Wanshou Jiang, Weishu Gong, Xiongwu Xiao
Epipolar rectification is of great importance for 3D modeling by using UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) images; however, the existing methods seldom consider the perspective distortion relative to surface planes. Therefore, an algorithm for the rectification of oblique images is proposed and implemented in detail. The basic principle is to minimize the rectified images' perspective distortion relative to the reference planes. First, this minimization problem is formulated as a cost function that is constructed by the tangent value of angle deformation; second, it provides a great deal of flexibility on using different reference planes, such as roofs and the façades of buildings, to generate rectified images...
November 7, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827883/towards-autonomous-modular-uav-missions-the-detection-geo-location-and-landing-paradigm
#8
Sarantis Kyristsis, Angelos Antonopoulos, Theofilos Chanialakis, Emmanouel Stefanakis, Christos Linardos, Achilles Tripolitsiotis, Panagiotis Partsinevelos
Nowadays, various unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications become increasingly demanding since they require real-time, autonomous and intelligent functions. Towards this end, in the present study, a fully autonomous UAV scenario is implemented, including the tasks of area scanning, target recognition, geo-location, monitoring, following and finally landing on a high speed moving platform. The underlying methodology includes AprilTag target identification through Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) parallelized processing, image processing and several optimized locations and approach algorithms employing gimbal movement, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) readings and UAV navigation...
November 3, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809293/an-analysis-of-the-influence-of-flight-parameters-in-the-generation-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-uav-orthomosaicks-to-survey-archaeological-areas
#9
Francisco-Javier Mesas-Carrascosa, María Dolores Notario García, Jose Emilio Meroño de Larriva, Alfonso García-Ferrer
This article describes the configuration and technical specifications of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a red-green-blue (RGB) sensor for the acquisition of images needed for the production of orthomosaics to be used in archaeological applications. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: flight altitudes at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 m above ground level; two forward and side overlap settings (80%-50% and 70%-40%); and the use, or lack thereof, of ground control points. These settings were chosen to analyze their influence on the spatial quality of orthomosaicked images processed by Inpho UASMaster (Trimble, CA, USA)...
November 1, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801798/an-optical-fiber-sensor-and-its-application-in-uavs-for-current-measurements
#10
Felipe S Delgado, João P Carvalho, Thiago V N Coelho, Alexandre B Dos Santos
In this paper, we propose and experimentally investigate an optical sensor based on a novel combination of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) with a permanent magnet to measure electrical current in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The proposed device uses a neodymium magnet attached to the grating structure, which suffers from an electromagnetic force produced when the current flows in the wire of the UAV engine. Therefore, it causes deformation on the sensor and thus, different shifts occur in the resonant bands of the transmission spectrum of the LPFG...
October 27, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792156/a-camera-based-target-detection-and-positioning-uav-system-for-search-and-rescue-sar-purposes
#11
Jingxuan Sun, Boyang Li, Yifan Jiang, Chih-Yung Wen
Wilderness search and rescue entails performing a wide-range of work in complex environments and large regions. Given the concerns inherent in large regions due to limited rescue distribution, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based frameworks are a promising platform for providing aerial imaging. In recent years, technological advances in areas such as micro-technology, sensors and navigation have influenced the various applications of UAVs. In this study, an all-in-one camera-based target detection and positioning system is developed and integrated into a fully autonomous fixed-wing UAV...
October 25, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754369/development-and-testing-of-a-two-uav-communication-relay-system
#12
Boyang Li, Yifan Jiang, Jingxuan Sun, Lingfeng Cai, Chih-Yung Wen
In the development of beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems, communication between the UAVs and the ground control station (GCS) is of critical importance. The commonly used economical wireless modules are restricted by the short communication range and are easily blocked by obstacles. The use of a communication relay system provides a practical way to solve these problems, improving the performance of UAV communication in BLOS and cross-obstacle operations. In this study, a communication relay system, in which a quadrotor was used to relay radio communication for another quadrotor was developed and tested...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744213/temporal-variation-of-dose-rate-distribution-around-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-station-using-unmanned-helicopter
#13
Yukihisa Sanada, Tadashi Orita, Tatsuo Torii
Aerial radiological survey using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was applied to measurement surface contamination around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS). An unmanned helicopter monitoring system (UHMS) was developed to survey the environmental effect of radioactive cesium scattered as a result of the FDNPS accident. The UHMS was used to monitor the area surrounding the FDNPS six times from 2012 to 2015. Quantitative changes in the radioactivity distribution trend were revealed from the results of these monitoring runs...
October 3, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729058/unmanned-aerial-vehicles-drones-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#14
A Claesson, D Fredman, L Svensson, M Ringh, J Hollenberg, P Nordberg, M Rosenqvist, T Djarv, S Österberg, J Lennartsson, Y Ban
BACKGROUND: The use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) prior to EMS arrival can increase 30-day survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) significantly. Drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can fly with high velocity and potentially transport devices such as AEDs to the site of OHCAs. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate the feasibility of a drone system in decreasing response time and delivering an AED. METHODS: Data of Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates from historical OHCA in Stockholm County was used in a model using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to find suitable placements and visualize response times for the use of an AED equipped drone...
October 12, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702889/black-carbon-solar-absorption-suppresses-turbulence-in-the-atmospheric-boundary-layer
#15
Eric M Wilcox, Rick M Thomas, Puppala S Praveen, Kristina Pistone, Frida A-M Bender, Veerabhadran Ramanathan
The introduction of cloud condensation nuclei and radiative heating by sunlight-absorbing aerosols can modify the thickness and coverage of low clouds, yielding significant radiative forcing of climate. The magnitude and sign of changes in cloud coverage and depth in response to changing aerosols are impacted by turbulent dynamics of the cloudy atmosphere, but integrated measurements of aerosol solar absorption and turbulent fluxes have not been reported thus far. Here we report such integrated measurements made from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the CARDEX (Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Dynamics Experiment) investigation conducted over the northern Indian Ocean...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672518/small-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-micro-uavs-drones-in-plant-ecology
#16
Mitchell B Cruzan, Ben G Weinstein, Monica R Grasty, Brendan F Kohrn, Elizabeth C Hendrickson, Tina M Arredondo, Pamela G Thompson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro-unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. METHODS: Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM)...
September 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666922/adaptive-vision-based-control-of-an-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-without-linear-velocity-measurements
#17
Hamed Jabbari Asl, Jungwon Yoon
In this paper, an image-based visual servo controller is designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle. The main objective is to use flow of image features as the velocity cue to compensate for the low quality of linear velocity information obtained from accelerometers. Nonlinear observers are designed to estimate this flow. The proposed controller is bounded, which can help to keep the target points in the field of view of the camera. The main advantages over the previous full dynamic observer-based methods are that, the controller is robust with respect to unknown image depth, and also no yaw information is required...
September 22, 2016: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665143/extended-observer-based-on-adaptive-second-order-sliding-mode-control-for-a-fixed-wing-uav
#18
Herman Castañeda, Oscar S Salas-Peña, Jesús de León-Morales
This paper addresses the design of attitude and airspeed controllers for a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle. An adaptive second order sliding mode control is proposed for improving performance under different operating conditions and is robust in presence of external disturbances. Moreover, this control does not require the knowledge of disturbance bounds and avoids overestimation of the control gains. Furthermore, in order to implement this controller, an extended observer is designed to estimate unmeasurable states as well as external disturbances...
September 22, 2016: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642549/ros-based-ground-stereo-vision-detection-implementation-and-experiments
#19
Tianjiang Hu, Boxin Zhao, Dengqing Tang, Daibing Zhang, Weiwei Kong, Lincheng Shen
This article concentrates on open-source implementation on flying object detection in cluttered scenes. It is of significance for ground stereo-aided autonomous landing of unmanned aerial vehicles. The ground stereo vision guidance system is presented with details on system architecture and workflow. The Chan-Vese detection algorithm is further considered and implemented in the robot operating systems (ROS) environment. A data-driven interactive scheme is developed to collect datasets for parameter tuning and performance evaluating...
2016: Robotics and Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633199/a-meta-analysis-of-human-system-interfaces-in-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-uav-swarm-management
#20
REVIEW
Amy Hocraffer, Chang S Nam
A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the current state of research on human-system interfaces for users controlling semi-autonomous swarms composed of groups of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV swarms pose several human factors challenges, such as high cognitive demands, non-intuitive behavior, and serious consequences for errors. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 27 UAV swarm management papers focused on the human-system interface and human factors concerns, providing an overview of the advantages, challenges, and limitations of current UAV management interfaces, as well as information on how these interfaces are currently evaluated...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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