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Priscilla Hakime Scalize, Karina F Bombonato-Prado, Luiz Gustavo de Sousa, Adalberto Luiz Rosa, Marcio Mateus Beloti, Marisa Semprini, Rossano Gimenes, Adriana L G de Almeida, Fabíola Singaretti de Oliveira, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo, Selma Siessere
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that impairs proper bone remodeling. Guided bone regeneration is a surgical technique that improves bone defect in a particular region through new bone formation, using barrier materials (e.g. membranes) to protect the space adjacent to the bone defect. The polytetrafluorethylene membrane is widely used in guided bone regeneration, however, new membranes are being investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of P(VDFTrFE)/BT [poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate] membrane on in vivo bone formation...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Ricarda Lechner, David Putzer, Michael Liebensteiner, Christian Bach, Martin Thaler
PURPOSE: Bone graft substitutes have been successfully used in posterolateral lumbar fusion, anterior cervical fusion and animal studies. This study has been conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in instrumented anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) procedure. METHODS: In a prospective clinical study, ALIF cages were prefilled with β-TCP and additionally fixated with posterior pedicle screw. Computed tomography (CT) and X-rays were performed one year after surgery...
October 21, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Collin W Blackburn, Sarah R Vossoughi, Bukola Ojo, Prakash Gorroochurn, Charles C Marboe, Yelena Akelina, Robert J Strauch
Background During microvascular anastomosis, needle placement is facilitated by inserting the tips of the forceps into the lumen of the vessel, rather than grasping and everting the luminal wall, to minimize trauma to the vessel. This study examines whether the vessel wall can be grasped and everted during microvascular anastomosis without compromising surgical outcomes. Methods A total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 252 and 483 g were used. Bilateral anastomoses of the animals' femoral arteries (mean size: 0...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Rachel B Matusow, Ian P Herring, J Phillip Pickett, Natalia Henao-Guerrero, Stephen R Werre
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topically applied 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride-0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (DHTM) on incidence and severity of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH; ie, intraocular pressure [IOP] > 25 mm Hg) in dogs undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification. DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled study. ANIMALS 103 dogs (180 eyes). PROCEDURES Pertinent history, signalment, and ophthalmic examination findings were recorded. Dogs received 1 drop of DHTM or sham treatment solution (sterile, buffered, isotonic eye drops) in both eyes 14 hours and 2 hours before anesthetic induction and at the time of corneal incision closure (ie, end of surgery); IOPs were assessed by rebound tonometry 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after surgery and between 7:30 and 8:00 am on the following day...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
A C Paulus, S Haßelt, V Jansson, A Giurea, H Neuhaus, T M Grupp, S Utzschneider
Introduction. Increasing interest developed in the use of carbon-fiber-reinforced-poly-ether-ether-ketones (CFR-PEEK) as an alternative bearing material in knee arthroplasty. The effects of CFR-PEEK wear in in vitro and animal studies are controversially discussed, as there are no data available concerning human tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze human tissue containing CFR-PEEK as well as UHMWPE wear debris. The authors hypothesized no difference between the used biomaterials. Methods and Materials...
2016: BioMed Research International
Francesca Salamanna, Veronica Borsari, Silvia Brogini, Gianluca Giavaresi, Annapaola Parrilli, Simona Cepollaro, Matteo Cadossi, Lucia Martini, Antonio Mazzotti, Milena Fini
One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Bret H Clough, Eoin P McNeill, Daniel Palmer, Ulf Krause, Thomas J Bartosh, Christopher D Chaput, Carl A Gregory
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spine pain and the disability associated with it are epidemic in the United States. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, >650,000 spinal fusion surgeries are performed annually in the US and yet there is a failure rate of 15-40% when standard methods employing current commercial bone substitutes are utilized. Autologous bone graft is the gold standard in terms of fusion success, but the morbidity associated with the procedure and limitations in the availability of sufficient material has limited its use in the majority of cases...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Armando H Norman, Andrew J Russell, Claudia Merli
The UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is the largest pay-for-performance scheme in the world. This ethnographic study explored how QOF's monetary logic influences the approach to healthcare in UK general practice. From August 2013 to April 2014, we researched two UK general practice surgeries and one general practice training programme. These environments provided the opportunity for studying various spaces such as QOF meetings, consultation rooms, QOF recoding sessions, and the collection of computer-screen images depicting how patients' biomarkers are evaluated and costed through software systems...
October 11, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Ahmet Hüseyin Acar, Hilal Alan, Cem Özgür, Nigar Vardi, Fatih Asutay, Çiğdem Güler
This study aims to evaluate the possible effect of more cortical bone decortication (CBD) on guided bone augmentation. A total of 16 New Zealand rabbits and 32 titanium domes were used. No cortical bone decortication was applied to the control group and in the study groups, the cortical bones were decorticated with a round burr (Group A: 1 hole with bleeding, Group B: 5 holes with bleeding, Group C: a thin layer of compact bone was completely removed with no bleeding). Then 2 titanium domes were placed on the calvarium of each rabbit with hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Shery Park, Hu Zhao, Mark Urata, Yang Chai
Repair of calvarial bony defects remains challenging for craniofacial surgeons. Injury experiments on animal calvarial bones are widely used to study healing mechanisms and test tissue engineering approaches. Previously we identified Gli1+ cells within the calvarial sutures as stem cells supporting calvarial bone turnover and injury repair. In this study, we tested the regenerative capacity of the suture region compared to other areas of calvarial bone. Injuries were made to mouse sagittal sutures or other areas of the calvarial bone at varying distances from the suture...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Joceline S Liu, Matthew I Bury, Natalie J Fuller, Renea M Sturm, Nida Ahmad, Arun K Sharma
Substitution urethroplasty for the treatment of male stricture disease is often accompanied by subsequent tissue fibrosis and secondary stricture formation. Patients with pre-existing morbidities are often at increased risk of urethral stricture recurrence brought upon in-part by delayed vascularization accompanied by overactive inflammatory responses following surgery. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the functional utility of a cell/scaffold composite graft comprised of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) to modulate inflammation and wound healing in a rodent model of substitution urethroplasty...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
David S Freedman, Joseph B Schroeder, Gregory I Telian, Zhengyang Zhang, Smrithi Sunil, Jason T Ritt
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Philipp Lingohr, Jonas Dohmen, Hanno Matthaei, Timo Schwandt, Kathy Stein, Gun-Soo Hong, Julia Steitz, Thomas Longerich, Edwin Bölke, Sven Wehner, Jörg C Kalff
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic surgery (LS) has proved superior compared to conventional surgery (CS) regarding morbidity, length of hospital stay, rate of wound infection and time until recovery. An improved preservation of the postoperative immune function is assumed to contribute to these benefits though the role of the local peritoneal immune response is still poorly understood. Our study investigates the peritoneal immune response subsequent to abdominal surgery and compares it between laparoscopic and conventional surgery to find an immunological explanation for the clinically proven benefits of LS...
October 19, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
R Antanaitis, V Žilaitis, V Juozaitiene, R Stoškus
The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the acidity and temperature of the contents of the reticulorumen and abomasum in the first 10 days after calving and to evaluate these factors as predictive traits for the diagnosis of subclinical acidosis. The acidity and temperature of the contents of the reticulorumen and abomasum were measured using specific smaXtec boluses manufactured for animal care. According to the directions of the manufacturer, the boluses were inserted into the reticulorumen of the cows researched with the help of a specific tool...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Saul Wilson, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, John W Miller, Chandan G Reddy, Sina Safayi, Douglas C Fredericks, Nicholas D Jeffery, Nicole A DeVries-Watson, Sara K Shivapour, Stephanus Viljoen, Brian D Dalm, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Michael D Johnson, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a large animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), for use in translational studies of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of spasticity. We seek to establish thresholds for the SCS parameters associated with reduction of post-SCI spasticity in the pelvic limbs, with implications for patients. STUDY DESIGN: The weight-drop method was used to create a moderate SCI in adult sheep, leading to mild spasticity in the pelvic limbs. Electrodes for electromyography (EMG) and an epidural spinal cord stimulator were then implanted...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Wu-Yi Sun, Shan-Shan Hu, Jing-Jing Wu, Qiong Huang, Yang Ma, Qing-Tong Wang, Jing-Yu Chen, Wei Wei
β-arrestins, including β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2, are multifunctional adaptor proteins. β-arrestins have recently been found to play new roles in regulating intracellular signalling networks associated with malignant cell functions. Altered β-arrestin expression has been reported in many cancers, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear. We therefore examined the roles of β-arrestins in HCC using an animal model of progressive HCC, HCC patient samples and HCC cell lines with stepwise metastatic potential...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
N Tozon, P Kramaric, V Kos Kadunc, G Sersa, M Cemazar
The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of electrochemotherapy (ECT) with cisplatin as a single or adjuvant treatment for sarcoids in equids. Different treatment options with different success rates were proposed. Thirty-one horses and one donkey with different clinical type, size and location of tumours were treated with ECT as a single treatment (18 animals with 52 tumour nodules) or as adjuvant treatment with marginal surgical excision (14 animals with 18 tumour nodules). In animals treated only with ECT with cisplatin, complete response was obtained in 48/52 (92...
October 7, 2016: Veterinary Record
Or Friedman, Ehud Arad, Oded Ben Amotz
In the pursuit of success in sports, some athletes are not deterred by health risks associated with the (mis)use of black market preparations of dubious origin as performance-enhancing agents. Several studies published in the recent years demonstrated that anabolic-androgenic steroids, but also stimulants and growth hormones, are misused by numerous recreational athletes from all over the world. Trenbolone is an anabolic steroid routinely used in the finishing phase of beef production to improve animal performance and feed efficiency...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Zhenlong Liu, Xiaoqing Hu, Zhentao Man, Jiying Zhang, Yanfang Jiang, Yingfang Ao
Though many surgical animal models have been used to induce osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint, they always open the capsule of the joint. Any surgical procedures that incises the capsule may cause inflammation, pain, and possibly altered gait. One common disadvantage of these surgically induced animal models is that they may affect the initial structures and synovial fluid in joint. These animal models may not be suitable for research into synovial fluid changes during early OA. This study aimed to create an animal model of early OA by resecting the medial collateral ligament (MCL) outside of the capsule...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
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