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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732233/piecewise-convexity-of-artificial-neural-networks
#1
Blaine Rister, Daniel L Rubin
Although artificial neural networks have shown great promise in applications including computer vision and speech recognition, there remains considerable practical and theoretical difficulty in optimizing their parameters. The seemingly unreasonable success of gradient descent methods in minimizing these non-convex functions remains poorly understood. In this work we offer some theoretical guarantees for networks with piecewise affine activation functions, which have in recent years become the norm. We prove three main results...
July 3, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731432/multivariate-approach-for-alzheimer-s-disease-detection-using-stationary-wavelet-entropy-and-predator-prey-particle-swarm-optimization
#2
Yudong Zhang, Shuihua Wang, Yuxiu Sui, Ming Yang, Bin Liu, Hong Cheng, Junding Sun, Wenjuan Jia, Preetha Phillips, Juan Manuel Gorriz
BACKGROUND: The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease is increasing rapidly every year. Scholars often use computer vision and machine learning methods to develop an automatic diagnosis system. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we developed a novel machine learning system that can make diagnoses automatically from brain magnetic resonance images. METHODS: First, the brain imaging was processed, including skull stripping and spatial normalization...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728043/autofocus-on-moving-object-in-scanning-electron-microscope
#3
Andrey V Kudryavtsev, Sounkalo Dembélé, Nadine Piat
The sharpness of the images coming from a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is a very important property for many computer vision applications at micro- and nanoscale. It represents how much object details are distinctive in the images: the object may be perceived sharp or blurred. Image sharpness highly depends on the value of focal distance, or working distance in the case of the SEM. Autofocus is the technique allowing to automatically adjust the working distance to maximize the sharpness. Most of the existing algorithms allows working only with a static object which is enough for the tasks of visualization, manual microanalysis or microcharacterization...
July 12, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726116/a-computationally-efficient-method-for-hand-eye-calibration
#4
Zhiqiang Zhang, Lin Zhang, Guang-Zhong Yang
PURPOSE: Surgical robots with cooperative control and semiautonomous features have shown increasing clinical potential, particularly for repetitive tasks under imaging and vision guidance. Effective performance of an autonomous task requires accurate hand-eye calibration so that the transformation between the robot coordinate frame and the camera coordinates is well defined. In practice, due to changes in surgical instruments, online hand-eye calibration must be performed regularly. In order to ensure seamless execution of the surgical procedure without affecting the normal surgical workflow, it is important to derive fast and efficient hand-eye calibration methods...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725370/emlen-funnel-experiments-revisited-methods-update-for-studying-compass-orientation-in-songbirds
#5
Giuseppe Bianco, Mihaela Ilieva, Clas Veibäck, Kristoffer Öfjäll, Alicja Gadomska, Gustaf Hendeby, Michael Felsberg, Fredrik Gustafsson, Susanne Åkesson
Migratory songbirds carry an inherited capacity to migrate several thousand kilometers each year crossing continental landmasses and barriers between distant breeding sites and wintering areas. How individual songbirds manage with extreme precision to find their way is still largely unknown. The functional characteristics of biological compasses used by songbird migrants has mainly been investigated by recording the birds directed migratory activity in circular cages, so-called Emlen funnels. This method is 50 years old and has not received major updates over the past decades...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724702/stereopsis-in-animals-evolution-function-and-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Vivek Nityananda, Jenny C A Read
Stereopsis is the computation of depth information from views acquired simultaneously from different points in space. For many years, stereopsis was thought to be confined to primates and other mammals with front-facing eyes. However, stereopsis has now been demonstrated in many other animals, including lateral-eyed prey mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates. The diversity of animals known to have stereo vision allows us to begin to investigate ideas about its evolution and the underlying selective pressures in different animals...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#7
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
July 19, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719247/telehealth-in-schools-using-a-systematic-educational-model-based-on-fiction-screenplays-interactive-documentaries-and-three-dimensional-computer-graphics
#8
Diogo Julien Miranda, Chao Lung Wen
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies suggest the need of a global vision in academic reform, leading to education re-invention. This would include problem-based education using transversal topics, developing of thinking skills, social interaction, and information-processing skills. We aimed to develop a new educational model in health with modular components to be broadcast and applied as a tele-education course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a systematic model based on a "Skills and Goals Matrix" to adapt scientific contents on fictional screenplays, three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics of the human body, and interactive documentaries...
July 18, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718954/power-profiles-in-multifocal-contact-lenses-with-variable-multifocal-zone
#9
Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Alberto Domínguez-Vicent, Santiago García-Lázaro, José J Esteve-Taboada, Alejandro Cerviño
BACKGROUND: The power profile of multifocal contact lenses has been demonstrated to report important information that could be used during the fitting process. The aim of this work is to describe the power profile of a recent set of gas permeable multifocal contact lenses as a function of the pupil radius. METHODS: The measured multifocal contact lenses have a centre-distance design, and are available with five distance-vision diameters (XS, S, M, L and XL) and two different additions: Type A (up to +2...
July 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717579/deep-learning-based-automated-segmentation-of-macular-edema-in-optical-coherence-tomography
#10
Cecilia S Lee, Ariel J Tyring, Nicolaas P Deruyter, Yue Wu, Ariel Rokem, Aaron Y Lee
Evaluation of clinical images is essential for diagnosis in many specialties. Therefore the development of computer vision algorithms to help analyze biomedical images will be important. In ophthalmology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is critical for managing retinal conditions. We developed a convolutional neural network (CNN) that detects intraretinal fluid (IRF) on OCT in a manner indistinguishable from clinicians. Using 1,289 OCT images, the CNN segmented images with a 0.911 cross-validated Dice coefficient, compared with segmentations by experts...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715955/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-human-face-perception
#11
Kalanit Grill-Spector, Kevin S Weiner, Kendrick Kay, Jesse Gomez
Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704631/driver-movement-patterns-indicate-distraction-and-engagement
#12
Robert G Radwin, John D Lee, Oguz Akkas
Objective This research considers how driver movements in video clips of naturalistic driving are related to observer subjective ratings of distraction and engagement behaviors. Background Naturalistic driving video provides a unique window into driver behavior unmatched by crash data, roadside observations, or driving simulator experiments. However, manually coding many thousands of hours of video is impractical. An objective method is needed to identify driver behaviors suggestive of distracted or disengaged driving for automated computer vision analysis to access this rich source of data...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704206/an-autonomous-robot-inspired-by-insect-neurophysiology-pursues-moving-features-in-natural-environments
#13
Zahra M Bagheri, Benjamin S Cazzolato, Steven Grainger, David C O'Carroll, Steven D Wiederman
OBJECTIVE: Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. APPROACH: We used our recent recordings from 'small target motion detector' neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701559/optimal-background-matching-camouflage
#14
Constantine Michalis, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel, David P Gibson, Innes C Cuthill
Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701558/modulation-frequency-as-a-cue-for-auditory-speed-perception
#15
Irene Senna, Cesare V Parise, Marc O Ernst
Unlike vision, the mechanisms underlying auditory motion perception are poorly understood. Here we describe an auditory motion illusion revealing a novel cue to auditory speed perception: the temporal frequency of amplitude modulation (AM-frequency), typical for rattling sounds. Naturally, corrugated objects sliding across each other generate rattling sounds whose AM-frequency tends to directly correlate with speed. We found that AM-frequency modulates auditory speed perception in a highly systematic fashion: moving sounds with higher AM-frequency are perceived as moving faster than sounds with lower AM-frequency...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700902/a-novel-algorithm-to-detect-glaucoma-risk-using-texton-and-local-configuration-pattern-features-extracted-from-fundus-images
#16
U Rajendra Acharya, Shreya Bhat, Joel E W Koh, Sulatha V Bhandary, Hojjat Adeli
Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy defined by characteristic damage to the optic nerve and accompanying visual field deficits. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent irreversible vision loss and ultimate blindness. Current techniques for computer-aided analysis of the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) are expensive and require keen interpretation by trained specialists. Hence, an automated system is highly desirable for a cost-effective and accurate screening for the diagnosis of glaucoma...
June 29, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698556/location-sensitive-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-for-segmentation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities
#17
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Tom Heskes, Inge W M van Uden, Clara I Sanchez, Geert Litjens, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Bram van Ginneken, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
The anatomical location of imaging features is of crucial importance for accurate diagnosis in many medical tasks. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have had huge successes in computer vision, but they lack the natural ability to incorporate the anatomical location in their decision making process, hindering success in some medical image analysis tasks. In this paper, to integrate the anatomical location information into the network, we propose several deep CNN architectures that consider multi-scale patches or take explicit location features while training...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697838/-hypertension-and-intermittent-convulsions-for-one-month-in-a-school-age-child
#18
Mao-Qiang Tian, Shu-Yi Liu, Juan Li, Xiao-Mei Shu
Childhood polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare systemic vasculitis and the delayed diagnosis and treatment will cause high incidence of sequelae and high mortality. This article reports a girl with childhood PAN due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The girl aged ten years was admitted to the hospital due to hypertension and convulsions for one month. She had complaints of headache, vomiting, and blurred vision before convulsions. At six months before admission, a mass was observed in the neck...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692989/an-algorithm-for-finding-the-most-similar-given-sized-subgraphs-in-two-weighted-graphs
#19
Xu Yang, Hong Qiao, Zhi-Yong Liu
We propose a weighted common subgraph (WCS) matching algorithm to find the most similar subgraphs in two labeled weighted graphs. WCS matching, as a natural generalization of equal-sized graph matching and subgraph matching, has found wide applications in many computer vision and machine learning tasks. In this brief, WCS matching is first formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem over the set of partial permutation matrices. Then, it is approximately solved by a recently proposed combinatorial optimization framework--graduated nonconvexity and concavity procedure...
July 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692964/joint-semantic-and-latent-attribute-modelling-for-cross-class-transfer-learning
#20
Peixi Peng, Yonghong Tian, Tao Xiang, Yaowei Wang, Massimiliano Pontil, Tiejun Huang
A number of vision problems such as zero-shot learning and person re-identification can be considered as cross-class transfer learning problems. As mid-level semantic properties shared cross different object classes, attributes have been studied extensively for knowledge-transfer across classes. Most previous attribute learning methods focus only on human-defined/nameable semantic attributes, whilst ignoring the fact there also exist undefined/latent shareable visual properties, or latent attributes. These latent attributes can be either discriminative or non-discriminative parts depending on whether they can contribute to an object recognition task...
July 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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