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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461496/online-aerial-terrain-mapping-for-ground-robot-navigation
#1
John Peterson, Haseeb Chaudhry, Karim Abdelatty, John Bird, Kevin Kochersberger
This work presents a collaborative unmanned aerial and ground vehicle system which utilizes the aerial vehicle's overhead view to inform the ground vehicle's path planning in real time. The aerial vehicle acquires imagery which is assembled into a orthomosaic and then classified. These terrain classes are used to estimate relative navigation costs for the ground vehicle so energy-efficient paths may be generated and then executed. The two vehicles are registered in a common coordinate frame using a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) and all image processing is performed onboard the unmanned aerial vehicle, which minimizes the data exchanged between the vehicles...
February 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439496/uav-assisted-dynamic-clustering-of-wireless-sensor-networks-for-crop-health-monitoring
#2
Mohammad Ammad Uddin, Ali Mansour, Denis Le Jeune, Mohammad Ayaz, El-Hadi M Aggoune
In this study, a crop health monitoring system is developed by using state of the art technologies including wireless sensors and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Conventionally data is collected from sensor nodes either by fixed base stations or mobile sinks. Mobile sinks are considered a better choice nowadays due to their improved network coverage and energy utilization. Usually, the mobile sink is used in two ways: either it goes for random walk to find the scattered nodes and collect data, or follows a pre-defined path established by the ground network/clusters...
February 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439447/sensor-oriented-path-planning-for-multiregion-surveillance-with-a-single-lightweight-uav-sar
#3
Jincheng Li, Jie Chen, Pengbo Wang, Chunsheng Li
In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP)...
February 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375801/evaluating-behavioral-responses-of-nesting-lesser-snow-geese-to-unmanned-aircraft-surveys
#4
Andrew Barnas, Robert Newman, Christopher J Felege, Michael P Corcoran, Samuel D Hervey, Tanner J Stechmann, Robert F Rockwell, Susan N Ellis-Felege
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are relatively new technologies gaining popularity among wildlife biologists. As with any new tool in wildlife science, operating protocols must be developed through rigorous protocol testing. Few studies have been conducted that quantify the impacts UAS may have on unhabituated individuals in the wild using standard aerial survey protocols. We evaluated impacts of unmanned surveys by measuring UAS-induced behavioral responses during the nesting phase of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) in Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370203/modelling-multi-rotor-uavs-swarm-deployment-using-virtual-pheromones
#5
Fidel Aznar, Mar Pujol, Ramón Rizo, Carlos Rizo
In this work, a swarm behaviour for multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) deployment will be presented. The main contribution of this behaviour is the use of a virtual device for quantitative sematectonic stigmergy providing more adaptable behaviours in complex environments. It is a fault tolerant highly robust behaviour that does not require prior information of the area to be covered, or to assume the existence of any kind of information signals (GPS, mobile communication networks …), taking into account the specific features of UAVs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342832/development-of-an-internal-real-time-wireless-diagnostic-tool-for-a-proton-exchange-membrane-fuel-cell
#6
Chi-Yuan Lee, Chia-Hung Chen, Chao-Hsuan Tsai, Yu-Syuan Wang
To prolong the operating time of unmanned aerial vehicles which use proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), the performance of PEMFC is the key. However, a long-term operation can make the Pt particles of the catalyst layer and the pollutants in the feedstock gas bond together (e.g., CO), so that the catalyst loses reaction activity. The performance decay and aging of PEMFC will be influenced by operating conditions, temperature, flow and CO concentration. Therefore, this study proposes the development of an internal real-time wireless diagnostic tool for PEMFC, and uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a wireless and thin (<50 μm) flexible integrated (temperature, flow and CO) microsensor...
January 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329657/the-development-and-trial-of-an-unmanned-aerial-system-for-the-measurement-of-methane-flux-from-landfill-and-greenhouse-gas-emission-hotspots
#7
Grant Allen, Peter Hollingsworth, Khristopher Kabbabe, Joseph R Pitt, Mohammed I Mead, Samuel Illingworth, Gareth Roberts, Mark Bourn, Dudley E Shallcross, Carl J Percival
This paper describes the development of a new sampling and measurement method to infer methane flux using proxy measurements of CO2 concentration and wind data recorded by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The flux method described and trialed here is appropriate to the spatial scale of landfill sites and analogous greenhouse gas emission hotspots, making it an important new method for low-cost and rapid case study quantification of fluxes from currently uncertain (but highly important) greenhouse gas sources...
January 9, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315256/a-novel-attitude-determination-system-aided-by-polarization-sensor
#8
Wei Zhi, Jinkui Chu, Jinshan Li, Yinlong Wang
This paper aims to develop a novel attitude determination system aided by polarization sensor. An improved heading angle function is derived using the perpendicular relationship between directions of E-vector of linearly polarized light and solar vector in the atmospheric polarization distribution model. The Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with quaternion differential equation as a dynamic model is applied to fuse the data from sensors. The covariance functions of filter process and measurement noises are deduced in detail...
January 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301211/3d-indoor-positioning-of-uavs-with-spread-spectrum-ultrasound-and-time-of-flight-cameras
#9
José A Paredes, Fernando J Álvarez, Teodoro Aguilera, José M Villadangos
This work proposes the use of a hybrid acoustic and optical indoor positioning system for the accurate 3D positioning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The acoustic module of this system is based on a Time-Code Division Multiple Access (T-CDMA) scheme, where the sequential emission of five spread spectrum ultrasonic codes is performed to compute the horizontal vehicle position following a 2D multilateration procedure. The optical module is based on a Time-Of-Flight (TOF) camera that provides an initial estimation for the vehicle height...
December 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280984/towards-the-use-of-unmanned-aerial-systems-for-providing-sustainable-services-in-smart-cities
#10
Enrique Moguel, José M Conejero, Fernando Sánchez-Figueroa, Juan Hernández, Juan C Preciado, Roberto Rodríguez-Echeverría
Sustainability is at the heart of many application fields where the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) is becoming more and more important (e.g., agriculture, fire detection and prediction, environmental surveillance, mapping, etc.). However, their usage and evolution are highly conditioned by the specific application field they are designed for, and thus, they cannot be easily reused among different application fields. From this point of view, being that they are not multipurpose, we can say that they are not fully sustainable...
December 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280970/background-registration-based-adaptive-noise-filtering-of-lwir-mwir-imaging-sensors-for-uav-applications
#11
Byeong Hak Kim, Min Young Kim, You Seong Chae
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are equipped with optical systems including an infrared (IR) camera such as electro-optical IR (EO/IR), target acquisition and designation sights (TADS), or forward looking IR (FLIR). However, images obtained from IR cameras are subject to noise such as dead pixels, lines, and fixed pattern noise. Nonuniformity correction (NUC) is a widely employed method to reduce noise in IR images, but it has limitations in removing noise that occurs during operation. Methods have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the NUC method, such as two-point correction (TPC) and scene-based NUC (SBNUC)...
December 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258211/vision-based-target-finding-and-inspection-of-a-ground-target-using-a-multirotor-uav-system
#12
Ajmal Hinas, Jonathan M Roberts, Felipe Gonzalez
In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target...
December 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248790/rewetting-in-mediterranean-reclaimed-peaty-soils-and-its-potential-for-phyto-treatment-use
#13
Vittoria Giannini, Andrea Bertacchi, Enrico Bonari, Nicola Silvestri
A pilot experimental field combining rewetting of reclaimed peaty soils and water phyto-treatment was set up in the Massaciuccoli Lake basin (Tuscany, Italy) to reduce the water eutrophication and peat degradation caused by almost a century of drainage-based agricultural use. In this paper, we investigated the restoration process occurring consequently to the conversion of a drained area in a natural wetland system (NWS) (the partial top soil removal, the realization of a perimeter levee to contain the waters, the rewetting with the drainage waters coming from the of surrounding cultivated areas) and the capability of the spontaneous vegetation to catch nutrients acting as a vegetation filter...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234077/high-capacity-free-space-optical-communications-between-a-ground-transmitter-and-a-ground-receiver-via-a-uav-using-multiplexing-of-multiple-orbital-angular-momentum-beams
#14
Long Li, Runzhou Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Guodong Xie, Peicheng Liao, Kai Pang, Haoqian Song, Cong Liu, Yongxiong Ren, Guillaume Labroille, Pu Jian, Dmitry Starodubov, Brittany Lynn, Robert Bock, Moshe Tur, Alan E Willner
We explore the use of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space data transmission to moving platforms, with an added potential benefit of decreasing the probability of data intercept. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of an OAM-multiplexed, free-space optical (FSO) communications link between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a moving unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV). We achieve a total capacity of 80 Gbit/s up to 100-m-roundtrip link by multiplexing 2 OAM beams, each carrying a 40-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224853/adaptive-sliding-mode-control-for-finite-time-stability-of-quad-rotor-uavs-with-parametric-uncertainties
#15
Omid Mofid, Saleh Mobayen
Adaptive control methods are developed for stability and tracking control of flight systems in the presence of parametric uncertainties. This paper offers a design technique of adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) for finite-time stabilization of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems with parametric uncertainties. Applying the Lyapunov stability concept and finite-time convergence idea, the recommended control method guarantees that the states of the quad-rotor UAV are converged to the origin with a finite-time convergence rate...
December 7, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223818/application-of-airborne-photogrammetry-for-the-visualisation-and-assessment-of-contamination-migration-arising-from-a-fukushima-waste-storage-facility
#16
D T Connor, P G Martin, N T Smith, L Payne, C Hutton, O D Payton, Y Yamashiki, T B Scott
Airborne systems such as lightweight and highly portable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly widespread in both academia and industry - with an ever-increasing range of applications, including (but not limited to), air quality sampling, wildlife monitoring and land-use mapping. In this work, high-resolution airborne photogrammetry obtained using a multi-rotor system operating at low survey altitudes, is combined with ground-based radiation mapping data acquired at an interim storage facility for wastes removed as part of the large-scale Fukushima clean-up program...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186134/an-accurate-and-adaptable-photogrammetric-approach-for-estimating-the-mass-and-body-condition-of-pinnipeds-using-an-unmanned-aerial-system
#17
Douglas J Krause, Jefferson T Hinke, Wayne L Perryman, Michael E Goebel, Donald J LeRoi
Measurements of body size and mass are fundamental to pinniped population management and research. Manual measurements tend to be accurate but are invasive and logistically challenging to obtain. Ground-based photogrammetric techniques are less invasive, but inherent limitations make them impractical for many field applications. The recent proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in wildlife monitoring has provided a promising new platform for the photogrammetry of free-ranging pinnipeds. Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) are an apex predator in coastal Antarctica whose body condition could be a valuable indicator of ecosystem health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185818/teaming-with-a-synthetic-teammate-insights-into-human-autonomy-teaming
#18
Nathan J McNeese, Mustafa Demir, Nancy J Cooke, Christopher Myers
Objective Three different team configurations are compared with the goal of better understanding human-autonomy teaming (HAT). Background Although an extensive literature on human-automation interaction exists, much less is known about HAT in which humans and autonomous agents interact as coordinated units. Further research must be conducted to better understand how all-human teams compare to HAT. Methods In an unmanned aerial system (UAS) context, a comparison was made among three types of three-member teams: (1) synthetic teams in which the pilot role is assigned to a synthetic teammate, (2) control teams in which the pilot was an inexperienced human, and (3) experimenter teams in which an experimenter served as an experienced pilot...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168783/designing-and-testing-a-uav-mapping-system-for-agricultural-field-surveying
#19
Martin Peter Christiansen, Morten Stigaard Laursen, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Søren Skovsen, René Gislum
A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds...
November 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166385/evidence-of-molting-and-the-function-of-rock-nosing-behavior-in-bowhead-whales-in-the-eastern-canadian-arctic
#20
Sarah M E Fortune, William R Koski, Jeff W Higdon, Andrew W Trites, Mark F Baumgartner, Steven H Ferguson
Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) have a nearly circumpolar distribution, and occasionally occupy warmer shallow coastal areas during summertime that may facilitate molting. However, relatively little is known about the occurrence of molting and associated behaviors in bowhead whales. We opportunistically observed whales in Cumberland Sound, Nunavut, Canada with skin irregularities consistent with molting during August 2014, and collected a skin sample from a biopsied whale that revealed loose epidermis and sloughing...
2017: PloS One
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