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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028197/multi-task-vehicle-detection-with-region-of-interest-voting
#1
Wenqing Chu, Yao Liu, Chen Shen, Deng Cai, Xian-Sheng Hua
Vehicle detection is a challenging problem in autonomous driving systems, due to its large structural and appearance variations. In this paper, we propose a novel vehicle detection scheme based on multi-task deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) and region-of-interest (RoI) voting. In the design of CNN architecture, we enrich the supervised information with subcategory, region overlap, bounding-box regression and category of each training RoI as a multi-task learning framework. This design allows the CNN model to share visual knowledge among different vehicle attributes simultaneously, thus detection robustness can be effectively improved...
October 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028195/tensor-rank-preserving-discriminant-analysis-for-facial-recognition
#2
Dapeng Tao, Yanan Guo, Yaotang Li, Xinbo Gao
Facial recognition, one of the basic topics in computer vision and pattern recognition, has received substantial attention in recent years. However, for those traditional facial recognition algorithms, the facial images are reshaped to a long vector, thereby losing part of the original spatial constraints of each pixel. In this paper, a new tensor-based feature extraction algorithm termed tensor rank preserving discriminant analysis (TRPDA) for facial image recognition is proposed; the proposed method involves two stages: in the first stage, the low-dimensional tensor subspace of the original input tensor samples was obtained; in the second stage, discriminative locality alignment was utilized to obtain the ultimate vector feature representation for subsequent facial recognition...
October 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027696/computer-aided-evaluation-of-blood-vessel-geometry-from-acoustic-images
#3
Stefan B Lindström, Fredrik Uhlin, Niclas Bjarnegård, Micael Gylling, Kamilla Nilsson, Christina Svensson, Pia Yngman-Uhlin, Toste Länne
A method for computer-aided assessment of blood vessel geometries based on shape-fitting algorithms from metric vision was evaluated. Acoustic images of cross sections of the radial artery and cephalic vein were acquired, and medical practitioners used a computer application to measure the wall thickness and nominal diameter of these blood vessels with a caliper method and the shape-fitting method. The methods performed equally well for wall thickness measurements. The shape-fitting method was preferable for measuring the diameter, since it reduced systematic errors by up to 63% in the case of the cephalic vein because of its eccentricity...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027198/shape-analysis-of-spatial-relationships-between-orbito-ocular-and-endocranial-structures-in-modern-humans-and-fossil-hominids
#4
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, Michael Masters, Emiliano Bruner
The orbits and eyes of modern humans are situated directly below the frontal lobes and anterior to the temporal lobes. Contiguity between these orbital and cerebral elements could generate spatial constraints, and potentially lead to deformation of the eye and reduced visual acuity during development. In this shape analysis we evaluate whether and to what extent covariation exists between ocular morphology and the size and spatial position of the frontal and temporal areas in adult modern humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate patterns of variation among the brain and eyes, while computed tomography (CT) was used to compare cranial morphology in this anatomical region among modern humans, extinct hominids and chimpanzees...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023217/visual-impairment-by-multiple-vascular-embolization-with-hydroxyapatite-particles
#5
Yayoi Marumo, Miki Hiraoka, Masato Hashimoto, Hiroshi Ohguro
We demonstrate a case of ocular impairment caused by a hydroxyapatite filler injection and review the prior literature on clinical presentations. A healthy woman, who received a hydroxyapatite filler injection into the glabella for nose augmentation suddenly had symptoms of nausea, diplopia, visual loss in the left eye, and impaired consciousness. Her left eye showed paresis of the inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve, conjunctival injection, cell infiltration in the anterior chamber, and multiple white spots in the nasal fundus...
October 12, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022943/simultaneous-measurement-of-sleep-and-feeding-in-individual-drosophila
#6
Keith R Murphy, Jin Hong Park, Robert Huber, William W Ja
Drosophila is widely used for the dissection of genetic and neuronal mechanisms of behavior. Recently, flies have emerged as a model for investigating the regulation of feeding and sleep. Although typically studied in isolation, increasing evidence points to a fundamental connection between these behaviors. Thus, a system for measuring sleep and feeding simultaneously in a single integrated system is important for interpreting behavioral shifts of either state. Here, we describe the construction and use of the Activity Recording Capillary Feeder or CAFE (ARC), a machine-vision (automated image tracking)-based system for the integrated measurement of sleep and feeding in individual Drosophila...
November 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019950/computer-vision-based-structural-displacement-measurement-robust-to-light-induced-image-degradation-for-in-service-bridges
#7
Junhwa Lee, Kyoung-Chan Lee, Soojin Cho, Sung-Han Sim
The displacement responses of a civil engineering structure can provide important information regarding structural behaviors that help in assessing safety and serviceability. A displacement measurement using conventional devices, such as the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), is challenging owing to issues related to inconvenient sensor installation that often requires additional temporary structures. A promising alternative is offered by computer vision, which typically provides a low-cost and non-contact displacement measurement that converts the movement of an object, mostly an attached marker, in the captured images into structural displacement...
October 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994413/flexed8-the-first-member-of-a-fast-and-flexible-sample-changer-family-for-macromolecular-crystallography
#8
Gergely Papp, Franck Felisaz, Clement Sorez, Marcos Lopez-Marrero, Robert Janocha, Babu Manjasetty, Alexandre Gobbo, Hassan Belrhali, Matthew W Bowler, Florent Cipriani
Automated sample changers are now standard equipment for modern macromolecular crystallography synchrotron beamlines. Nevertheless, most are only compatible with a single type of sample holder and puck. Recent work aimed at reducing sample-handling efforts and crystal-alignment times at beamlines has resulted in a new generation of compact and precise sample holders for cryocrystallography: miniSPINE and NewPin [see the companion paper by Papp et al. (2017, Acta Cryst., D73, 829-840)]. With full data collection now possible within seconds at most advanced beamlines, and future fourth-generation synchrotron sources promising to extract data in a few tens of milliseconds, the time taken to mount and centre a sample is rate-limiting...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991906/object-detection-through-search-with-a-foveated-visual-system
#9
Emre Akbas, Miguel P Eckstein
Humans and many other species sense visual information with varying spatial resolution across the visual field (foveated vision) and deploy eye movements to actively sample regions of interests in scenes. The advantage of such varying resolution architecture is a reduced computational, hence metabolic cost. But what are the performance costs of such processing strategy relative to a scheme that processes the visual field at high spatial resolution? Here we first focus on visual search and combine object detectors from computer vision with a recent model of peripheral pooling regions found at the V1 layer of the human visual system...
October 9, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991753/a-survey-on-computer-vision-for-assistive-medical-diagnosis-from-faces
#10
Jerome Thevenot, Miguel Bordallo Lopez, Abdenour Hadid
Automatic medical diagnosis is an emerging center of interest in computer vision as it provides unobtrusive objective information on a patient's condition. The face, as a mirror of health status, can reveal symptomatic indications of specific diseases. Thus, the detection of facial abnormalities or atypical features is at upmost importance when it comes to medical diagnostics. This survey aims to give an overview of the recent developments in medical diagnostics from facial images based on computer vision methods...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991744/convolutional-dictionary-learning-acceleration-and-convergence
#11
Il Yong Chun, Jeffrey A Fessler
Convolutional dictionary learning (CDL or sparsifying CDL) has many applications in image processing and computer vision. There has been growing interest in developing efficient algorithms for CDL, mostly relying on the augmented Lagrangian (AL) method or the variant alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). When their parameters are properly tuned, AL methods have shown fast convergence in CDL. However, the parameter tuning process is not trivial due to its data dependence and, in practice, the convergence of AL methods depends on the AL parameters for nonconvex CDL problems...
October 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991099/nonsurgical-management-of-retained-needlefish-jaw
#12
Clarissa Kum, Jessica R Chang, Anna M Gruener, Timothy J McCulley
While scuba diving, the left medial canthus of a 53-year-old man was pierced by a needlefish. He immediately lost vision in his left eye. An orbital computed tomographic scan showed the needlefish jaw in the left optic canal. The left medial orbit was explored surgically but no foreign object was removed. One month later, MRI confirmed the presence of the retained needlefish jaw. A conservative approach was taken and the patient remained stable over 3 months of follow-up.
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989829/bony-hyperostosis-recurrence-after-complete-resection-of-sphenoorbital-meningioma
#13
Gmaan Alzhrani, William Couldwell
Bony hyperostosis is commonly associated with meningioma growth and is considered one of the characteristic signs on imaging; however, recurrence of meningiomas in the sphenoorbital area, including associated hyperostosis, is typically precluded by gross total resection of the lesion. This 63-year-old man presented with progressive double vision and proptosis in the right eye. He underwent frontotemporal craniotomy and partial removal after magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a right sphenoorbital meningioma extending to the orbit and middle fossa...
August 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989773/a-generalized-equation-for-the-calculation-of-receptor-noise-limited-colour-distances-in-n-chromatic-visual-systems
#14
R C Clark, R D Santer, J S Brebner
Researchers must assess similarities and differences in colour from an animal's eye view when investigating hypotheses in ecology, evolution and behaviour. Nervous systems generate colour perceptions by comparing the responses of different spectral classes of photoreceptor through colour opponent mechanisms, and the performance of these mechanisms is limited by photoreceptor noise. Accordingly, the receptor noise limited (RNL) colour distance model of Vorobyev and Osorio (Vorobyev & Osorio 1998 Proc. R. Soc...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989735/perception-of-global-image-contrast-involves-transparent-spatial-filtering-and-the-integration-and-suppression-of-local-contrasts-not-rms-contrast
#15
Tim S Meese, Daniel H Baker, Robert J Summers
When adjusting the contrast setting on a television set, we experience a perceptual change in the global image contrast. But how is that statistic computed? We addressed this using a contrast-matching task for checkerboard configurations of micro-patterns in which the contrasts and spatial spreads of two interdigitated components were controlled independently. When the patterns differed greatly in contrast, the higher contrast determined the perceived global contrast. Crucially, however, low contrast additions of one pattern to intermediate contrasts of the other caused a paradoxical reduction in the perceived global contrast...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982791/radiomics-in-brain-tumor-image-assessment-quantitative-feature-descriptors-and-machine-learning-approaches
#16
REVIEW
M Zhou, J Scott, B Chaudhury, L Hall, D Goldgof, K W Yeom, M Iv, Y Ou, J Kalpathy-Cramer, S Napel, R Gillies, O Gevaert, R Gatenby
Radiomics describes a broad set of computational methods that extract quantitative features from radiographic images. The resulting features can be used to inform imaging diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy response in oncology. However, major challenges remain for methodologic developments to optimize feature extraction and provide rapid information flow in clinical settings. Equally important, to be clinically useful, predictive radiomic properties must be clearly linked to meaningful biologic characteristics and qualitative imaging properties familiar to radiologists...
October 5, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980750/computer-vision-syndrome-and-ergonomic-practices-among-undergraduate-university-students
#17
Lizette Mowatt, Carron Gordon, Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Thaon Jones
AIM: To determine the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) and ergonomic practices among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences at The University of the West Indies (UWI), Jamaica. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was done with a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine students participated; 78% were females. The mean age was 21.6 years. Neck pain (75.1%), eye strain (67%), shoulder pain (65.5%) and eye burn (61...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978733/head-movements-quadruple-the-range-of-speeds-encoded-by-the-insect-motion-vision-system-in-hawkmoths
#18
Shane P Windsor, Graham K Taylor
Flying insects use compensatory head movements to stabilize gaze. Like other optokinetic responses, these movements can reduce image displacement, motion and misalignment, and simplify the optic flow field. Because gaze is imperfectly stabilized in insects, we hypothesized that compensatory head movements serve to extend the range of velocities of self-motion that the visual system encodes. We tested this by measuring head movements in hawkmoths Hyles lineata responding to full-field visual stimuli of differing oscillation amplitudes, oscillation frequencies and spatial frequencies...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976316/deep-domain-generalization-with-structured-low-rank-constraint
#19
Zhengming Ding, Yun Fu
Domain adaptation nowadays attracts increasing interests in pattern recognition and computer vision field, since it is an appealing technique in fighting off weakly labeled or even totally unlabeled target data by leveraging knowledge from external well-learned sources. Conventional domain adaptation assumes that target data are still accessible in the training stage. However, we would always confront such cases in reality that the target data are totally blind in the training stage. This is extremely challenging since we have no prior knowledge of the target...
September 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975849/computer-vision-syndrome-implications-for-the-occupational-health-nurse
#20
Ann Regina Lurati
Computers and other digital devices are commonly used both in the workplace and during leisure time. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a new health-related condition that negatively affects workers. This article reviews the pathology of and interventions for CVS with implications for the occupational health nurse.
October 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
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