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Pascale Mercier, Sandrine Freret, Karine Laroucau, Marie-Pierre Gautier, Isabelle Brémaud, Claire Bertin, Christelle Rossignol, Armel Souriau, Laurence A Guilloteau
The dynamics between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and the immune response of goats naturally exposed to MAP were studied in a herd where the clinical expression of paratuberculosis had been observed. Four generations of goats were observed over a 33-month period: mothers of three different generations (G1, G2, G3) and their daughters, generation 4 (G4). A MAP infection status was defined according to the combined results of an IFN-γ assay, antibody response, faecal culture and post-mortem examination...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Venkata S R Dukkipati, Anne L Ridler, Keith G Thompson, Bryce M Buddle, Barry A Hedgespeth, Marian Price-Carter, Douglas J Begg, Richard J Whittington, Brigitte Gicquel, Alan Murray
A long-term study was undertaken to monitor immune responses, faecal cultures and clinical disease in sheep experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain Telford. New Zealand Merino lambs (N=56) were challenged with three oral doses of Map suspension. The lambs were weighed and faecal and blood samples obtained at different time-points. At 63 weeks post-challenge, surviving sheep were euthanised and samples of liver, ileo-caecal valve and mesenteric lymph node were collected for histopathology and Map culture...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Fan Xiaojun, Yang Chun, Liu Jianhong, Zhang Chang, Li Yao
The Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a serious pest of forest and shade trees in many Asian and some European countries. However, there have been few studies of L. dispar genetic information and comprehensive genetic analyses of this species are needed in order to understand its genetic and metabolic sensitivities, such as the molting mechanism during larval development. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of the Asian subspecies of the gyspy moth, after which a comprehensive analysis of chitin metabolism was undertaken...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Valérie Roussel, Alain Van Wormhoudt
The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity...
October 20, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
Reza Ranjbar, Mitra Ahmadi, Mojtaba Memariani
Salmonella is an important cause of food-borne infection worldwide. Detection of outbreaks caused by Salmonella spp. relies on suitable and robust methods for genotyping. Little is known about the genetic diversity of the Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Infantis strains isolated from human sources in Iran. In this study, 40 isolates of S. Infantis, which were previously recovered from patients with gastroenteritis or diarrhea in Tehran between years 2007 and 2009, were subjected to multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ERIC-PCR...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Vazrick Nazari, B Christian Schmidt, Sean Prosser, Paul D N Hebert
Analysis of the DNA barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene from a specimen of the extinct Jamaican sunset moth, Urania sloanus, places this species as a sister to the Central American U. fulgens. We found that all Urania F. species were closely related (<2.8% maximum divergence at COI), with the Cuban endemic U. boisduvalii appearing as sister to the rest. The low divergence in DNA barcodes and genitalic structures indicate that the Cuban U. poeyi and eastern Brazilian U. brasiliensis are geographic segregates of U...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer R Ballard, Randall Mickley, Samantha E J Gibbs, Chris Dwyer, Catherine Soos, N Jane Harms, H Grant Gilchrist, Jeffrey S Hall, J Christian Franson, G Randy Milton, Glen Parsons, Brad Allen, Jean-Francois Giroux, Stéphane Lair, Daniel G Mead, John R Fischer
Between 1998 and 2014, recurrent mortality events were reported in the Dresser's subspecies of the Common Eider ( Somateria mollissima dresseri) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA near Wellfleet Harbor. The early die-offs were attributed to parasitism and emaciation, but beginning in 2006 a suite of distinct lesions was observed concomitant with the isolation of a previously unknown RNA virus. This novel pathogen was identified as an orthomyxovirus in the genus Quaranjavirus and was named Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Şivge Kurgan, Shevali Kansal, Daniel Nguyen, Danielle Stephens, Yannis Koroneos, Hatice Hasturk, Thomas E Van Dyke, Alpdogan Kantarci
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil function is critical for the initiation and progression of infecto-inflammatory diseases. Key quorum-sensing plaque bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum act as bridging species between early and late colonizer pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis as the biofilm ages and periodontal inflammation increases. This study was designed to determine the impact of different F. nucleatum strains on neutrophil function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HL-60 cells were differentiated into neutrophil-like cells and cultured with F...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Alexander W Phillips, Barry Dent, Maziar Navidi, Arul Immanuel, S Michael Griffin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine whether trainee involvement in esophageal cancer resection is associated with adverse patient outcomes. BACKGROUND: Operative experience for surgical trainees is under threat. A number of factors have been implicated in this leading to fewer hours for training. Esophagogastric cancer training is particularly vulnerable due to the publication of individual surgeon results and a perception that dual consultant operating improves patient outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Daniel Garrido, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano, Nina Kirmiz, Jasmine C Davis, Sarah M Totten, Danielle G Lemay, Juan A Ugalde, J Bruce German, Carlito B Lebrilla, David A Mills
The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Min Liu, Jinshan Jin, Hongmiao Pan, Jinhui Feng, Carl E Cerniglia, Maocheng Yang, Huizhong Chen
To evaluate the toxicity of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) on oral bacteria, seven smokeless tobacco aqueous extracts (STAEs) from major brands of STPs and three tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) were used in a growth and viability test against 38 oral bacterial species or subspecies. All seven STAEs showed concentration-dependent effects on the growth and viability of tested oral bacteria under anaerobic culture conditions, although there were strain-to-strain variations. In the presence of 1 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 4 strains decreased over 0...
October 15, 2016: Anaerobe
JeongWoo Kang, Md Akil Hossain, Hae-Chul Park, Yangho Jang, Seonhwa Kim, Jae Young Song, Kwang-Jick Lee, Tae-Wan Kim
Conventional antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) are very time consuming and insufficiently precise to promptly select a proper antimicrobial treatment. This difficulty disrupts the management of infections and exacerbates the development of antimicrobial resistance. Generally, antimicrobial resistance involves the chemical modification of an antimicrobial compound to an inactive form by an enzyme released by bacteria. This modification causes a structural change and is followed by a characteristic mass shift of the antimicrobials...
October 15, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kengo Yokosho, Naoki Yamaji, Miho Kashino-Fujii, Jian Feng Ma
High Al tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) is controlled by multiple tolerance genes, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying differential expression of these genes are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the factors regulating the expression of OsFRDL4, a gene encoding citrate efflux transporter involved in Al-induced citrate secretion from the roots. Analysis with chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSL) derived from Nipponbare (high OsFRDL4 expression) and Kasalath (low OsFRDL4 expression) revealed that differential expression of OsFRDL4 is responsible for the QTL for Al tolerance detected previously on chromosome 1...
October 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
Yuval B Simons, Guy Sella
Over the past decade, there has been both great interest and confusion about whether recent demographic events-notably the Out-of-Africa-bottleneck and recent population growth-have led to differences in mutation load among human populations. The confusion can be traced to the use of different summary statistics to measure load, which lead to apparently conflicting results. We argue, however, that when statistics more directly related to load are used, the results of different studies and data sets consistently reveal little or no difference in the load of non-synonymous mutations among human populations...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Teija Ojala, Pia K S Laine, Terhi Ahlroos, Jarna Tanskanen, Saara Pitkänen, Tuomas Salusjärvi, Matti Kankainen, Soile Tynkkynen, Lars Paulin, Petri Auvinen
Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is essential for the development of the characteristic eyes and flavor of Swiss-type cheeses. These bacteria grow actively and produce large quantities of flavor compounds during cheese ripening at warm temperatures but also appear to contribute to the aroma development during the subsequent cold storage of cheese. Here, we advance our understanding of the role of P. freudenreichii in cheese ripening by presenting the 2.68-Mbp annotated genome sequence of P...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Santosh Kumar, Daizy Bharti, Pablo Quintela-Alonso, Mann Kyoon Shin, Antonietta La Terza
The morphology and morphogenesis of two stylonychid ciliates, Stylonychia ammermanniGupta et al., 2001 and Tetmemena bifaria (Stokes, 1887) Berger, 2001, isolated from soil samples of Lombardia region, Northern Italy, and water samples from Cheonggancheon stream, South Korea, were investigated. The Italian population of S. ammermanni was found to be very similar in morphology to the Indian type population and the junior synonym S. harbinensisShi and Ammermann, 2004 since most of the morphometric data overlapped...
September 23, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Divek V T Nair, A Kollanoor-Johny
We investigated the effects of a probiotic bacterium, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, on Salmonella multiplication, motility, and association to and invasion of avian epithelial cells in vitro. Two subspecies of P. freudenreichii (P. freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii) were tested against 3 Salmonella serotypes in poultry, namely, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Heidelberg, using co-culture-, motility, multiplication, cell association, and invasion assays. Both strains of P...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
Dominic J Pollard, Joanna C Young, Valentina Covarelli, Silvia Herrera-León, Thomas R Connor, Maria Fookes, Danielle Walker, Aurora Echeita, Nicholas R Thomson, Cedric N Berger, Gad Frankel
Salmonella spp. utilize type III secretion systems (T3SS) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study we compared a draft genome assembly of S. enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 (S. salamae) against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and S. bongori strain 12419. S. salamae encode the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1; SPI-2 and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Carien C M Groot, Krassimir P Velikov, Huib J Bakker
Though it is commonly known that a small amount of water can be present in triglyceride oil, a molecular picture of how water molecules organize in the oil phase is lacking. We investigate the hydrogen-bond configuration and dynamics of water in triacetin, tributyrin and trioctanoin using linear infrared and time-resolved two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy of the water hydroxyl stretch vibration. We identify water molecules with a single strong hydrogen bond to the triglyceride, water molecules with two weaker hydrogen bonds to the triglycerides, and water clusters...
October 13, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Thein Swe, Akari Thein Naing, Aama Baqui, Ratesh Khillan
To our knowledge and literature search, Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans infection in human beings has rarely been described in the medical literature. Furthermore, we believe that this is a first detailed case report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans infection in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. Because of the possible association of Staphylococcus schleiferi infection and immunosuppression, any isolates of this bacterium in human beings should be presumed to be pathogenic, unless proven otherwise...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
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