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Kiwoung Yang, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Manosh Kumar Biswas, Md Abdul Kayum, Go-Eun Yi, Jonghoon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang, Ill-Sup Nou
Plant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) vary in sequence structure. We assembled the Brassica oleracea var. capitata mtDNA using a mean coverage depth of 25X whole genome sequencing (WGS) and confirmed the presence of eight contigs/fragments by BLASTZ using the previously reported KJ820683 and AP012988 mtDNA as reference. Assembly of the mtDNA sequence reads resulted in a circular structure of 219,975 bp. Our assembled mtDNA, NCBI acc. no. KU831325, contained 34 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 19 tRNA genes with similarity to the KJ820683 and AP012988 reference mtDNA...
2018: PloS One
Jieyong Ou, Hong Li, Zengguang Yan, Youya Zhou, Liping Bai, Chaoyan Zhang, Xuedong Wang, Guikui Chen
Clay minerals have been proposed as amendments for remediating metal-contaminated soils owing to their abundant reserves, high performance, simplicity of use and low cost. Two novel clay minerals, Maifan stone and illite/smectite clay, were examined in the in situ immobilisation of soil metals. The application of 0.5% Maifan stone or illite/smectite clay to field soils significantly decreased the fractions of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu and Pb. Furthermore, reductions of 35...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah A Aroner, Manja Koch, Kenneth J Mukamal, Jeremy D Furtado, James H Stein, Matthew C Tattersall, Robyn L McClelland, Majken K Jensen
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), a small proinflammatory protein present on 6% to 7% of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, defines a subspecies of HDL adversely associated with coronary heart disease in primarily white cohorts. In a multi-ethnic population free of clinical cardiovascular disease, we evaluated the relationship between apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies and subclinical markers of atherosclerotic pathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated cross-sectional associations between apolipoprotein A-I concentrations of apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies, measured via ELISA and imaging measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, among 4659 participants in the MESA (The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) at baseline (2000-2002)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Sona Gregorova, Vaclav Gergelits, Irena Chvatalova, Tanmoy Bhattacharyya, Barbora Valiskova, Vladana Fotopulosova, Petr Jansa, Diana Wiatrowska, Jiri Forejt
Hybrid sterility is one of the reproductive isolation mechanisms leading to speciation. Prdm9 , the only known vertebrate hybrid sterility gene, causes failure of meiotic chromosome synapsis and infertility in male hybrids between two mouse subspecies. But within species Prdm9 determines the sites of programmed DNA double-strand breaks and meiotic recombination hotspots. To investigate the relation between Prdm9 -controlled meiotic arrest and asynapsis, we inserted random stretches of consubspecific homology on several autosomal pairs in sterile hybrids and analyzed their ability to form synaptonemal complexes and rescue male fertility...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Michaela M Hofmann, Andreas Fleischmann, Susanne S Renner
Botanical gardens represent artificial, but stable environments. With this premise, we analyzed the Munich Botanical Garden's bee fauna in 1997/1999 and again in 2015/2017. The garden covers 20 ha, uses no bee-relevant insecticides, has a protected layout, and on three sides abuts protected areas. Outdoors, it cultivates some 10,871 species/subspecies, many suitable as pollen and nectar sources for bees. The first survey found 79 species, the second 106, or 55% of the 192 species recorded for Munich since 1990...
March 14, 2018: Oecologia
Claudia Laperchia, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Tiziana Cotrufo, Marina Bentivoglio
Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX)/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b .) parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Uva Vera, Päckert Martin, Cibois Alice, Fumagalli Luca, Roulin Alexandre
The owl family Tytonidae comprises two genera: Phodilus, limited to the forests of central Africa and South-East Asia, and the ubiquitous Tyto. The genus Tyto is majorly represented by the cosmopolitan Common Barn Owl group, with more than 30 subspecies worldwide. Discrete differences in body size and plumage colouration have led to the classification of this family into many species and subspecies, but the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships between taxa remain unclear, and in some groups controversial...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Alejandro M Labella, M Dolores Castro, Manuel Manchado, Juan J Borrego
Phylogenetic relationships between species in the genus Photobacterium have been poorly studied despite pathogenic and ecological relevance of some of its members. This is the first phylogenetic study that includes new species of Photobacterium (validated or not) that have not been included in any of the previously described clades, using 16S rRNA sequences and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) in concatenated sequences of gyrB , gapA , topA , ftsZ and mreB housekeeping genes. Sequence analysis has been implemented using Maximum-parsimony (MP), Neighbour-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) treeing methods and the predicted evolutionary relationship between the Photobacterium clades was established on the basis of bootstrap values of >75% for 16S rRNA sequences and MLSA...
March 12, 2018: Microorganisms
Pascal Touzet, Sarah Villain, Laetitia Buret, Hélène Martin, Anne-Catherine Holl, Céline Poux, Joël Cuguen
Historical demographic processes and mating systems are believed to be major factors in the shaping of the intraspecies genetic diversity of plants. Among Caryophyllales, the Beta section of the genus Beta, within the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae alliance, is an interesting study model with species and subspecies ( Beta macrocarpa , Beta patula , Beta vulgaris maritima and B.v. adanensis) differing in geographical distribution and mating system. In addition, one of the species, B. macrocarpa , mainly diploid, varies in its level of ploidy with a tetraploid cytotype described in the Canary Islands and in Portugal...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Monika Janišová, Katarína Skokanová, Tomáš Hlásny
Tephroseris longifolia agg. is a complex group of outcrossing perennials distributed throughout Central Europe. Recent morphological study revealed six morphotypes corresponding to five previously distinguished subspecies, together with Alpine and Pannonian morphotypes of T. longifolia subsp. longifolia . The delimited morphotypes differ in relative DNA content, geographical range, and rarity. We compared ecological niches of the six morphotypes in order to assess the impact of ecological differentiation on the speciation processes within the T...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Caroline E Cameron
Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a prevalent disease in low- and middle-income countries, and has re-emerged in key populations, including men who have sex with men, in high-income nations. The rising number of cases shows syphilis elimination will require augmentation of public health screening and treatment campaigns with syphilis vaccine development and implementation initiatives. Optimal vaccine candidates, deciphered from careful consideration of the pathogenic mechanisms employed by T...
March 9, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Zheyong Xue, Zhengwei Tan, Ancheng Huang, Yuan Zhou, Juncong Sun, Xiaoning Wang, Ramesha B Thimmappa, Michael J Stephenson, Anne Osbourn, Xiaoquan Qi
Triterpene synthases, also known as 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs), synthesize diverse triterpene skeletons that form the basis of an array of functionally divergent steroids and triterpenoids. Tetracyclic and pentacyclic triterpene skeletons are synthesized via protosteryl and dammarenyl cations, respectively. The mechanism of conversion between two scaffolds is not well understood. Here, we report a promiscuous OSC from rice (Oryza sativa) (OsOS) that synthesizes a novel pentacyclic triterpene orysatinol as its main product...
March 12, 2018: New Phytologist
Qingzhen Wei, Wuhong Wang, Tianhua Hu, Haijiao Hu, Weihai Mao, Qinmei Zhu, Chonglai Bao
Eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable cultivated in Asia, Africa and southern Europe and, following tomato and pepper, ranks as the third most important solanaceous vegetable crop. The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) family is a group of plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The genes in the Dof family have been identified and analysed in many plant species, but the information remains lacking for eggplant...
2018: PeerJ
Petter Z Marki, Jon Fjeldså, Martin Irestedt, Knud A Jønsson
Detailed knowledge of species limits is an essential component of the study of biodiversity. Although accurate species delimitation usually requires detailed knowledge of both genetic and phenotypic variation, such variation may be limited or unavailable for some groups. In this study, we reconstruct a molecular phylogeny for all currently recognized species and subspecies of Australasian shrikethrushes (Colluricincla), including the first sequences of the poorly known C. tenebrosa. Using a novel method for species delimitation, the multi-rate Poisson Tree Process (mPTP), in concordance with the phylogenetic data, we estimate species limits in this genetically diverse, but phenotypically subtly differentiated complex of birds...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Rohan Ramakrishna, Wei-Chun Hsu, Jialin Mao, Art Sedrakyan
OBJECTIVE: Surgeon volume has been previously shown to impact patient outcomes. However, data related to neuro-oncologic surgery is limited and does not include neurologic morbidities as an outcomes measure. In this study, we aimed to determine if 5-year surgeon cumulative and annual volumes predict early postoperative outcomes in patients following brain tumor surgery. METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients (n=10, 258) undergoing brain tumor resection between 2005 and 2014 were included for study utilizing the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperation System...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Manuel Schweizer, Yang Liu, Urban Olsson, Hadoram Shirihai, Qin Huang, Paul J Leader, José Luis Copete, Guy M Kirwan, Guoling Chen, Lars Svensson
Species not only responded idiosyncratically to past climate changes, there were also regionally contrasting effects on spatio-temporal diversification patterns. Studies of closely related species appear to be a particularly promising comparative approach to disentangle such regionally differential impacts. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive geographic sampling to investigate the evolutionary history of the Holarctic Sand Martin Riparia riparia and the chiefly Central and East Asian Pale Martin R. diluta...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Neva Škrabar, Leslie M Turner, Luisa F Pallares, Bettina Harr, Diethard Tautz
Two subspecies of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus, meet in a narrow contact zone across Europe. Mice in the hybrid zone are highly admixed, representing the full range of mixed ancestry from the two subspecies. Given the distinct morphologies of these subspecies, these natural hybrids can be used for genome-wide association mapping at sufficiently high resolution to directly infer candidate genes. We focus here on limb bone length differences, which is of special interest for understanding the evolution of developmentally correlated traits...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Marco Bo, Magdalena Niegowska, Giannina Arru, Elia Sechi, Sara Mariotto, Chiara Mancinelli, Alessia Farinazzo, Daniela Alberti, Alberto Gajofatto, Sergio Ferrari, Ruggero Capra, Salvatore Monaco, GianPietro Sechi, Leonardo A Sechi
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the main environmental agent associated to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Following to studies reporting an increased prevalence of antibodies against peptides derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) homologous to EBV and human epitopes (MBP85-98 , IRF5424-434 ) in multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated whether seroreactivity to these antigens display a NMOSD-specific pattern. The sera of 34 NMOSD patients showed elevated levels of antibodies against MAP and MBP compared to healthy controls (44% vs...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Julia E Napier, Michael S Lund, Douglas L Armstrong, Denise McAloose
The Amur leopard ( Panthera pardus orientalis) is one of the most critically endangered leopards on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature red list. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to identify common and significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the North American Amur leopard zoo population. This information provides insights that contribute to their improved care, health, and medical management and, ultimately, affects the sustainability of this leopard subspecies in the wild...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Paola Pulido-Santacruz, Alexandre Aleixo, Jason T Weir
We possess limited understanding of how speciation unfolds in the most species-rich region of the planet-the Amazon basin. Hybrid zones provide valuable information on the evolution of reproductive isolation, but few studies of Amazonian vertebrate hybrid zones have rigorously examined the genome-wide underpinnings of reproductive isolation. We used genome-wide genetic datasets to show that two deeply diverged, but morphologically cryptic sister species of forest understorey birds show little evidence for prezygotic reproductive isolation, but substantial postzygotic isolation...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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