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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817673/the-plasmid-encoded-ipf-and-klf-fimbriae-display-different-expression-and-varying-roles-in-the-virulence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-infantis-in-mouse-vs-avian-hosts
#1
Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two previously uncharacterized pESI-encoded chaperone-usher fimbriae, named Ipf and Klf. While Ipf homologs are rare and were found only in S. enterica subspecies diarizonae and subspecies VII, Klf is related to the known K88-Fae fimbria and klf clusters were identified in seven S...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814612/effects-of-a-social-cue-on-reproductive-development-and-pre-alternate-molt-in-seasonally-breeding-migrant-and-resident-female-songbirds-zonotrichia-leucophrys
#2
Helen E Chmura, Simone L Meddle, John C Wingfield, Thomas P Hahn
To time reproduction optimally, birds have evolved diverse mechanisms by which they respond to environmental changes that help them anticipate and prepare for the breeding season. While residents initiate reproductive preparation and breed in the same geographic location, migrant birds simultaneously prepare for breeding and migration far from their breeding grounds. As a result, it is hypothesized that migrant and resident birds use environmental cues differently to prepare to breed and that there is adaptive specialization in mechanisms regulating reproductive preparation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810848/erratum-to-safety-and-tolerability-of-bifidobacterium-longum-subspecies-infantis-evc001-supplementation-in-healthy-term-breastfed-infants-a-phase-i-clinical-trial
#3
Jennifer T Smilowitz, Jackelyn Moya, Melissa A Breck, Chelsea Cook, Annette Fineberg, Kathleen Angkustsiri, Mark A Underwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809943/genetic-evidence-for-subspecies-differentiation-of-the-himalayan-marmot-marmota-himalayana-in-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#4
Jingyan Yan, Hongjian Chen, Gonghua Lin, Qian Li, Jiarui Chen, Wen Qin, Jianping Su, Tongzuo Zhang
The primary host of plague in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), China, is Marmota himalayana, which plays an essential role in the maintenance, transmission, and prevalence of plague. To achieve a more clear insight into the differentiation of M. himalayana, complete cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and 11 microsatellite loci were analyzed for a total of 423 individuals from 43 localities in the northeast of the QTP. Phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods showed that all derived haplotypes diverged into two primary well-supported monophyletic lineages, I and II, which corresponded to the referential sequences of two recognized subspecies, M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808666/lipidomic-evaluation-of-feline-neurologic-disease-after-aav-gene-therapy
#5
Heather L Gray-Edwards, Xuntian Jiang, Ashley N Randle, Amanda R Taylor, Taylor L Voss, Aime K Johnson, Victoria J McCurdy, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Daniel S Ory, Douglas R Martin
GM1 gangliosidosis is a fatal lysosomal disorder, for which there is no effective treatment. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy in GM1 cats has resulted in a greater than 6-fold increase in lifespan, with many cats remaining alive at >5.7 years of age, with minimal clinical signs. Glycolipids are the principal storage product in GM1 gangliosidosis whose pathogenic mechanism is not completely understood. Targeted lipidomics analysis was performed to better define disease mechanisms and identify markers of disease progression for upcoming clinical trials in humans...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808128/conjugative-plasmid-transfer-in-xylella-fastidiosa-is-dependent-on-tra-and-trb-operon-functions
#6
Lindsey P Burbank, Christopher R Van Horn
The insect-transmitted plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa is capable of efficient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. Natural transformation occurs at high rates in X. fastidiosa, but there also is evidence that certain strains of X. fastidiosa carry native plasmids equipped with transfer and mobilization genes, suggesting conjugation as an additional mechanism of HGT in some instances. Two operons, tra and trb, putatively encoding a conjugative Type IV secretion system are found in some but not all X...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807911/systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-the-effect-of-chemotherapy-on-pulmonary-mycobacterium-abscessus-outcomes-and-disease-recurrence
#7
Jotam G Pasipanodya, Deborah Ogbonna, Beatriz E Ferro, Gesham Magombedze, Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Tawanda Gumbo
Background. In pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics models of pulmonary Mycobacterium abscessus complex, the recommended macrolide-containing combination therapy has poor kill rates. However, clinical outcomes are unknown.Methods We searched the literature for studies published between 1990-2017 that reported microbial outcomes in patients treated for pulmonary M. abscessus disease. Good outcome was defined as sustained sputum culture conversion (SSCC) without relapse. Random effects models were used to pool studies and estimate proportions of patients with good outcomes...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805283/closing-the-gap-avian-lineage-splits-at-a-young-narrow-seaway-imply-a-protracted-history-of-mixed-population-response
#8
S A Trewick, S Pilkington, L D Shepherd, G C Gibb, M Morgan-Richards
The evolutionary significance of spatial habitat gaps has been well recognised since Alfred Russel Wallace compared the faunas of Bali and Lombok. Gaps between islands influence population structuring of some species, and flightless birds are expected to show strong partitioning even where habitat gaps are narrow. We examined the population structure of the most numerous living flightless land bird in New Zealand and the world, Weka (Gallirallus australis). We surveyed Weka and their feather lice in native and introduced populations using genetic data gathered from DNA sequences of mitochondrial genes and nuclear β-fibrinogen and five microsatellite loci...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803866/pericarditis-caused-by-campylobacter-fetus-subspecies-fetus-associated-with-ingestion-of-raw-beef-liver
#9
Yoshihiko Kiyasu, Daiki Akiyama, Yoko Kurihara, Hiroshi Koganemaru, Shigemi Hitomi
Campylobacter fetus is an organism residing primarily in the gastrointestinal tracts of cattle and sheep and transmitting to humans through ingestion of contaminated food products or surface water. The organism has caused various extraintestinal infections but, to date, purulent pericarditis due to the organism has rarely been described. We report a case of purulent pericarditis due to C. fetus subsp. fetus, occurring in a patient having several predisposing conditions, including receiving hemodialysis therapy, recent surgery for cecal cancer, and administration of esomeprazole...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802569/gender-and-subspecialty-of-urology-faculty-in-department-based-leadership-roles
#10
Julia Han, Stephanie Stillings, Harold Hamann, Russell Terry, Louis Moy
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the current gender and subspecialty of those holding academic departmental administrative and educational leadership roles in urology. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of U.S. Urology Residency Programs in 2016 to 2017. Inclusion criteria were participation in the Urology Residency Match Program and having a department of urology website. From June 1, 2016 to August 20, 2016, each department's website was queried...
August 9, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802080/segmental-allotetraploidy-generates-extensive-homeologous-expression-rewiring-and-phenotypic-diversity-at-the-population-level-in-rice
#11
Yue Sun, Ying Wu, Chunwu Yang, Shuai Sun, Xiuyun Lin, Lixia Liu, Chunming Xu, Jonathan F Wendel, Lei Gong, Bao Liu
Allopolyploidization, i.e., concomitant merging and doubling of two or more divergent genomes in a common nucleus/cytoplasm, is known to instantly alter genome-wide transcriptome dynamics, a phenomenon referred to as "transcriptomic shock". However, the immediate effects of transcriptomic alteration in generating phenotypic diversity at the population level remain under-investigated. Here, we employed the MassARRAY-based Sequenom platform to assess and compare orthologous, allelic, and homeologous gene expression status in two tissues (leaf and root) of a set of randomly chosen individuals from populations of parental rice subspecies (indica and japonica), in vitro "hybrids" (parental mixes), reciprocal F1 hybrids and reciprocal tetraploids at the 5(th) -selfed generation (S5)...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801089/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-patients-with-bacteremia-caused-by-campylobacter-species-with-an-emphasis-on-the-subspecies-of-c-fetus
#12
Yen-Hung Liu, Wataru Yamazaki, Yu-Tsung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Wang-Hui Sheng, Po-Ren Hsueh
OBJECTIVES: This study was intended to investigate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Campylobacter species. METHODS: From April 1998 to May 2014, 56 adults with bacteremia caused by Campylobacter species were evaluated. These Campylobacter species isolates were confirmed to the species level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (all isolates) and multiplex PCR analysis (for C. fetus only). The performance of identification for Campylobacter species by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797946/genome-wide-screening-of-oryza-sativa-ssp-japonica-and-indica-reveals-a-complex-family-of-proteins-with-ribosome-inactivating-protein-domains
#13
Pieter Wytynck, Pierre Rougé, Els J M Van Damme
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are cytotoxic enzymes capable of halting protein synthesis by irreversible modification of ribosomes. Although RIPs are widespread they are not ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. The physiological importance of RIPs is not fully elucidated, but evidence suggests a role in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. Searches in the rice genome revealed a large and highly complex family of proteins with a RIP domain. A comparative analysis retrieved 38 RIP sequences from the genome sequence of Oryza sativa subspecies japonica and 34 sequences from the subspecies indica...
August 7, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795103/rna-seq-data-of-oryza-sativa-cultivar-kuku-belang-under-peg-treatment
#14
Bernadette Toni, Hossein Hosseini Monfared, Mohd Noor Mat Isa, Nurulhikma Md Isa, Ismanizan Ismail, Zamri Zainal
Drought stress is the main abiotic factor affecting rice production. Rain-fed upland rice which is grown on unbounded fields and totally dependent on rainfall for moisture is more prone to drought stress compared to rice from other ecosystems. However, upland rice has adapted to this limited water condition, thus are more drought tolerant than rice from other ecosystems. We performed the first transcriptome sequencing of drought tolerant indica upland rice cultivar Kuku Belang to identify differentially expressed genes related to drought tolerance mechanism...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793779/comparative-susceptibility-of-rhesus-macaques-of-indian-and-chinese-origin-to-vaginal-shiv-transmission-as-models-for-hiv-prevention-research
#15
Ronald Veazey, Binhua Ling
Historically, Indian origin rhesus macaques (iRM) have been preferred for SIV/HIV prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment studies, yet their supply is limited. Chinese origin rhesus macaques (cRM) are currently more available yet little is known regarding the relative susceptibility of this subspecies to vaginal transmission of SIV or SHIV. Here we compared the susceptibility of 40 cRM and 21 iRM to a single vaginal challenge with SHIVsf162P. Our results showed cRM have comparable primary SHIV infection as iRM, underscoring their equal importance in studies of HIV transmission and prevention...
August 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792950/non-sister-sri-lankan-white-eyes-genus-zosterops-are-a-result-of-independent-colonizations
#16
Nelum Wickramasinghe, V V Robin, Uma Ramakrishnan, Sushma Reddy, Sampath S Seneviratne
Co-occurrence of closely related taxa on islands could be attributed to sympatric speciation or multiple colonization. Sympatric speciation is considered to be rare in small islands, however multiple colonizations are known to be common in both oceanic and continental islands. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relatedness and means of origin of the two sympatrically co-occurring Zosterops white-eyes, the endemic Zosterops ceylonensis and its widespread regional congener Z. palpebrosus, in the island of Sri Lanka...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792104/expression-analysis-of-cellulose-synthase-and-main-cytoskeletal-protein-genes-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l
#17
Dmitry Galinousky, Tsimafei Padvitski, Galina Bayer, Yaroslav Pirko, Nikolay Pydiura, Natallia Anisimova, Tatyana Nikitinskaya, Liubov Khotyleva, Alla Yemets, Aleksandr Kilchevsky, Yaroslav Blume
Fiber flax is an important source of natural fiber and a comprehensive model for the plant fiber biogenesis studies. Cellulose-synthase (CesA) and cytoskeletal genes are known to be important for the cell wall biogenesis in general and for the biogenesis of flax fibers in particular. Currently, knowledge about activity of these genes during the plant growth is limited. In this study, we have investigated flax fiber biogenesis by measuring expression of CesA and cytoskeletal genes at two stages of the flax development (seedlings and stems at the rapid growth stage) in several flax subspecies (elongatum, mediterraneum, crepitans)...
August 9, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791540/the-scent-chemistry-of-heliconius-wing-androconia
#18
Florian Mann, Sohini Vanjari, Neil Rosser, Sandra Mann, Kanchon K Dasmahapatra, Chris Corbin, Mauricio Linares, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Camilo Salazar, Chris Jiggins, Stefan Schulz
Neotropical Heliconius butterflies are members of various mimicry rings characterized by diverse colour patterns. In the present study we investigated whether a similar diversity is observed in the chemistry of volatile compounds present in male wing androconia. Recent research has shown that these androconia are used during courting of females. Three to five wild-caught male Heliconius individuals of 17 species and subspecies were analyzed by GC/MS. Most of the identified compounds originate from common fatty acids precursors, including aldehydes, alcohols, acetates or esters preferentially with a C18 and C20 chain, together with some alkanes...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790435/emergence-of-a-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-stg62647-lineage-associated-with-severe-clinical-manifestations
#19
Oddvar Oppegaard, Haima Mylvaganam, Steinar Skrede, Paul Christoffer Lindemann, Bård Reiakvam Kittang
Increasing incidence rates of invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) infections have been reported worldwide, but the evolutionary mechanisms underlying this development remain elusive. Through prospective surveillance of invasive SDSE infections in western Norway, we observed the emergence of a novel and virulent SDSE genotype, stG62647. This emm-type, rarely encountered as a cause of invasive disease during 1999-2012, emerged in 2013 as the predominant SDSE-genotype. The stG62647-infections were associated with an aggressive clinical course, including the occurrence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing soft-tissue infections and endocarditis...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790364/chloroplast-genomes-of-arabidopsis-halleri-ssp-gemmifera-and-arabidopsis-lyrata-ssp-petraea-structures-and-comparative-analysis
#20
Sajjad Asaf, Abdul Latif Khan, Muhammad Aaqil Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Sang-Mo Kang, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
We investigated the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of non-model Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea using Illumina paired-end sequencing to understand their genetic organization and structure. Detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed genome sizes of both subspecies ranging between 154.4~154.5 kbp, with a large single-copy region (84,197~84,158 bp), a small single-copy region (17,738~17,813 bp) and pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 26,264~26,259 bp). Both cp genomes encode 130 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 transfer RNA genes...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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