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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234077/high-capacity-free-space-optical-communications-between-a-ground-transmitter-and-a-ground-receiver-via-a-uav-using-multiplexing-of-multiple-orbital-angular-momentum-beams
#1
Long Li, Runzhou Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Guodong Xie, Peicheng Liao, Kai Pang, Haoqian Song, Cong Liu, Yongxiong Ren, Guillaume Labroille, Pu Jian, Dmitry Starodubov, Brittany Lynn, Robert Bock, Moshe Tur, Alan E Willner
We explore the use of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space data transmission to moving platforms, with an added potential benefit of decreasing the probability of data intercept. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of an OAM-multiplexed, free-space optical (FSO) communications link between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a moving unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV). We achieve a total capacity of 80 Gbit/s up to 100-m-roundtrip link by multiplexing 2 OAM beams, each carrying a 40-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224853/adaptive-sliding-mode-control-for-finite-time-stability-of-quad-rotor-uavs-with-parametric-uncertainties
#2
Omid Mofid, Saleh Mobayen
Adaptive control methods are developed for stability and tracking control of flight systems in the presence of parametric uncertainties. This paper offers a design technique of adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) for finite-time stabilization of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems with parametric uncertainties. Applying the Lyapunov stability concept and finite-time convergence idea, the recommended control method guarantees that the states of the quad-rotor UAV are converged to the origin with a finite-time convergence rate...
December 7, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223818/application-of-airborne-photogrammetry-for-the-visualisation-and-assessment-of-contamination-migration-arising-from-a-fukushima-waste-storage-facility
#3
D T Connor, P G Martin, N T Smith, L Payne, C Hutton, O D Payton, Y Yamashiki, T B Scott
Airborne systems such as lightweight and highly portable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly widespread in both academia and industry - with an ever-increasing range of applications, including (but not limited to), air quality sampling, wildlife monitoring and land-use mapping. In this work, high-resolution airborne photogrammetry obtained using a multi-rotor system operating at low survey altitudes, is combined with ground-based radiation mapping data acquired at an interim storage facility for wastes removed as part of the large-scale Fukushima clean-up program...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186134/an-accurate-and-adaptable-photogrammetric-approach-for-estimating-the-mass-and-body-condition-of-pinnipeds-using-an-unmanned-aerial-system
#4
Douglas J Krause, Jefferson T Hinke, Wayne L Perryman, Michael E Goebel, Donald J LeRoi
Measurements of body size and mass are fundamental to pinniped population management and research. Manual measurements tend to be accurate but are invasive and logistically challenging to obtain. Ground-based photogrammetric techniques are less invasive, but inherent limitations make them impractical for many field applications. The recent proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in wildlife monitoring has provided a promising new platform for the photogrammetry of free-ranging pinnipeds. Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) are an apex predator in coastal Antarctica whose body condition could be a valuable indicator of ecosystem health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185818/teaming-with-a-synthetic-teammate-insights-into-human-autonomy-teaming
#5
Nathan J McNeese, Mustafa Demir, Nancy J Cooke, Christopher Myers
Objective Three different team configurations are compared with the goal of better understanding human-autonomy teaming (HAT). Background Although an extensive literature on human-automation interaction exists, much less is known about HAT in which humans and autonomous agents interact as coordinated units. Further research must be conducted to better understand how all-human teams compare to HAT. Methods In an unmanned aerial system (UAS) context, a comparison was made among three types of three-member teams: (1) synthetic teams in which the pilot role is assigned to a synthetic teammate, (2) control teams in which the pilot was an inexperienced human, and (3) experimenter teams in which an experimenter served as an experienced pilot...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168783/designing-and-testing-a-uav-mapping-system-for-agricultural-field-surveying
#6
Martin Peter Christiansen, Morten Stigaard Laursen, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Søren Skovsen, René Gislum
A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds...
November 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166385/evidence-of-molting-and-the-function-of-rock-nosing-behavior-in-bowhead-whales-in-the-eastern-canadian-arctic
#7
Sarah M E Fortune, William R Koski, Jeff W Higdon, Andrew W Trites, Mark F Baumgartner, Steven H Ferguson
Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) have a nearly circumpolar distribution, and occasionally occupy warmer shallow coastal areas during summertime that may facilitate molting. However, relatively little is known about the occurrence of molting and associated behaviors in bowhead whales. We opportunistically observed whales in Cumberland Sound, Nunavut, Canada with skin irregularities consistent with molting during August 2014, and collected a skin sample from a biopsied whale that revealed loose epidermis and sloughing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137194/integrated-display-and-simulation-for-automatic-dependent-surveillance-broadcast-and-traffic-collision-avoidance-system-data-fusion
#8
Yanran Wang, Gang Xiao, Zhouyun Dai
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is the direction of airspace surveillance development. Research analyzing the benefits of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and ADS-B data fusion is almost absent. The paper proposes an ADS-B minimum system from ADS-B In and ADS-B Out. In ADS-B In, a fusion model with a variable sampling Variational Bayesian-Interacting Multiple Model (VSVB-IMM) algorithm is proposed for integrated display and an airspace traffic situation display is developed by using ADS-B information...
November 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099790/design-of-uav-embedded-microphone-array-system-for-sound-source-localization-in-outdoor-environments
#9
Kotaro Hoshiba, Kai Washizaki, Mizuho Wakabayashi, Takahiro Ishiki, Makoto Kumon, Yoshiaki Bando, Daniel Gabriel, Kazuhiro Nakadai, Hiroshi G Okuno
In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools...
November 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047778/low-cost-dynamic-real-time-foveated-imager
#10
Yajun Niu, Jun Chang, Fengxiang Lv, Benlan Shen, Weilin Chen
Foveated imaging systems have the ability to capture local high-resolution or high-magnification images with wide field of view (FOV); thus, they have great potential for applications in the field of monitoring and remote sensing of unmanned aerial vehicles. Hence, foveated optical systems are in strong demand. However, the existing foveated imaging systems either are equipped with expensive modulators or require fixing the local high resolution imaging field, which is not suitable for mass production or object tracking in industrial applications...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047746/building-texture-acquisition-and-processing-based-on-an-unmanned-airship-low-altitude-aerial-survey-system
#11
Feifei Xie, Zongjian Lin, Guozhong Su
The traditional oblique cameras cannot self-calibrate to complete the three-dimensional (3D) modeling to meet high mapping accuracy requirements. We propose an oblique combined camera system, called a texture camera, aboard an unmanned airship that can simultaneously obtain a single vertical image and four oblique images of an object. The images acquired by this self-calibrating camera system can be used to produce traditional products on a large scale. Additionally, they can be used to accurately determine the orientation elements of each individual camera, which are essential for 3D modeling...
September 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043046/among-tree-variability-and-feedback-effects-result-in-different-growth-responses-to-climate-change-at-the-upper-treeline-in-the-swiss-alps
#12
Matthias Jochner, Harald Bugmann, Magdalena Nötzli, Christof Bigler
Upper treeline ecotones are important life form boundaries and particularly sensitive to a warming climate. Changes in growth conditions at these ecotones have wide-ranging implications for the provision of ecosystem services in densely populated mountain regions like the European Alps. We quantify climate effects on short- and long-term tree growth responses, focusing on among-tree variability and potential feedback effects. Although among-tree variability is thought to be substantial, it has not been considered systematically yet in studies on growth-climate relationships...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039755/comparing-riegl-ricopter-uav-lidar-derived-canopy-height-and-dbh-with-terrestrial-lidar
#13
Benjamin Brede, Alvaro Lau, Harm M Bartholomeus, Lammert Kooistra
In recent years, LIght Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and especially Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) systems have shown the potential to revolutionise forest structural characterisation by providing unprecedented 3D data. However, manned Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) requires costly campaigns and produces relatively low point density, while TLS is labour intense and time demanding. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne laser scanning can be the way in between. In this study, we present first results and experiences with the RIEGL RiCOPTER with VUX ® -1UAV ALS system and compare it with the well tested RIEGL VZ-400 TLS system...
October 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023504/the-potential-of-small-unmanned-aircraft-systems-for-the-rapid-detection-of-threatened-unimproved-grassland-communities-using-an-enhanced-normalized-difference-vegetation-index
#14
Conor J Strong, Niall G Burnside, Dan Llewellyn
The loss of unimproved grassland has led to species decline in a wide range of taxonomic groups. Agricultural intensification has resulted in fragmented patches of remnant grassland habitat both across Europe and internationally. The monitoring of remnant patches of this habitat is critically important, however, traditional surveying of large, remote landscapes is a notoriously costly and difficult task. The emergence of small-Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) equipped with low-cost multi-spectral cameras offer an alternative to traditional grassland survey methods, and have the potential to progress and innovate the monitoring and future conservation of this habitat globally...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961219/a-novel-online-data-driven-algorithm-for-detecting-uav-navigation-sensor-faults
#15
Rui Sun, Qi Cheng, Guanyu Wang, Washington Yotto Ochieng
The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has increased significantly in recent years. On-board integrated navigation sensors are a key component of UAVs' flight control systems and are essential for flight safety. In order to ensure flight safety, timely and effective navigation sensor fault detection capability is required. In this paper, a novel data-driven Adaptive Neuron Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)-based approach is presented for the detection of on-board navigation sensor faults in UAVs. Contrary to the classic UAV sensor fault detection algorithms, based on predefined or modelled faults, the proposed algorithm combines an online data training mechanism with the ANFIS-based decision system...
September 29, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956839/adaptation-of-dubins-paths-for-uav-ground-obstacle-avoidance-when-using-a-low-cost-on-board-gnss-sensor
#16
Ramūnas Kikutis, Jonas Stankūnas, Darius Rudinskas, Tadas Masiulionis
Current research on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) shows a lot of interest in autonomous UAV navigation. This interest is mainly driven by the necessity to meet the rules and restrictions for small UAV flights that are issued by various international and national legal organizations. In order to lower these restrictions, new levels of automation and flight safety must be reached. In this paper, a new method for ground obstacle avoidance derived by using UAV navigation based on the Dubins paths algorithm is presented...
September 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946659/secure-utilization-of-beacons-and-uavs-in-emergency-response-systems-for-building-fire-hazard
#17
Seung-Hyun Seo, Jung-In Choi, Jinseok Song
An intelligent emergency system for hazard monitoring and building evacuation is a very important application area in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Through the use of smart sensors, such a system can provide more vital and reliable information to first-responders and also reduce the incidents of false alarms. Several smart monitoring and warning systems do already exist, though they exhibit key weaknesses such as a limited monitoring coverage and security, which have not yet been sufficiently addressed...
September 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941951/on-decentralized-adaptive-full-order-sliding-mode-control-of-multiple-uavs
#18
Xianbo Xiang, Chao Liu, Housheng Su, Qin Zhang
In this study, a novel decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control framework is proposed for the robust synchronized formation motion of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) subject to system uncertainty. First, a full-order sliding mode surface in a decentralized manner is designed to incorporate both the individual position tracking error and the synchronized formation error while the UAV group is engaged in building a certain desired geometric pattern in three dimensional space. Second, a decentralized virtual plant controller is constructed which allows the embedded low-pass filter to attain the chattering free property of the sliding mode controller...
September 20, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925947/a-dynamic-multi-projection-contour-approximating-framework-for-the-3d-reconstruction-of-buildings-by-super-generalized-optical-stereo-pairs
#19
Yiming Yan, Nan Su, Chunhui Zhao, Liguo Wang
In this paper, a novel framework of the 3D reconstruction of buildings is proposed, focusing on remote sensing super-generalized stereo-pairs (SGSPs). As we all know, 3D reconstruction cannot be well performed using nonstandard stereo pairs, since reliable stereo matching could not be achieved when the image-pairs are collected at a great difference of views, and we always failed to obtain dense 3D points for regions of buildings, and cannot do further 3D shape reconstruction. We defined SGSPs as two or more optical images collected in less constrained views but covering the same buildings...
September 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906428/spatial-scale-gap-filling-using-an-unmanned-aerial-system-a-statistical-downscaling-method-for-applications-in-precision-agriculture
#20
Leila Hassan-Esfahani, Ardeshir M Ebtehaj, Alfonso Torres-Rua, Mac McKee
Applications of satellite-borne observations in precision agriculture (PA) are often limited due to the coarse spatial resolution of satellite imagery. This paper uses high-resolution airborne observations to increase the spatial resolution of satellite data for related applications in PA. A new variational downscaling scheme is presented that uses coincident aerial imagery products from "AggieAir", an unmanned aerial system, to increase the spatial resolution of Landsat satellite data. This approach is primarily tested for downscaling individual band Landsat images that can be used to derive normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and surface soil moisture (SSM)...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
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