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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162611/hdl-subspecies-defined-by-presence-of-apolipoprotein-c-iii-and-incident-coronary-heart-disease-in-four-cohorts
#1
Majken K Jensen, Sarah A Aroner, Kenneth J Mukamal, Jeremy D Furtado, Wendy S Post, Michael Y Tsai, Anne Tjønneland, Joseph F Polak, Eric B Rimm, Kim Overvad, Robyn L McClelland, Frank M Sacks
Background -The causal role of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in cardioprotection has been questioned by genetic and randomized studies. Novel measures that relate to HDL function may contribute new information to prediction of cardiovascular risk. Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism. We investigated whether subspecies of HDL defined by apoC-III are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods -We used immuno-affinity chromatography to measure the apoA-I concentrations of HDL that contains and lacks apoC-III in two prospective studies of adults free of CHD...
November 21, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161480/-biological-parameters-of-meccus-phyllosomus-phyllosomus-burmeister-1835-triatoma-recurva-st%C3%A3-l-1868-hemiptera-reduviidae-and-their-laboratory-hybrids
#2
Lizbeth Díaz, Karen Covarrubias, Ángel Licón, Mixtli Astorga, Yaneth Moreno, José Alejandro Martínez
INTRODUCTION: Hybrids from species and subspecies of Mexican triatomines have shown outstanding biological and behavioral characteristics as compared with their parental groups. This could lead to an increasing risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to human and animal reservoir hosts. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare biological parameters related to the life cycle of Triatoma recurva, Meccus phyllosomus phyllosomus and their laboratory hybrids and estimate their risk as transmitters of T...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160202/re-classification-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-subspecies-on-the-basis-of-whole-genome-and-multi-locus-sequence-analyses
#3
Xiang Li, James Tambong, Kat Xiaoli Yuan, Wen Chen, Huimin Xu, C André Lévesque, Solke H De Boer
Although the genus Clavibacter was originally proposed to accommodate all phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria containing B2γ diaminobutyrate in the peptidoglycan, reclassification of all but one species into other genera has resulted in the current monospecific status of the genus. The single species in the genus, Clavibacter michiganensis, has multiple subspecies, which are all highly host-specific plant pathogens. Whole genome analysis based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization as well as multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of seven housekeeping genes support raising each of the C...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158032/resolving-taxonomic-turbulence-and-uncovering-cryptic-diversity-in-the-musk-turtles-sternotherus-using-robust-demographic-modeling
#4
Peter A Scott, Travis C Glenn, Leslie J Rissler
Accurate and consistent delimitation of species and their relationships provides a necessary framework for comparative studies, understanding evolutionary relationships, and informing conservation management. Despite the ever-increasing availability of genomic data, evolutionary dynamics can still render some relationships exceedingly difficult to resolve, including underlying speciation events that are rapid, recent, or confounded by post-speciation introgression. Here we present an empirical study of musk turtles (Sternotherus) which illustrates approaches to resolve difficult nodes in the Tree of Life that robust species-tree methods fail to resolve...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153776/francisella-noatunensis-subspecies-noatunensis-clpb-deletion-mutant-impairs-development-of-francisellosis-in-a-zebrafish-model
#5
Elisabeth O Lampe, Carl Zingmark, Julia I Tandberg, Ida Marie P Thrane, Espen Brudal, Anders Sjöstedt, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Francisella noatunensis ssp. noatunensis (F.n.n.) is the causative agent of francisellosis in Atlantic cod and constitutes one of the main challenges for future aquaculture on this species. A facultative intracellular bacterium like F.n.n. exert an immunologic challenge against which live attenuated vaccines in general are most effective. Thus, we constructed a deletion in the F.n.n. clpB gene as ΔclpB mutants are among the most promising vaccine candidates in human pathogenic Francisella...
November 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153517/rapid-species-and-subspecies-specific-level-classification-and-identification-of-lactobacillus-casei-group-members-using-maldi-biotyper-combined-with-clinprotools
#6
Chien-Hsun Huang, Lina Huang
Using common taxonomic methods such as 16S rDNA sequencing and physiological and biochemical analysis to identify members of the Lactobacillus casei group (LCG) is time-consuming, expensive and inaccurate. In this study, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to rapid discriminate LCG strains by creating an analytical in-house database (IHDB) and to develop a classification model for subspecies-level differentiation based on MS biomarkers using ClinProTools bioinformatics software (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152205/genetic-structure-and-demographic-history-of-lymantria-dispar-linnaeus-1758-lepidoptera-erebidae-in-its-area-of-origin-and-adjacent-areas
#7
Tae Hwa Kang, Sang Hoon Han, Heung Sik Lee
We analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history of 20 Lymantria dispar populations from Far East Asia using microsatellite loci and mitochondrial genes. In the microsatellite analysis, the genetic distances based on pairwise FST values ranged from 0.0087 to 0.1171. A NeighborNet network based on pairwise FST genetic distances showed that the 20 regional populations were divided into five groups. Bayesian clustering analysis (K = 3) demonstrated the same groupings. The populations in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent regions, in particular, showed a mixed genetic pattern...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152192/close-and-distant-contrasting-the-metabolism-of-two-closely-related-subspecies-of-scots-pine-under-the-effects-of-folivory-and-summer-drought
#8
Albert Rivas-Ubach, Jordi Sardans, José Antonio Hódar, Joan Garcia-Porta, Alex Guenther, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Michal Oravec, Otmar Urban, Josep Peñuelas
Metabolomes, as chemical phenotypes of organisms, are likely not only shaped by the environment but also by common ancestry. If this is the case, we expect that closely related species of pines will tend to reach similar metabolomic solutions to the same environmental stressors. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151156/deep-rnaseq-indicates-protective-mechanisms-of-cold-tolerant-indica-rice-plants-during-early-vegetative-stage
#9
Raul Antonio Sperotto, Artur Teixeira de Araújo Junior, Janete Mariza Adamski, Denise Cargnelutti, Felipe Klein Ricachenevsky, Ben-Hur Neves de Oliveira, Renata Pereira da Cruz, Rinaldo Pires Dos Santos, Leila Picolli da Silva, Janette Palma Fett
Cold-tolerance in rice may be related to increased cellulose deposition in the cell wall, membrane fatty acids unsaturation and differential expression of several newly identified genes. Low temperature exposure during early vegetative stages limits rice plant's growth and development. Most genes previously related to cold tolerance in rice are from the japonica subspecies. To help clarify the mechanisms that regulate cold tolerance in young indica rice plants, comparative transcriptome analysis of 6 h cold-treated (10 °C) leaves from two genotypes, cold-tolerant (CT) and cold-sensitive (CS), was performed...
November 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149202/intraspecific-evolutionary-relationships-among-peregrine-falcons-in-western-north-american-high-latitudes
#10
Sandra L Talbot, George K Sage, Sarah A Sonsthagen, Meg C Gravley, Ted Swem, Jeffrey C Williams, Jonathan L Longmire, Skip Ambrose, Melanie J Flamme, Stephen B Lewis, Laura Phillips, Clifford Anderson, Clayton M White
Subspecies relationships within the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been long debated because of the polytypic nature of melanin-based plumage characteristics used in subspecies designations and potential differentiation of local subpopulations due to philopatry. In North America, understanding the evolutionary relationships among subspecies may have been further complicated by the introduction of captive bred peregrines originating from non-native stock, as part of recovery efforts associated with mid 20th century population declines resulting from organochloride pollution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149042/comparative-study-of-biological-activities-of-venom-from-colubrid-snakes-rhabdophis-tigrinus-yamakagashi-and-rhabdophis-lateralis
#11
Yumiko Komori, Toru Hifumi, Akihiko Yamamoto, Atsushi Sakai, Manabu Ato, Kyoko Sawabe, Toshiaki Nikai
Rhabdophis lateralis, a colubrid snake distributed throughout the continent of Asia, has recently undergone taxonomic revisions. Previously, Rhabdophis lateralis was classified as a subspecies of R. tigrinus (Yamakagashi) until 2012, when several genetic differences were discovered which classified this snake as its own species. To elucidate the toxicity of venom from this poorly studied colubrid, various biological activities were compared between the venom from the two snake species. The components of their venom were compared by the elution profiles of reversed-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE, and gel filtrated fractions were tested for effects on blood coagulation...
November 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146261/a-comprehensive-review-of-non-enterica-subspecies-of-salmonella-enterica
#12
REVIEW
Alexandre Lamas, José Manuel Miranda, Patricia Regal, Beatriz Vázquez, Carlos Manuel Franco, Alberto Cepeda
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen with a complex nomenclature. This genus is composed of two species, S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is divided into six subspecies. S. enterica subspecies enterica is composed of more than 1500 serotypes with some of great importance, such as S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. S. enterica subsp. enterica is responsible of more than 99% of human salmonellosis and therefore it is widely studied. However, the non-enterica subspecies of S. enterica have been little studied...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144210/a-new-allele-of-the-kappa-casein-gene-in-local-zebu-cattle-breeds
#13
Tauseef Ahmad, Ashwin Atkulwar, Sameera Farah, Vijendra Singh, Mumtaz Baig
Local zebu cattle breeds in Indian villages are crossbred with exotic breeds at an unprecedented rate without utilising the full potential of genomic technologies. In addition to agriculture produce, livestock, particularly cattle, constitute a vital source of livelihood for farmers in India. Age-old agricultural practices, errant monsoon, and frequent crop failures have resulted in Maharashtra having the highest number of farmer suicides in the country. Local cattle breeds are considered low-yield breeds and thus are primarily used as beasts of burden...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143171/neonicotinoid-insecticides-in-pollen-honey-and-adult-bees-in-colonies-of-the-european-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-in-egypt
#14
Garry Codling, Yahya Al Naggar, John P Giesy, Albert J Robertson
Honeybee losses have been attributed to multiple stressors and factors including the neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs). Much of the study of hive contamination has been focused upon temperate regions such as Europe, Canada and the United States. This study looks for the first time at honey, pollen and bees collected from across the Nile Delta in Egypt in both the spring and summer planting season of 2013. There is limited information upon the frequency of use of NIs in Egypt but the ratio of positive identification and concentrations of NIs are comparable to other regions...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138744/multiple-myeloma-in-an-amur-tiger-panthera-tigris-altaica
#15
Alison M Lee, Naomi Guppy, John Bainbridge, Hanne Jahns
The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is an endangered tiger subspecies. An adult zoo-bred female was found collapsed, and died despite supportive treatment. Hematology and biochemistry showed pancytopenia and hyperglobulinemia, and serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal band in the β-globulin region. Necropsy demonstrated hemoabdomen, multifocal lytic bone marrow lesions, splenomegaly, and hemorrhagic hepatic nodules, with left medial lobe rupture. There were mutifocal hemorrhages in the subcutis, lung, epicardium, and intestinal mucosa...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136254/completion-of-multiple-fellowships-by-orthopedic-surgeons-analysis-of-the-american-board-of-orthopaedic-surgery-certification-database
#16
J Mason DePasse, Alan H Daniels, Wesley Durand, Brandon Kingrey, John Prodromo, Mary K Mulcahey
Orthopedic surgeons have become increasingly subspecialized, and recent studies have shown that American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) Step II applicants are performing a higher percentage of their cases within their chosen subspecialties. However, these studies focused exclusively on surgeons who have completed a single fellowship; little data exist on those who pursue a second fellowship. All applicants to the ABOS Part II examination from 2004 to 2016 were classified by their self-reported fellowship training history using the ABOS Part II examination database...
November 11, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136137/copy-number-variation-and-expression-analysis-reveals-a-non-orthologous-pinta-gene-family-member-involved-in-butterfly-vision
#17
Aide Macias-Muñoz, Kyle J McCulloch, Adriana D Briscoe
Vertebrate (CRALBP) and Drosophila (PINTA) proteins with a CRAL-TRIO domain transport retinal-based chromophores that bind to opsin proteins and are necessary for phototransduction. The CRAL-TRIO domain gene family is composed of genes that encode proteins with a common N-terminal structural domain. While there is an expansion of this gene family in Lepidoptera, there is no lepidopteran ortholog of pinta. Further, the function of these genes in lepidopterans has not yet been established. Here we explored the molecular evolution and expression of CRAL-TRIO domain genes in the butterfly Heliconius melpomene in order to identify a member of this gene family as a candidate chromophore transporter...
November 9, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134663/multiple-plasmid-borne-virulence-genes-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-ssp-capsici-critical-for-disease-development-in-pepper
#18
In Sun Hwang, Eom-Ji Oh, Donghyuk Kim, Chang-Sik Oh
Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici is a Gram-positive plant-pathogenic bacterium causing bacterial canker disease in pepper. Virulence genes and mechanisms of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici in pepper have not yet been studied. To identify virulence genes of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici, comparative genome analyses with C. michiganensis ssp. capsici and its related C. michiganensis subspecies, and functional analysis of its putative virulence genes during infection were performed. The C. michiganensis ssp...
November 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134018/a-gene-tree-test-of-the-traditional-taxonomy-of-american-deer-the-importance-of-voucher-specimens-geographic-data-and-dense-sampling
#19
Eliécer E Gutiérrez, Kristofer M Helgen, Molly M McDonough, Franziska Bauer, Melissa T R Hawkins, Luis A Escobedo-Morales, Bruce D Patterson, Jesús E Maldonado
The taxonomy of American deer has been established almost entirely on the basis of morphological data and without the use of explicit phylogenetic methods; hence, phylogenetic analyses including data for all of the currently recognized species, even if based on a single gene, might improve current understanding of their taxonomy. We tested the monophyly of the morphology-defined genera and species of New World deer (Odocoileini) with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. This is the first such test conducted using extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133987/a-review-of-the-land-snail-genus-alycaeus-gastropoda-alycaeidae-in-peninsular-malaysia
#20
Junn Kitt Foon, Thor-Seng Liew
A total of 11 species and 1 subspecies of Alycaeus were recognised in Peninsular Malaysia prior to this study. However, these taxonomic descriptions of Alycaeus taxa were based on limited numbers of examined materials, where a whole spectrum of morphological variations were not accounted for and diagnoses were often provided without sufficient comparison between congeners from across the peninsula. We reviewed Peninsular Malaysian Alycaeus through the examination of 5137 specimens in 522 collection lots from all major museum collections and literature sources...
2017: ZooKeys
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