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Computer vision

Nicolaas I Bohnen, Jacob Haugen, Andrew Ridder, Vikas Kotagal, Roger L Albin, Kirk A Frey, Martijn L T M Müller
Background: Visual function deficits are more common in imbalance-predominant compared to tremor-predominant PD suggesting a pathophysiological role of impaired visual functions in axial motor impairments. Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes in color discrimination and motor impairments in PD while accounting for cognitive or other confounder factors. Methods: PD subjects (n=49, age 66.7±8.3 years; Hoehn & Yahr stage 2...
November 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Zhengxia Zou, Zhenwei Shi
We propose a new paradigm for target detection in high resolution aerial remote sensing images under small target priors. Previous remote sensing target detection methods frame the detection as learning of detection model + inference of class-label and bounding-box coordinates. Instead, we formulate it from a Bayesian view that at inference stage, the detection model is adaptively updated to maximize its posterior that is determined by both training and observation. We call this paradigm "random access memories (RAM)...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Malia A Gehan, Noah Fahlgren, Arash Abbasi, Jeffrey C Berry, Steven T Callen, Leonardo Chavez, Andrew N Doust, Max J Feldman, Kerrigan B Gilbert, John G Hodge, J Steen Hoyer, Andy Lin, Suxing Liu, César Lizárraga, Argelia Lorence, Michael Miller, Eric Platon, Monica Tessman, Tony Sax
Systems for collecting image data in conjunction with computer vision techniques are a powerful tool for increasing the temporal resolution at which plant phenotypes can be measured non-destructively. Computational tools that are flexible and extendable are needed to address the diversity of plant phenotyping problems. We previously described the Plant Computer Vision (PlantCV) software package, which is an image processing toolkit for plant phenotyping analysis. The goal of the PlantCV project is to develop a set of modular, reusable, and repurposable tools for plant image analysis that are open-source and community-developed...
2017: PeerJ
Dawid Połap, Karolina Kęsik, Kamil Książek, Marcin Woźniak
Augmented reality (AR) is becoming increasingly popular due to its numerous applications. This is especially evident in games, medicine, education, and other areas that support our everyday activities. Moreover, this kind of computer system not only improves our vision and our perception of the world that surrounds us, but also adds additional elements, modifies existing ones, and gives additional guidance. In this article, we focus on interpreting a reality-based real-time environment evaluation for informing the user about impending obstacles...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
David Caruso, Alexandre Eudes, Martial Sanfourche, David Vissière, Guy Le Besnerais
Visual-inertial Navigation Systems (VINS) are nowadays used for robotic or augmented reality applications. They aim to compute the motion of the robot or the pedestrian in an environment that is unknown and does not have specific localization infrastructure. Because of the low quality of inertial sensors that can be used reasonably for these two applications, state of the art VINS rely heavily on the visual information to correct at high frequency the drift of inertial sensors integration. These methods struggle when environment does not provide usable visual features, such than in low-light of texture-less areas...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
Niek H Benerink, Frank T J M Zaal, Remy Casanova, Nathalie Bonnardel, Reinoud J Bootsma
In many daily situations, our behavior is coordinated with that of others. This study investigated this coordination in a doubles-pong task. In this task, two participants each controlled a paddle that could move laterally near the bottom of a shared computer screen. With their paddles, the players needed to block balls that moved down under an angle. In doing so, they needed to make sure that their paddles did not collide. A successful interception led to the ball bouncing back upwards. Importantly, all communication other than through vision of the shared screen was excluded...
December 2, 2017: Human Movement Science
Francisco M Costela, Sidika Kajtezovic, Russell L Woods
Purpose: Eccentric viewing is a common strategy used by people with central vision loss (CVL) to direct the eye such that the image falls onto functioning peripheral retina, known as the preferred retinal locus (PRL). It has been long acknowledged that we do not know whether the PRL used in a fixation test is also used when performing tasks. We present an innovative method to determine whether the same PRL observed during a fixation task was used to watch videos and whether poor resolution affects gaze location...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ning Zhang, Hao Li, Zheng-Kuan Xu, Wei-Shan Chen, Qi-Xin Chen, Fang-Cai Li
Background: Advanced ankylosing spondylitis is often associated with thoracolumbar kyphosis, resulting in an abnormal spinopelvic balance and pelvic morphology. Different osteotomy techniques have been used to correct AS deformities, unfortunnaly, not all AS patients can gain spinal sagittal balance and good horizontal vision after osteotomy. Materials and Methods: Fourteen consecutive AS patients with severe thoracolumbar kyphosis who were treated with two-level PSO were studied retrospectively...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Bohan Wang, Hsing-Wen Wang, Hengchang Guo, Erik Anderson, Qinggong Tang, Tongtong Wu, Reuben Falola, Tikina Smith, Peter M Andrews, Yu Chen
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a progressive loss of renal function over time. Histopathological analysis of the condition of glomeruli and the proximal convolutional tubules over time can provide valuable insights into the progression of CKD. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technology that can analyze the microscopic structures of a kidney in a nondestructive manner. Recently, we have shown that OCT can provide real-time imaging of kidney microstructures in vivo without administering exogenous contrast agents...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Carmen Pons, Reece Mazade, Jianzhong Jin, Mitchell W Dul, Qasim Zaidi, Jose-Manuel Alonso
Artists and astronomers noticed centuries ago that humans perceive dark features in an image differently from light ones; however, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these dark/light asymmetries remained unknown. Based on computational modeling of neuronal responses, we have previously proposed that such perceptual dark/light asymmetries originate from a luminance/response saturation within the ON retinal pathway. Consistent with this prediction, here we show that stimulus conditions that increase ON luminance/response saturation (e...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Jordan A Carlson, Bo Liu, James F Sallis, Jacqueline Kerr, J Aaron Hipp, Vincent S Staggs, Amy Papa, Kelsey Dean, Nuno M Vasconcelos
Technological advances provide opportunities for automating direct observations of physical activity, which allow for continuous monitoring and feedback. This pilot study evaluated the initial validity of computer vision algorithms for ecological assessment of physical activity. The sample comprised 6630 seconds per camera (three cameras in total) of video capturing up to nine participants engaged in sitting, standing, walking, and jogging in an open outdoor space while wearing accelerometers. Computer vision algorithms were developed to assess the number and proportion of people in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, and group-based metabolic equivalents of tasks (MET)-minutes...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jingyang Zhou, Noah C Benson, Kendrick Kay, Jonathan Winawer
Combining sensory inputs over space and time is fundamental to vision. Population receptive field models have been successful in characterizing spatial encoding throughout the human visual pathways. A parallel question-how visual areas in the human brain process information distributed over time-has received less attention. One challenge is that the most widely used neuroimaging method-fMRI-has coarse temporal resolution compared to the time-scale of neural dynamics. Here, via carefully controlled temporally modulated stimuli, we show that information about temporal processing can be readily derived from fMRI signal amplitudes in male and female subjects...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Reza Farahmandfar, Maedeh Mohseni, Maryam Asnaashari
Due to early deterioration of banana in drying process, almond, quince seed, and tragacanth gums as edible coatings were determined. For this purpose, banana slices were coated in 0.7% solution of each gum and one group remained uncoated as the control. The samples were examined at specific times considering the weight loss, color analyzing (a*, b*, and L*) through the method computer vision, color difference index, browning index, and rehydration after the samples being dried. The results showed that the weight loss of the coated samples was significantly (p < ...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
(no author information available yet)
Vehicle detection in aerial images is an important and challenging task. Traditionally, many target detection models based on sliding-window fashion were developed and achieved acceptable performance, but these models are time-consuming in the detection phase. Recently, with the great success of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in computer vision, many state-of-the-art detectors have been designed based on deep CNNs. However, these CNN-based detectors are inefficient when applied in aerial image data due to the fact that the existing CNN-based models struggle with small-size object detection and precise localization...
November 24, 2017: Sensors
Zhikai Liang, Piyush Pandey, Vincent Stoerger, Yuhang Xu, Yumou Qiu, Yufeng Ge, James C Schnable
Background: Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is one of three crops, along with rice and wheat, responsible for more than 1/2 of all calories consumed around the world. Increasing the yield and stress tolerance of these crops is essential to meet the growing need for food. The cost and speed of plant phenotyping is currently the largest constraint on plant breeding efforts. Datasets linking new types of high throughput phenotyping data collected from plants to the performance of the same genotypes under agronomic conditions across a wide range of environments are essential for developing new statistical approaches and computer vision based tools...
November 24, 2017: GigaScience
Odysseas Zisimopoulos, Evangello Flouty, Mark Stacey, Sam Muscroft, Petros Giataganas, Jean Nehme, Andre Chow, Danail Stoyanov
Computer-assisted interventions (CAI) aim to increase the effectiveness, precision and repeatability of procedures to improve surgical outcomes. The presence and motion of surgical tools is a key information input for CAI surgical phase recognition algorithms. Vision-based tool detection and recognition approaches are an attractive solution and can be designed to take advantage of the powerful deep learning paradigm that is rapidly advancing image recognition and classification. The challenge for such algorithms is the availability and quality of labelled data used for training...
October 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
Anselm Brachmann, Christoph Redies
Aesthetics has been the subject of long-standing debates by philosophers and psychologists alike. In psychology, it is generally agreed that aesthetic experience results from an interaction between perception, cognition, and emotion. By experimental means, this triad has been studied in the field of experimental aesthetics, which aims to gain a better understanding of how aesthetic experience relates to fundamental principles of human visual perception and brain processes. Recently, researchers in computer vision have also gained interest in the topic, giving rise to the field of computational aesthetics...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Timnit Gebru, Jonathan Krause, Yilun Wang, Duyun Chen, Jia Deng, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Li Fei-Fei
The United States spends more than $250 million each year on the American Community Survey (ACS), a labor-intensive door-to-door study that measures statistics relating to race, gender, education, occupation, unemployment, and other demographic factors. Although a comprehensive source of data, the lag between demographic changes and their appearance in the ACS can exceed several years. As digital imagery becomes ubiquitous and machine vision techniques improve, automated data analysis may become an increasingly practical supplement to the ACS...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nicolas Brichet, Christian Fournier, Olivier Turc, Olivier Strauss, Simon Artzet, Christophe Pradal, Claude Welcker, François Tardieu, Llorenç Cabrera-Bosquet
Background: In maize, silks are hundreds of filaments that simultaneously emerge from the ear for collecting pollen over a period of 1-7 days, which largely determines grain number especially under water deficit. Silk growth is a major trait for drought tolerance in maize, but its phenotyping is difficult at throughputs needed for genetic analyses. Results: We have developed a reproducible pipeline that follows ear and silk growths every day for hundreds of plants, based on an ear detection algorithm that drives a robotized camera for obtaining detailed images of ears and silks...
2017: Plant Methods
Eymi Valery Cazas-Duran, Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira-Bullen, Otávio Pagin, Bruna Stuchi Centurion-Pagin
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Tonsilloliths and abnormal stylohyoid complex may have similar symptoms to others of different aetiology. Individuals with cleft lip and palate describe similar symptoms because of the anatomical implications that are peculiar to this anomaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal stylohyoid complex and tonsilloliths on cone beam computed tomography in individuals with cleft lip and palate. METHODS: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 66 CT scans out of of 2,794 were analysed, on i- Cat ® vision software with 0...
November 23, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
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