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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343644/identification-of-genes-required-for-mycobacterium-abscessus-growth-in-vivo-with-a-prominent-role-of-the-esx-4-locus
#1
Laura Laencina, Violaine Dubois, Vincent Le Moigne, Albertus Viljoen, Laleh Majlessi, Justin Pritchard, Audrey Bernut, Laura Piel, Anne-Laure Roux, Jean-Louis Gaillard, Bérengère Lombard, Damarys Loew, Eric J Rubin, Roland Brosch, Laurent Kremer, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Fabienne Girard-Misguich
Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) and an opportunistic human pathogen, is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from pulmonary to skin and soft tissue infections. This intracellular organism can resist the bactericidal defense mechanisms of amoebae and macrophages, an ability that has not been observed in other RGM. M. abscessus can up-regulate several virulence factors during transient infection of amoebae, thereby becoming more virulent in subsequent respiratory infections in mice...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343457/sphingolipid-signaling-in-renal-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Huwiler, Josef Pfeilschifter
Over the last decade, various sphingolipid subspecies have gained increasing attention as important signaling molecules that regulate a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological processes including inflammation and tissue remodeling. These mediators include ceramide, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), the cerebroside glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and the gangliosides GM3 and Gb3. These lipids have been shown to accumulate in various chronic kidney diseases that typically end in renal fibrosis and ultimately renal failure...
January 14, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341315/use-of-quantitative-real-time-pcr-to-determine-viability-of-streptococcus-equi-subspecies-equi-in-respiratory-secretions-from-horses-with-strangles
#3
N Pusterla, C M Leutenegger, S M Barnum, B A Byrne
BACKGROUND: In recent years, molecular approaches have been able to characterise the viability of equine upper respiratory tract pathogens using absolute molecular quantitation as well as detection of transcripts for virulence genes. OBJECTIVES: The objective this study was to investigate molecular surrogates for S. equi subspecies equi (S. equi) viability in biological samples from horses with strangles. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340725/decision-making-in-management-of-the-complex-trauma-patient-changing-the-mindset-of-the-non-trauma-surgeon
#4
Linda Sonesson, Kenneth Boffard, Lars Lundberg, Martin Rydmark, Klas Karlgren
BACKGROUND: European surgeons are frequently subspecialized and trained primarily in elective surgical techniques. As trauma leaders, they may occasionally have to deal with complex polytrauma, advanced management techniques, differing priorities, and the need for multidisciplinary care. There is a lack of expertise, experience, and a low trauma volume, as well as a lack of research, with limited support as to the decision-making and teaching challenges present. We studied what experienced trauma experts describe as the challenges that are specific to the advanced surgical decision-making required, whether civilian, humanitarian, or military...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338687/use-of-easy-measurable-phenotypic-traits-as-a-complementary-approach-to-evaluate-the-population-structure-and-diversity-in-a-high-heterozygous-panel-of-tetraploid-clones-and-cultivars
#5
Martin E Tagliotti, Sofia I Deperi, Maria C Bedogni, Ruofang Zhang, Norma C Manrique Carpintero, Joseph Coombs, David Douches, Marcelo A Huarte
BACKGROUND: Diversity in crops is fundamental for plant breeding efforts. An accurate assessment of genetic diversity, using molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), must be able to reveal the structure of the population under study. A characterization of population structure using easy measurable phenotypic traits could be a preliminary and low-cost approach to elucidate the genetic structure of a population. A potato population of 183 genotypes was evaluated using 4859 high-quality SNPs and 19 phenotypic traits commonly recorded in potato breeding programs...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336327/current-status-of-urological-training-in-europe
#6
Diego M Carrion, Juan Gómez Rivas, Francesco Esperto, Giulio Patruno, Juan L Vasquez
Modern urological training has changed drastically in the past years, due to the global surgical training trends, advances in technology, subspecialization of the field and, working hour regulations for doctors. The lack of a standardized curriculum across Europe, puts in evidence the great difference in the requirements in every country, from the start of the residency, to obtaining the accreditation. We sought to identify problems related to medical, scientific and surgical activity during urological training, and summarize data obtained from surveys realized during the European Urology Residents Education Programme (EUREP) in 2013, and from countries such as Germany, Italy and Spain...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331304/gender-representation-in-urological-subspecialties
#7
Oluwarotimi S Nettey, Joceline S Fuchs, Stephanie J Kielb, Edward M Schaeffer
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between urologic subspecialization, surgeon gender and practice patterns among certifying urologists over the last 13 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic data of certifying and recertifying urologists (2004 to 2015) was obtained from the American Board of Urology (ABU). We investigated gender-specific trends in self-reported practice type (academic practice, private practice), subspecialization, and employment as a full-time versus part-time physician, relative to certification year and cycle...
January 10, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321908/rapid-song-divergence-leads-to-discordance-between-genetic-distance-and-phenotypic-characters-important-in-reproductive-isolation
#8
Emmanuel C Nwankwo, Chryso Th Pallari, Louis Hadjioannou, Andreas Ioannou, Ronald K Mulwa, Alexander N G Kirschel
The criteria for species delimitation in birds have long been debated, and several recent studies have proposed new methods for such delimitation. On one side, there is a large consensus of investigators who believe that the only evidence that can be used to delimit species is molecular phylogenetics, and with increasing numbers of markers to gain better support, whereas on the other, there are investigators adopting alternative approaches based largely on phenotypic differences, including in morphology and communication signals...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318165/orthopaedic-sports-medicine-fellowship-interviews-structure-and-organization-of-the-interview-day
#9
Brett D Haislup, Matthew J Kraeutler, Rishi Baweja, Eric C McCarty, Mary K Mulcahey
Background: Over the past few decades, there has been a trend toward an increasing subspecialization in orthopaedic surgery, with orthopaedic sports medicine being one of the most competitive subspecialties. Information regarding the application and interview process for sports medicine fellowships is currently lacking. Purpose: To survey orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship program directors (PDs) to better define the structure of the sports medicine fellowship interview and to highlight important factors that PDs consider in selecting fellows...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317743/genome-wide-comparisons-reveal-evidence-for-a-species-complex-in-the-black-lip-pearl-oyster-pinctada-margaritifera-bivalvia-pteriidae
#10
Monal M Lal, Paul C Southgate, Dean R Jerry, Kyall R Zenger
Evolutionary relationships in the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera which is highly valued for pearl production remain poorly understood. This species possesses an 18,000 km Indo-Pacific natural distribution, and its current description includes six subspecies defined exclusively on morphological characters. To evaluate its taxonomic identity using molecular data, 14 populations in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans (n = 69), and the congeneric taxa P. maxima and P. mazatlanica (n = 29 and n = 10, respectively) were sampled...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315617/genomic-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-an-atypical-aeromonas-salmonicida-strain-isolated-from-a-lumpfish-and-producing-unusual-granular-structures
#11
F D Rouleau, A T Vincent, S J Charette
Aeromonas salmonicida strains are roughly classified into two categories, typical and atypical strains. The latter mainly regroup isolates that present unusual phenotypes or hosts, comparatively to the typical strains that belong to the salmonicida subspecies. This study focuses on an uncharacterized atypical strain, M18076-11, isolated from lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) and not part of the four recognized Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies. This isolate presents an unreported phenotype in the A. salmonicida species: the formation of large granular aggregates...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314679/molecular-epidemiology-of-trichophyton-quinckeanum-a-zoophilic-dermatophyte-on-the-rise
#12
Silke Uhrlaß, Wieland Schroedl, Carolin Mehlhorn, Constanze Krüger, Vit Hubka, Thomas Maier, Yvonne Gräser, Uwe Paasch, Pietro Nenoff
BACKGROUND: Formerly only referred to as a subspecies (T. mentagrophytes var. quinckeanum), T. quinckeanum once again constitutes a distinct species according to the updated taxonomy of dermatophytes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During routine diagnostic tests conducted at the Mycology Laboratory, Mölbis, Germany, between 11/2013 to 1/2017 (three years and three months), all specimens sent in were examined for T. quinckeanum. Molecular biology methods employed included: 1) DNA hybridization (PCR ELISA), 2) gene sequencing of the ITS region and TEF-1α, and 3) in some cases, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry...
January 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306571/genomic-analyses-of-five-roseivirga-species-insights-into-marine-adaptation
#13
Chitra Selvaratnam, Suganthi Thevarajoo, Kian Mau Goh, Kok-Gan Chan, Chun Shiong Chong
To date, the genus Roseivirga consists of six species with one subspecies and is one of the least-studied genera among the family Flammeovirgaceae. In order to further explore this genus, the genome sequences of five Roseivirga spp. were compared and described in this study. The Roseivirga genomes have similar sizes in the range of 4.08-4.47Mb with an average of 4.22Mb. Several key proteins related to osmotic stress adaptation were identified in Roseivirga spp. including betaine transporter, choline dehydrogenase, and glutamate synthases...
January 3, 2018: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305184/bactericidal-effect-of-silver-nanoparticles-against-the-propagation-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-infection-in-lycopersicon-esculentum-mill
#14
Raymundo Rene Rivas-Cáceres, Jose LuisStephano-Hornedo, Lugo Jorge, Vaca Rocio, Pedro Del Aguila, Gustavo Yañez-Ocampo, Martha Elena Mora-Herrera, Luis Miguel Camacho Díaz, Moisés Cipriano-Salazar, Peter Adeniyi Alaba
This study explored the use of silver nanoparticle as a bactericidal against the propagation of Clavibacter michiganensis onto tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In Mexico, tomato production covers about 73% of the total vegetable production but it is affected by outbreak of bacteria canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies michiganensis (Cmm). Silver ions are possess inhibitor properties, bactericides and high specter antimicrobials. In this study, 6 groups of culture were prepared using 6 different petri dishes where silver nanoparticles of varying concentrations (120, 84, 48, 24, 12 and 0 μg) were added...
January 2, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305075/a-county-level-analysis-of-the-us-radiologist-workforce-physician-supply-and-subspecialty-characteristics
#15
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Wenyi Wang, Danny R Hughes, Richard Duszak
PURPOSE: To explore associations between county-level measures of radiologist supply and subspecialization and county structural and health-related characteristics. METHODS: Medicare Physician and Other Supplier Public Use Files were used to subspecialty characterize 32,844 radiologists participating in Medicare between 2012 and 2014. Measures of radiologist supply and subspecialization were computed for 3,143 US counties. Additional county characteristics were identified using the 2014 County Health Rankings database...
January 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302642/establishing-musculoskeletal-oncology-service-in-resource-constrained-country-challenges-and-solutions
#16
REVIEW
Obada Hasan, Akbar Zubairi, Zohaib Nawaz, Masood Umer
The burden of orthopedic tumor surgery in Pakistan is not known. Similarly the number of procedures being performed for bone and soft tissue surgery are not known. This is even becoming more challenging where the existence of rules and regulations in health care are next to minimal. Furthermore data recording in our country and case registries hardly exist. Despite the lack of information and resources, with high disease burden on community, various providers provide surgical interventions every day in our settings...
December 2017: International Journal of Surgery. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301241/comparative-venomics-of-the-vipera-ammodytes-transcaucasiana-and-vipera-ammodytes-montandoni-from-turkey-provides-insights-into-kinship
#17
Benjamin-Florian Hempel, Maik Damm, Bayram Göçmen, Mert Karis, Mehmet Anıl Oguz, Ayse Nalbantsoy, Roderich D Süssmuth
The Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes) is one of the most widespread and venomous snakes in Europe, which causes high frequent snakebite accidents. The first comprehensive venom characterization of the regional endemic Transcaucasian Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes transcaucasiana) and the Transdanubian Sand Viper (Vipera ammodytes montandoni) is reported employing a combination of intact mass profiling and bottom-up proteomics. The bottom-up analysis of both subspecies identified the major snake protein families of viper venoms...
January 1, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298344/an-integrative-framework-to-reevaluate-the-neotropical-catfish-genus-guyanancistrus-siluriformes-loricariidae-with-particular-emphasis-on-the-guyanancistrus-brevispinis-complex
#18
Sonia Fisch-Muller, Jan H A Mol, Raphaël Covain
Characterizing and naming species becomes more and more challenging due to the increasing difficulty of accurately delineating specific bounderies. In this context, integrative taxonomy aims to delimit taxonomic units by leveraging the complementarity of multiple data sources (geography, morphology, genetics, etc.). However, while the theoretical framework of integrative taxonomy has been explicitly stated, methods for the simultaneous analysis of multiple data sets are poorly developed and in many cases different information sources are still explored successively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297824/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-in-rock-hyraxes-procavia-capensis-imported-from-south-africa
#19
Kim Fechner, Jenny Schäfer, Pia Münster, Kerstin Ternes, Susanne Döring, Inger Völkel, Franz-Josef Kaup, Claus-Peter Czerny
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic, progressive, and consecutively fatal enteritis, especially in ruminants. MAP distribution among wildlife is not yet clear. In this study, three wild-born rock hyraxes ( Procavia capensis) had been imported from South Africa to a German zoological garden. During the quarantine period, four young animals were born. The wild-born animals showed symptoms of mild diarrhea shortly after their arrival in the zoological garden, but all routine parasitological and bacteriologic tests performed were negative...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297823/disease-screening-in-southern-river-terrapins-batagur-affinis-edwardmolli-in-cambodia
#20
Tracie A Seimon, Brian D Horne, Ania Tomaszewicz, Mathieu Pruvot, Sitha Som, Samat In, Chea Sokha, Steve Platt, Patricia Toledo, Denise McAloose, Paul P Calle
Southern River terrapins ( Batagur affinis) are among the most critically endangered turtles in the world. To augment the Cambodia population, a head-start program was established for the endemic subspecies Batagur affinis edwardmolli in 2006, and in 2015, prerelease health assessments were performed on 70 subadults (hatch years, 2006-2011). Combined choanal/cloacal swab samples ( n = 70) were collected and screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycoplasma, herpesvirus, and ranavirus. Cloacal samples ( n = 50) were also collected and cultured for Salmonella sp...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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