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Computer vision

Paul Verlaine Gakne, Kyle O'Keefe
This paper presents a method of fusing the ego-motion of a robot or a land vehicle estimated from an upward-facing camera with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals for navigation purposes in urban environments. A sky-pointing camera is mounted on the top of a car and synchronized with a GNSS receiver. The advantages of this configuration are two-fold: firstly, for the GNSS signals, the upward-facing camera will be used to classify the acquired images into sky and non-sky (also known as segmentation)...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Sijie Song, Cuiling Lan, Junliang Xing, Wenjun Zeng, Jiaying Liu
Human action analytics has attracted a lot of attention for decades in computer vision. It is important to extract discriminative spatio-temporal features to model the spatial and temporal evolutions of different actions. In this paper, we propose a spatial and temporal attention model to explore the spatial and temporal discriminative features for human action recognition and detection from skeleton data. We build our networks based on the recurrent neural networks with long short-term memory units. The learned model is capable of selectively focusing on discriminative joints of skeletons within each input frame and paying different levels of attention to the outputs of different frames...
July 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Guoxian Dai, Jin Xie, Yi Fang
How to effectively retrieve desired 3D models with simple queries is a long-standing problem in computer vision community. The model-based approach is quite straightforward but nontrivial, since people could not always have the desired 3D query model available by side. Recently, large amounts of wide-screen electronic devices are prevail in our daily lives, which makes the sketch-based 3D shape retrieval a promising candidate due to its simpleness and efficiency. The main challenge of sketch-based approach is the huge modality gap between sketch and 3D shape...
July 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Mehmet Sefa Orak, Amir Nasrollahi, Turgut Ozturk, David Mas, Belen Ferrer, Piervincenzo Rizzo
The in-situ measurement of thermal stress in beams or continuous welded rails may prevent structural anomalies such as buckling. This study proposed a non-contact monitoring/inspection approach based on the use of a smartphone and a computer vision algorithm to estimate the vibrating characteristics of beams subjected to thermal stress. It is hypothesized that the vibration of a beam can be captured using a smartphone operating at frame rates higher than conventional 30 Hz, and the first few natural frequencies of the beam can be extracted using a computer vision algorithm...
April 18, 2018: Sensors
Gianni Virgili, Ruthy Acosta, Sharon A Bentley, Giovanni Giacomelli, Claire Allcock, Jennifer R Evans
BACKGROUND: The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different visual reading aids for adults with low vision...
April 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Enzo Liotti, Carlos Arteta, Andrew Zisserman, Andrew Lui, Victor Lempitsky, Patrick S Grant
The crystallization of solidifying Al-Cu alloys over a wide range of conditions was studied in situ by synchrotron x-ray radiography, and the data were analyzed using a computer vision algorithm trained using machine learning. The effect of cooling rate and solute concentration on nucleation undercooling, crystal formation rate, and crystal growth rate was measured automatically for thousands of separate crystals, which was impossible to achieve manually. Nucleation undercooling distributions confirmed the efficiency of extrinsic grain refiners and gave support to the widely assumed free growth model of heterogeneous nucleation...
April 2018: Science Advances
Mario Dipoppa, Adam Ranson, Michael Krumin, Marius Pachitariu, Matteo Carandini, Kenneth D Harris
Cortical computation arises from the interaction of multiple neuronal types, including pyramidal (Pyr) cells and interneurons expressing Sst, Vip, or Pvalb. To study the circuit underlying such interactions, we imaged these four types of cells in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Our recordings in darkness were consistent with a "disinhibitory" model in which locomotion activates Vip cells, thus inhibiting Sst cells and disinhibiting Pyr cells. However, the disinhibitory model failed when visual stimuli were present: locomotion increased Sst cell responses to large stimuli and Vip cell responses to small stimuli...
April 11, 2018: Neuron
Paul Blanc-Durand, Axel Van Der Gucht, Niklaus Schaefer, Emmanuel Itti, John O Prior
INTRODUCTION: Amino-acids positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used in the diagnostic workup of patients with gliomas, including differential diagnosis, evaluation of tumor extension, treatment planning and follow-up. Recently, progresses of computer vision and machine learning have been translated for medical imaging. Aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of an automated 18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (18F-FET) PET lesion detection and segmentation relying on a full 3D U-Net Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)...
2018: PloS One
Pierre Gilfriche, Véronique Deschodt-Arsac, Estelle Blons, Laurent M Arsac
Diverse indicators of postural control in Humans have been explored for decades, mostly based on the trajectory of the center-of-pressure. Classical approaches focus on variability, based on the notion that if a posture is too variable, the subject is not stable. Going deeper, an improved understanding of underlying physiology has been gained from studying variability in different frequency ranges, pointing to specific short-loops (proprioception), and long-loops (visuo-vestibular) in neural control. More recently, fractal analyses have proliferated and become useful additional metrics of postural control...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Ramesh S Doddamani, Rajesh K Meena, Dattaraj Sawarkar
Background: Meningiomas give rise to the dural tail sign (DTS) on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI). The presence of DTS does not always qualify for a meningioma, as it is seen in only 60-72% of cases. This sign has been described in various other lesions like lymphomas, metastasis, hemangiopericytomas, schwannomas and very rarely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The characteristics of dural-based GBMs are discussed here, as only eleven such cases are reported in the literature till date...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Anastassia Angelopoulou, Jose Garcia Rodriguez, Sergio Orts-Escolano, Gaurav Gupta, Alexandra Psarrou
This work presents the design of a real-time system to model visual objects with the use of self-organising networks. The architecture of the system addresses multiple computer vision tasks such as image segmentation, optimal parameter estimation and object representation. We first develop a framework for building non-rigid shapes using the growth mechanism of the self-organising maps, and then we define an optimal number of nodes without overfitting or underfitting the network based on the knowledge obtained from information-theoretic considerations...
2018: Neural Computing & Applications
Andrés Schlageter-Tello, Tom Van Hertem, Eddie A M Bokkers, Stefano Viazzi, Claudia Bahr, Kees Lokhorst
The objective of this study was to determine if a 3-dimensional computer vision automatic locomotion scoring (3D-ALS) method was able to outperform human observers for classifying cows as lame or nonlame and for detecting cows affected and nonaffected by specific type(s) of hoof lesion. Data collection was carried out in 2 experimental sessions (5 mo apart). In every session all cows were assessed for (1) locomotion by 2 observers (Obs1 and Obs2) and by a 3D-ALS; and (2) identification of different types of hoof lesions during hoof trimming (i...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jana Wäldchen, Michael Rzanny, Marco Seeland, Patrick Mäder
Current rates of species loss triggered numerous attempts to protect and conserve biodiversity. Species conservation, however, requires species identification skills, a competence obtained through intensive training and experience. Field researchers, land managers, educators, civil servants, and the interested public would greatly benefit from accessible, up-to-date tools automating the process of species identification. Currently, relevant technologies, such as digital cameras, mobile devices, and remote access to databases, are ubiquitously available, accompanied by significant advances in image processing and pattern recognition...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Can Xin, Jianjian Zhang, Zhengwei Li, Zhongwei Xiong, Bangkun Yang, Xiaolin Wu, Hao Wang, Yichun Zou, Rongqing Wu, Wenyuan Zhao, Jincao Chen
RATIONALE: Extracranial-intracranial saphenous vein bypass (EC-IC SVB) remains indispensable for treating giant cavernous aneurysms. We report an unusual case of a giant cavernous aneurysm in an elderly patient treated with EC-IC SVB in a hybrid operating room. Immediately following proximal ligation of the internal carotid artery (ICA), she suffered an acute intraoperative encephalocele. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 71-year-old woman had suffered from severe headache and double vision for 4 months...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Serena Yeung, N Lance Downing, Li Fei-Fei, Arnold Milstein
The Institute of Medicine’s 1999 report on preventable patient harm in hospitals provoked requirements for public reporting of errors and financial penalties for preventable hospital-acquired conditions. Checklists, protocols, root-cause analyses, programs for creating a culture of safety, and..
April 5, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Yingchao Song, Haibo Luo, Junkai Ma, Bin Hui, Zheng Chang
Sky detection plays an essential role in various computer vision applications. Most existing sky detection approaches, being trained on ideal dataset, may lose efficacy when facing unfavorable conditions like the effects of weather and lighting conditions. In this paper, a novel algorithm for sky detection in hazy images is proposed from the perspective of probing the density of haze. We address the problem by an image segmentation and a region-level classification. To characterize the sky of hazy scenes, we unprecedentedly introduce several haze-relevant features that reflect the perceptual hazy density and the scene depth...
April 1, 2018: Sensors
Tomislav Matić, Ivan Aleksi, Željko Hocenski, Dieter Kraus
In this paper we propose a novel real-time Biscuit Tile Segmentation (BTS) method for images from ceramic tile production line. BTS method is based on signal change detection and contour tracing with a main goal of separating tile pixels from background in images captured on the production line. Usually, human operators are visually inspecting and classifying produced ceramic tiles. Computer vision and image processing techniques can automate visual inspection process if they fulfill real-time requirements...
March 30, 2018: ISA Transactions
Lingying Luo, Dandan Guo, Guanghong Zhou, Kunjie Chen
Researchers nowadays have paid much attention to the relationships between tenderness and marbling, or physiological age. While the marbling was mainly evaluated qualitatively with scores or grades, and rarely related with physiological age. Present study was carried out to analyze the marbling features of longissimus dorsi muscle between the 12th and 13th ribs from 18, 36, 54 and 72 months old Simmental steers were quantitatively described with area and perimeter using computer vision technique. Relationship between Warner-Bratzler Shear force (WBSF), physiological age and the marbling features were examined performing regression analysis...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
David H Foster
The natural world is optically unconstrained. Surface properties may vary from one point to another, and reflected light may vary from one instant to the next. The aim of this work is to quantify some of the physical failures of color vision performance that result from uncertainty. In computational simulations with images of vegetated and nonvegetated outdoor scenes, it is shown that color provides an unreliable guide to surface identity. It is also shown that changes in illuminant may cause colors to no longer match and the relations between individual colors to vary...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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