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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210245/pcr-inhibition-of-a-quantitative-pcr-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-dna-in-feces-diagnostic-implications-and-potential-solutions
#1
Kamal R Acharya, Navneet K Dhand, Richard J Whittington, Karren M Plain
Molecular tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are increasingly being applied for the diagnosis of Johne's disease, a chronic intestinal infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Feces, as the primary test sample, presents challenges in terms of effective DNA isolation, with potential for PCR inhibition and ultimately for reduced analytical and diagnostic sensitivity. However, limited evidence is available regarding the magnitude and diagnostic implications of PCR inhibition for the detection of MAP in feces...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207595/association-between-anesthesiology-volumes-and-early-and-late-outcomes-after-cystectomy-for-bladder-cancer-a-population-based-study
#2
Melanie T Jaeger, D Robert Siemens, Xuejiao Wei, Paul Peng, Christopher M Booth
BACKGROUND: Hospital and surgeon volume are related to postoperative complications and long-term survival after radical cystectomy. Here, we describe the relationships between these provider characteristics and anesthesiologist volumes on early and late outcomes after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. METHODS: Records of treatment and surgical pathology reports were linked to the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients with radical cystectomy in Ontario during 1994 to 2008...
February 15, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201995/zoonotic-necrotizing-myositis-caused-by-streptococcus-equi-subsp-zooepidemicus-in-a-farmer
#3
Bård Reiakvam Kittang, Veronika Kuchařová Pettersen, Oddvar Oppegaard, Dag Harald Skutlaberg, Håvard Dale, Harald G Wiker, Steinar Skrede
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a beta-hemolytic group C streptococcus mainly causing infections in domesticated animals. Here we describe the first case of zoonotic necrotizing myositis caused by this bacterium. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 73-year-old, previously healthy farmer with two asymptomatic Shetland ponies in his stable. After close contact with the ponies while feeding them, he rapidly developed erythema of his left thigh and sepsis with multiple organ failure...
February 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199442/phylogeographic-history-of-south-american-populations-of-the-silky-anteater-cyclopes-didactylus-pilosa-cyclopedidae
#4
Raphael Teodoro Franciscani Coimbra, Flávia Regina Miranda, Camila Clozato Lara, Marco Antônio Alves Schetino, Fabrício Rodrigues Dos Santos
Cyclopes didactylus, commonly called silky anteater, is the smallest and least studied of the anteaters. It is an arboreal species occurring in rainforests, ranging from southern Mexico to Central and South America, with an apparently disjoint distribution between Amazon and Atlantic rainforests in Brazil. Although seven subspecies are recognized, little is known about its geographical variation. Thus, to evaluate the population dynamics and evolutionary history of the South American silky anteater, we analyzed 1542 bp sequences of the mitochondrial control region (CR), COI and Cyt-b genes of 32 individuals...
February 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197167/vviaprt3-and-vvifsex-two-genes-involved-in-sex-specification-able-to-distinguish-different-flower-types-in-vitis
#5
João L Coito, Miguel J N Ramos, Jorge Cunha, Helena G Silva, Sara Amâncio, Maria M R Costa, Margarida Rocheta
Vitis vinifera vinifera is a hermaphrodite subspecies, while its ancestor, Vitis vinifera sylvestris, is dioecious. We have identified two genes that together allow the discrimination between male, female and hermaphrodite Vitis plants. The sex locus region on chromosome 2 was screened resulting in the discovery of a new gene, VviFSEX. The same screening revealed another gene, VviAPRT3, located in the sex region, that be used as a sex marker. Both genes are good candidates to be involved in flower sex differentiation in grapevine...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194371/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-south-african-wildlife-neglected-pathogens-and-potential-impediments-for-bovine-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#6
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Tiny M Hlokwe
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188830/in-vitro-activity-of-clarithromycin-in-combination-with-other-antimicrobial-agents-against-mycobacterium-abscessus-and-mycobacterium-massiliense
#7
Zhijian Zhang, Jie Lu, Min Liu, Yufeng Wang, Yanlin Zhao, Yu Pang
Macrolides, especially clarithromycin (CLA), remain the cornerstone of therapy for Mycobacterium abscessus complex infections. The purpose of this study was to gather results from in vitro drug susceptibility testing of M. abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense for the combination of CLA with various other agents, including linezolid (LZD), moxifloxacin (MOX), amikacin (AMK) and tigecycline (TGC). A total of 40 M. abscessus complex isolates were studied, comprising 20 M. abscessus and 20 M. massiliense strains...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187649/variation-of-plumage-patterns-geographic-distribution-and-taxonomy-of-the-unicolored-blackbird-aves-icteridae
#8
Leonardo Esteves Lopes
The Unicolored Blackbird Agelasticus cyanopus (Vieillot, 1819) is a marsh bird with four allopatric subspecies restricted to lowlands in South America east of the Andes. I conducted a taxonomic revision of the species based on analysis of external morphological characters of 288 study skins, including all types available. My revision shows that: 1) Leistes unicolor Swainson, 1838, is a senior synonym of A. c. xenicus (Parkes, 1966) and, therefore, the correct name of the taxon should be A. c. unicolor (Swainson, 1838); 2) the range of A...
January 19, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187579/a-revised-key-to-the-lizards-of-iran-reptilia-squamata-lacertilia
#9
Reza Nasrabadi, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Ahmad Gharzi
During recent years several lizard taxa have been added to the faunal list of Iran. Descriptions and new records are scattered in different publications in the herpetological literature. We here present species accounts for 152 species belonging to 43 genera and 10 families up to July 2016. The most diverse family is Lacertidae with 9 genera, 49 species and 2 subspecies, followed by Gekkonidae with 13 genera and 43 species, Agamidae with 5 genera, 18 species and 4 subspecies, Scincidae with 7 genera, 18 species and 2 subspecies, Phyllodactylidae with 1 genus and 10 species, Sphaerodactylidae with 2 genera and 4 species, Varanidae with 1 genus, 3 species and 2 subspecies, Uromastycidae with 2 genera and 3 species, Eublepharidae with 1 genus and 3 species, and Anguidae with 2 genera and 2 species...
February 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187565/a-taxonomic-review-of-the-genus-astrohelix-d%C3%A3-derlein-1930-including-the%C3%A2-synonymy-of-the-subgenus-i-asteroporpa-i-i-astromoana-i-baker-1980-to-i-astrohelix-i
#10
Masanori Okanishi
The holotypes of Astrohelix bellator bellator and Astrohelix bellator paucidens (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Euryalida: Gorgonocephalidae) are redescribed. Based on these observations Asteroporpa (Astromoana) with Astrohelix is proposed. With the elevation of two subspecies of Asteroporpa (Astrohelix) bellator bellator and A. (Astrohelix) bellator paucidens to species level, A. (Astrohelix) comprises six species, A. (Astrohelix) bellator, A. (Astrohelix) indicus, A. (Astrohelix) koyoae, A. (Astrohelix) muricatopatella, A...
February 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187562/type-localities-of-heteroptera-insecta-hemiptera-from-turkey
#11
Ahmet Dursun, Meral Fent
The Heteroptera (Hemiptera) fauna of the Palaearctic Region is represented by 9365 species belonging to 1632 genera of which 1349 species belonging to 469 genera are also recorded from Turkey. Type localities of 237 species are in Turkey of which 108 species and 4 subspecies are endemic for the Heteroptera fauna of Turkey, indicating the importance of the country as a refugium, genetic hotspot and dispersal centre during pleistocene glaciation. Some heteroptera are important in agriculture as predators used in biological control or as ectoparasits and pests on plants...
February 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187542/review-of-the-genus-i-singilis-i-rambur-1837-of-north-africa-and-iberian-peninsula-coleoptera-carabidae-lebiini
#12
Alexander Anichtchenko
The paper deals with the taxonomy of bicolor-group of species of genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 known from North Africa and South Spain. The species S. soror Rambur, 1837 is treated as polytipic and one new combination and new synonymy are proposed: S. soror melillensis Escalera, 1914 comb. n., S. pardoi Mateu, 1954 syn. n. = Singilis soror riffensis Mateu, 1954 syn. n. = S. soror soror Rambur, 1837. A new subspecies from Algeria is described: S. soror oranensis ssp. n. A key to species and subspecies is provided and the taxonomic position of these taxa is discussed...
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187535/a-review-of-previous-studies-on-the-sri-lankan-echinoid-fauna-with-an-updated-species-list
#13
Gayashan M Arachchige, Sevvandi Jayakody, Rich Mooi, Andreas Kroh
A comprehensive review and analysis of the literature on echinoids from Sri Lankan waters were conducted to compile an annotated list that integrates the existing published data with original data from recent research. According to the published literature, 115 echinoid species and one subspecies have been reported from Sri Lanka to date. However, the current study revealed that only 66 echinoid species and one subspecies belonging to 20 families can be verified to occur in Sri Lankan waters. According to the present analysis, 49 species were excluded from the list due to uncertain records (16) or synonymy (33) with other taxa known from the region...
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184991/sulfitobacter-pontiacus-subsp-fungiae-subsp-nov-isolated-from-coral-fungia-seychellensis-from-andaman-sea-and-description-of-sulfitobacter-pontiacus-subsp-pontiacus-subsp-nov
#14
Sherin Zachariah, Prabla Kumari, Subrata K Das
Two closely related aerobic, Gram reaction-negative rod-shaped bacteria (S7-75(T) and S7-80) were isolated from mucus of coral Fungia seychellensis from Andaman Sea, India. Heterotrophic growth on marine agar was observed at 4-35 °C and pH 6.5-10.5; optimum growth occurred at 25-30 °C and pH 7-8. 16 S rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the strains belonged to the genus Sulfitobacter and the two isolates shared more than 99.28% pairwise sequence similarity. DNA-DNA similarity between two isolates S7-75(T) and S7-80 was above 96%...
February 10, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183869/behavioral-and-physiological-traits-of-migrant-and-resident-white-crowned-sparrows-a-common-garden-approach
#15
Marilyn Ramenofsky, Andrew W Campion, Jonathan H Pérez, Jesse S Krause, Zoltán Németh
: To accommodate a migratory life history, migrants express a greater number of physiological and behavioral stages per annum than residents and are thus considered to have higher finite state diversity (FSD). To investigate the physiological mechanisms and constraints associated with migration, direct comparison of two subspecies of White-crowned Sparrow - migrant, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii and resident, Z.l.nuttalli - were made under common garden conditions of photoperiod and housing, as birds progressed from winter through the vernal life history stages...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183833/cytogeography-of-the-subalpine-marsh-marigold-polyploid-complex-caltha-leptosepala-s-l-ranunculaceae
#16
Keir M Wefferling, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Mariana Castro, Daniela Tavares, Sara B Hoot
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Unrecognized variation in ploidy level can lead to an underestimation of species richness and a misleading delineation of geographic range. Caltha leptosepala (Ranunculaceae) comprises a complex of hexaploids (6x), rare nonaploids (9x), and dodecaploids (12x), all with unknown distributions. We delineate the geographic distribution and contact zones of the cytotypes, investigate morphologies of cytotypes and subspecies, and discuss the biogeography and evolutionary history of the polyploid complex...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183423/recurrent-early-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-caused-by-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis
#17
Sumit Som, Tatyana Danilov, John Puskas, Dennis Finkielstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183280/whole-genome-scan-reveals-the-genetic-signature-of-african-ankole-cattle-breed-and-potential-for-higher-quality-beef
#18
Mengistie Taye, Jaemin Kim, Sook Hee Yoon, Wonseok Lee, Olivier Hanotte, Tadelle Dessie, Stephen Kemp, Okeyo Ally Mwai, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Seoae Cho, Sung Jong Oh, Hak-Kyo Lee, Heebal Kim
BACKGROUND: Africa is home to numerous cattle breeds whose diversity has been shaped by subtle combinations of human and natural selection. African Sanga cattle are an intermediate type of cattle resulting from interbreeding between Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Recently, research has asserted the potential of Sanga breeds for commercial beef production with better meat quality as compared to Bos indicus breeds. Here, we identified meat quality related gene regions that are positively selected in Ankole (Sanga) cattle breeds as compared to indicus (Boran, Ogaden, and Kenana) breeds using cross-population (XP-EHH and XP-CLR) statistical methods...
February 9, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182950/pseudogenization-of-the-secreted-effector-gene-ssei-confers-rapid-systemic-dissemination-of-s-typhimurium-st313-within-migratory-dendritic-cells
#19
Sarah E Carden, Gregory T Walker, Jared Honeycutt, Kyler Lugo, Trung Pham, Amanda Jacobson, Donna Bouley, Juliana Idoyaga, Renee M Tsolis, Denise Monack
Genome degradation correlates with host adaptation and systemic disease in Salmonella. Most lineages of the S. enterica subspecies Typhimurium cause gastroenteritis in humans; however, the recently emerged ST313 lineage II pathovar commonly causes systemic bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa. ST313 lineage II displays genome degradation compared to gastroenteritis-associated lineages; yet, the mechanisms and causal genetic differences mediating these infection phenotypes are largely unknown. We find that the ST313 isolate D23580 hyperdisseminates from the gut to systemic sites, such as the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), via CD11b(+) migratory dendritic cells (DCs)...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178181/inside-honeybee-hives-impact-of-natural-propolis-on-the-ectoparasitic-mite-varroa-destructor-and-viruses
#20
Nora Drescher, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Peter Neumann, Orlando Yañez, Sara D Leonhardt
Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera, globally...
February 6, 2017: Insects
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