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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889134/neural-adaptive-observer-based-sensor-and-actuator-fault-detection-in-nonlinear-systems-application-in-uav
#1
Alireza Abbaspour, Payam Aboutalebi, Kang K Yen, Arman Sargolzaei
A new online detection strategy is developed to detect faults in sensors and actuators of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems. In this design, the weighting parameters of the Neural Network (NN) are updated by using the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Online adaptation of these weighting parameters helps to detect abrupt, intermittent, and incipient faults accurately. We apply the proposed fault detection system to a nonlinear dynamic model of the WVU YF-22 unmanned aircraft for its evaluation. The simulation results show that the new method has better performance in comparison with conventional recurrent neural network-based fault detection strategies...
November 23, 2016: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861967/drone-transportation-of-blood-products
#2
Timothy Amukele, Paul M Ness, Aaron A R Tobian, Joan Boyd, Jeff Street
BACKGROUND: Small civilian unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) are a novel way to transport small goods. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies examining the impact of drone transport on blood products, describing approaches to maintaining temperature control, or component physical characteristics during drone transport. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Six leukoreduced red blood cell (RBC) and six apheresis platelet (PLT) units were split using sterile techniques...
November 11, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854267/development-of-cloud-based-uav-monitoring-and-management-system
#3
Mason Itkin, Mihui Kim, Younghee Park
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques...
November 15, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835670/robust-satisficing-decision-making-for-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-complex-missions-under-severe-uncertainty
#4
Xiaoting Ji, Yifeng Niu, Lincheng Shen
This paper presents a robust satisficing decision-making method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) executing complex missions in an uncertain environment. Motivated by the info-gap decision theory, we formulate this problem as a novel robust satisficing optimization problem, of which the objective is to maximize the robustness while satisfying some desired mission requirements. Specifically, a new info-gap based Markov Decision Process (IMDP) is constructed to abstract the uncertain UAV system and specify the complex mission requirements with the Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827883/towards-autonomous-modular-uav-missions-the-detection-geo-location-and-landing-paradigm
#5
Sarantis Kyristsis, Angelos Antonopoulos, Theofilos Chanialakis, Emmanouel Stefanakis, Christos Linardos, Achilles Tripolitsiotis, Panagiotis Partsinevelos
Nowadays, various unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications become increasingly demanding since they require real-time, autonomous and intelligent functions. Towards this end, in the present study, a fully autonomous UAV scenario is implemented, including the tasks of area scanning, target recognition, geo-location, monitoring, following and finally landing on a high speed moving platform. The underlying methodology includes AprilTag target identification through Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) parallelized processing, image processing and several optimized locations and approach algorithms employing gimbal movement, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) readings and UAV navigation...
November 3, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792156/a-camera-based-target-detection-and-positioning-uav-system-for-search-and-rescue-sar-purposes
#6
Jingxuan Sun, Boyang Li, Yifan Jiang, Chih-Yung Wen
Wilderness search and rescue entails performing a wide-range of work in complex environments and large regions. Given the concerns inherent in large regions due to limited rescue distribution, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based frameworks are a promising platform for providing aerial imaging. In recent years, technological advances in areas such as micro-technology, sensors and navigation have influenced the various applications of UAVs. In this study, an all-in-one camera-based target detection and positioning system is developed and integrated into a fully autonomous fixed-wing UAV...
October 25, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754369/development-and-testing-of-a-two-uav-communication-relay-system
#7
Boyang Li, Yifan Jiang, Jingxuan Sun, Lingfeng Cai, Chih-Yung Wen
In the development of beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems, communication between the UAVs and the ground control station (GCS) is of critical importance. The commonly used economical wireless modules are restricted by the short communication range and are easily blocked by obstacles. The use of a communication relay system provides a practical way to solve these problems, improving the performance of UAV communication in BLOS and cross-obstacle operations. In this study, a communication relay system, in which a quadrotor was used to relay radio communication for another quadrotor was developed and tested...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744213/temporal-variation-of-dose-rate-distribution-around-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-station-using-unmanned-helicopter
#8
Yukihisa Sanada, Tadashi Orita, Tatsuo Torii
Aerial radiological survey using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was applied to measurement surface contamination around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS). An unmanned helicopter monitoring system (UHMS) was developed to survey the environmental effect of radioactive cesium scattered as a result of the FDNPS accident. The UHMS was used to monitor the area surrounding the FDNPS six times from 2012 to 2015. Quantitative changes in the radioactivity distribution trend were revealed from the results of these monitoring runs...
October 3, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729058/unmanned-aerial-vehicles-drones-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#9
A Claesson, D Fredman, L Svensson, M Ringh, J Hollenberg, P Nordberg, M Rosenqvist, T Djarv, S Österberg, J Lennartsson, Y Ban
BACKGROUND: The use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) prior to EMS arrival can increase 30-day survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) significantly. Drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can fly with high velocity and potentially transport devices such as AEDs to the site of OHCAs. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate the feasibility of a drone system in decreasing response time and delivering an AED. METHODS: Data of Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates from historical OHCA in Stockholm County was used in a model using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to find suitable placements and visualize response times for the use of an AED equipped drone...
October 12, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642549/ros-based-ground-stereo-vision-detection-implementation-and-experiments
#10
Tianjiang Hu, Boxin Zhao, Dengqing Tang, Daibing Zhang, Weiwei Kong, Lincheng Shen
This article concentrates on open-source implementation on flying object detection in cluttered scenes. It is of significance for ground stereo-aided autonomous landing of unmanned aerial vehicles. The ground stereo vision guidance system is presented with details on system architecture and workflow. The Chan-Vese detection algorithm is further considered and implemented in the robot operating systems (ROS) environment. A data-driven interactive scheme is developed to collect datasets for parameter tuning and performance evaluating...
2016: Robotics and Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633199/a-meta-analysis-of-human-system-interfaces-in-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-uav-swarm-management
#11
REVIEW
Amy Hocraffer, Chang S Nam
A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the current state of research on human-system interfaces for users controlling semi-autonomous swarms composed of groups of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV swarms pose several human factors challenges, such as high cognitive demands, non-intuitive behavior, and serious consequences for errors. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 27 UAV swarm management papers focused on the human-system interface and human factors concerns, providing an overview of the advantages, challenges, and limitations of current UAV management interfaces, as well as information on how these interfaces are currently evaluated...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607298/design-of-a-holographic-tracking-module-for-long-range-retroreflector-free-space-systems
#12
C Quintana, G Erry, A Gomez, Y Thueux, G E Faulkner, D C O'Brien
Weight reduction and low power consumption are key requirements in the next generation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). To communicate with an operator, a secured link between the UAV and a ground-based station is desirable. To realize these links, retroreflecting free-space optics is potentially attractive as it offers light weight and low complexity at the UAV. However, the base station requires a high-performance tracking module to enable a steady illumination of the UAV retroreflector. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a tracking system, which consists of coarse tracking and holographic fine tracking modules working cooperatively...
September 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548174/airborne-optical-and-thermal-remote-sensing-for-wildfire-detection-and-monitoring
#13
REVIEW
Robert S Allison, Joshua M Johnston, Gregory Craig, Sion Jennings
For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528784/fine-scale-flight-strategies-of-gulls-in-urban-airflows-indicate-risk-and-reward-in-city-living
#14
Emily L C Shepard, Cara Williamson, Shane P Windsor
Birds modulate their flight paths in relation to regional and global airflows in order to reduce their travel costs. Birds should also respond to fine-scale airflows, although the incidence and value of this remains largely unknown. We resolved the three-dimensional trajectories of gulls flying along a built-up coastline, and used computational fluid dynamic models to examine how gulls reacted to airflows around buildings. Birds systematically altered their flight trajectories with wind conditions to exploit updraughts over features as small as a row of low-rise buildings...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517934/a-multi-robot-sense-act-approach-to-lead-to-a-proper-acting-in-environmental-incidents
#15
Jesús Conesa-Muñoz, João Valente, Jaime Del Cerro, Antonio Barrientos, Angela Ribeiro
Many environmental incidents affect large areas, often in rough terrain constrained by natural obstacles, which makes intervention difficult. New technologies, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, may help address this issue due to their suitability to reach and easily cover large areas. Thus, unmanned aerial vehicles may be used to inspect the terrain and make a first assessment of the affected areas; however, nowadays they do not have the capability to act. On the other hand, ground vehicles rely on enough power to perform the intervention but exhibit more mobility constraints...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478741/uav-formation-control-design-with-obstacle-avoidance-in-dynamic-three-dimensional-environment
#16
Kai Chang, Yuanqing Xia, Kaoli Huang
This paper considers the artificial potential field method combined with rotational vectors for a general problem of multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems tracking a moving target in dynamic three-dimensional environment. An attractive potential field is generated between the leader and the target. It drives the leader to track the target based on the relative position of them. The other UAVs in the formation are controlled to follow the leader by the attractive control force. The repulsive force affects among the UAVs to avoid collisions and distribute the UAVs evenly on the spherical surface whose center is the leader-UAV...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472222/unmanned-aerial-vehicles-for-high-throughput-phenotyping-and-agronomic-research
#17
Yeyin Shi, J Alex Thomasson, Seth C Murray, N Ace Pugh, William L Rooney, Sanaz Shafian, Nithya Rajan, Gregory Rouze, Cristine L S Morgan, Haly L Neely, Aman Rana, Muthu V Bagavathiannan, James Henrickson, Ezekiel Bowden, John Valasek, Jeff Olsenholler, Michael P Bishop, Ryan Sheridan, Eric B Putman, Sorin Popescu, Travis Burks, Dale Cope, Amir Ibrahim, Billy F McCutchen, David D Baltensperger, Robert V Avant, Misty Vidrine, Chenghai Yang
Advances in automation and data science have led agriculturists to seek real-time, high-quality, high-volume crop data to accelerate crop improvement through breeding and to optimize agronomic practices. Breeders have recently gained massive data-collection capability in genome sequencing of plants. Faster phenotypic trait data collection and analysis relative to genetic data leads to faster and better selections in crop improvement. Furthermore, faster and higher-resolution crop data collection leads to greater capability for scientists and growers to improve precision-agriculture practices on increasingly larger farms; e...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455066/decoration-increases-the-conspicuousness-of-raptor-nests
#18
David Canal, Margarita Mulero-Pázmány, Juan José Negro, Fabrizio Sergio
Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441584/combining-human-computing-and-machine-learning-to-make-sense-of-big-aerial-data-for-disaster-response
#19
Ferda Ofli, Patrick Meier, Muhammad Imran, Carlos Castillo, Devis Tuia, Nicolas Rey, Julien Briant, Pauline Millet, Friedrich Reinhard, Matthew Parkan, Stéphane Joost
Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge...
March 2016: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353230/determining-position-velocity-and-acceleration-of-free-ranging-animals-with-a-low-cost-unmanned-aerial-system
#20
Richard J Harvey, Kyle Roskilly, Chris Buse, Hannah K Evans, Tatjana Y Hubel, Alan M Wilson
Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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