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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534786/evolutionary-computing-enriched-computer-aided-diagnosis-system-for-diabetic-retinopathy-a-survey
#1
Romany Mansour
The alterations caused due to diabetes mellitus results into significant micro-vasculature that eventually causes diabetic retinopathy (DR) that keeps on increasing as per time and eventually causes complete vision loss. Identifying subtle variations in morphological changes in retinal blood vessels, optic disk, exudates, micro-aneurysms, hemorrhage etc is complicate and requires robust computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system so as to enable earlier and efficient DR diagnosis practices. In majority of the existing CAD systems, the need of functional enhancement has been realized time by time to ensure accurate and time efficient DR...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534771/dynamic-graph-cuts-in-parallel
#2
Miao Yu, Shuhan Shen, Zhanyi Hu
This work aims at bridging the two important trends in efficient graph cuts in the literature, the one is to decompose a graph into several smaller subgraphs to take the advantage of parallel computation, the other is to reuse the solution of the max-flow problem on a residual graph to boost the efficiency on another similar graph. Our proposed parallel dynamic graph cuts algorithm takes the advantages of both, and is extremely efficient for certain dynamically changing MRF models in computer vision. The performance of our proposed algorithm is validated on two typical dynamic graph cuts problems: the foregroundbackground segmentation in video where similar graph cuts problems need to be solved in sequential and GrabCut where graph cuts is used iteratively...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534344/orbital-lymphangioma-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-12-cases
#3
Young Jun Woo, Chang Yeom Kim, Bradford Sgrignoli, Jin Sook Yoon
PURPOSE: To report the patient characteristics and treatment outcomes in 12 cases of orbital lymphangioma. METHODS: In this study, orbital lymphangioma was diagnosed based on clinical, radiologic (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), and histologic findings when possible. Patients whose vision was not compromised by orbital lymphangioma, or that did not have increased intraocular pressure (IOP), received oral corticosteroids. Orbital lymphangioma that affected vision or increased IOP was treated by surgery, which included aspiration of blood or partial resection with or without injection of a sclerosant...
May 12, 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533466/cultural-evolution-of-military-camouflage
#4
Laszlo Talas, Roland J Baddeley, Innes C Cuthill
While one has evolved and the other been consciously created, animal and military camouflage are expected to show many similar design principles. Using a unique database of calibrated photographs of camouflage uniform patterns, processed using texture and colour analysis methods from computer vision, we show that the parallels with biology are deeper than design for effective concealment. Using two case studies we show that, like many animal colour patterns, military camouflage can serve multiple functions...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533456/colour-vision-and-coevolution-in-avian-brood-parasitism
#5
REVIEW
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Mark E Hauber
The coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts provide a powerful system for investigating the diversity of animal coloration. Specifically, reciprocal selection pressure applied by hosts and brood parasites can give rise to novel forms and functions of animal coloration, which largely differ from those that arise when selection is imposed by predators or mates. In the study of animal colours, avian brood parasite-host dynamics therefore invite special consideration. Rapid advances across disciplines have paved the way for an integrative study of colour and vision in brood parasite-host systems...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532935/toric-outcomes-computer-assisted-registration-versus-intraoperative-aberrometry
#6
Jonathan D Solomon, John Ladas
PURPOSE: To compare refractive outcomes of intraoperative computer-assisted registration and intraoperative aberrometry for the reduction of cylinder during toric intraocular lens (IOL) placement. SETTING: Bowie Vision Institute, Bowie, Maryland, USA. DESIGN: Prospective randomized case series. METHOD: The patients were divided into 2 groups that had toric IOL implantation after phacoemulsification. The intraoperative computer-assisted registration group (Group 1) had preoperative toric calculations...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532357/visual-object-recognition-do-we-finally-know-more-now-than-we-did
#7
Isabel Gauthier, Michael J Tarr
How do we recognize objects despite changes in their appearance? The past three decades have been witness to intense debates regarding both whether objects are encoded invariantly with respect to viewing conditions and whether specialized, separable mechanisms are used for the recognition of different object categories. We argue that such dichotomous debates ask the wrong question. Much more important is the nature of object representations: What are features that enable invariance or differential processing between categories? Although the nature of object features is still an unanswered question, new methods for connecting data to models show significant potential for helping us to better understand neural codes for objects...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532350/corollary-discharge-and-oculomotor-proprioception-cortical-mechanisms-for-spatially-accurate-vision
#8
Linus D Sun, Michael E Goldberg
A classic problem in psychology is understanding how the brain creates a stable and accurate representation of space for perception and action despite a constantly moving eye. Two mechanisms have been proposed to solve this problem: Herman von Helmholtz's idea that the brain uses a corollary discharge of the motor command that moves the eye to adjust the visual representation, and Sir Charles Sherrington's idea that the brain measures eye position to calculate a spatial representation. Here, we discuss the cognitive, neuropsychological, and physiological mechanisms that support each of these ideas...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531141/eyes-of-things
#9
Oscar Deniz, Noelia Vallez, Jose L Espinosa-Aranda, Jose M Rico-Saavedra, Javier Parra-Patino, Gloria Bueno, David Moloney, Alireza Dehghani, Aubrey Dunne, Alain Pagani, Stephan Krauss, Ruben Reiser, Martin Waeny, Matteo Sorci, Tim Llewellynn, Christian Fedorczak, Thierry Larmoire, Marco Herbst, Andre Seirafi, Kasra Seirafi
Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some "classic" features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency), a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous "intelligence"...
May 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530717/sparse-coding-with-memristor-networks
#10
Patrick M Sheridan, Fuxi Cai, Chao Du, Wen Ma, Zhengya Zhang, Wei D Lu
Sparse representation of information provides a powerful means to perform feature extraction on high-dimensional data and is of broad interest for applications in signal processing, computer vision, object recognition and neurobiology. Sparse coding is also believed to be a key mechanism by which biological neural systems can efficiently process a large amount of complex sensory data while consuming very little power. Here, we report the experimental implementation of sparse coding algorithms in a bio-inspired approach using a 32 × 32 crossbar array of analog memristors...
May 22, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530228/generic-decoding-of-seen-and-imagined-objects-using-hierarchical-visual-features
#11
Tomoyasu Horikawa, Yukiyasu Kamitani
Object recognition is a key function in both human and machine vision. While brain decoding of seen and imagined objects has been achieved, the prediction is limited to training examples. We present a decoding approach for arbitrary objects using the machine vision principle that an object category is represented by a set of features rendered invariant through hierarchical processing. We show that visual features, including those derived from a deep convolutional neural network, can be predicted from fMRI patterns, and that greater accuracy is achieved for low-/high-level features with lower-/higher-level visual areas, respectively...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529445/regression-models-on-riemannian-symmetric-spaces
#12
Emil Cornea, Hongtu Zhu, Peter Kim, Joseph G Ibrahim
The aim of this paper is to develop a general regression framework for the analysis of manifold-valued response in a Riemannian symmetric space (RSS) and its association with multiple covariates of interest, such as age or gender, in Euclidean space. Such RSS-valued data arises frequently in medical imaging, surface modeling, and computer vision, among many others. We develop an intrinsic regression model solely based on an intrinsic conditional moment assumption, avoiding specifying any parametric distribution in RSS...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B, Statistical Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514393/-subtraction-ct-angiopulmonographic-assessment-of-the-vascular-bed-and-lung-perfusion-in-patients-with-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-a-pilot-study
#13
T N Veselova, A Yu Demchenkova, T V Martynyuk, N M Danilov, S K Ternovoy, I E Chazova
AIM: To evaluate the vascular bed and lung perfusion in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) by computed tomography (CT) and to compare the severity of pulmonary arterial (PA) thrombotic lesions concurrent with parenchymal perfusion disorders with angiopulmonographic findings and clinical and hemodynamic characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the period from November 2015 to May 2016, 22 patients (7 men, 15 women) aged 27 to 67 years with a verified diagnosis of CTEPH were examined using an Aquilion ONE VISION Edition 640 (Toshiba Medical Systems, Japan) CT scanner with a 320-row detector...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513297/former-food-products-safety-microbiological-quality-and-computer-vision-evaluation-of-packaging-remnants-contamination
#14
M Tretola, A R Di Rosa, E Tirloni, M Ottoboni, C Giromini, F Leone, C E M Bernardi, V Dell'Orto, V Chiofalo, L Pinotti
The use of alternative feed ingredients in farm animal's diets can be an interesting choice from several standpoints, including safety. In this respect, the aim of this study was to investigate the safety features of selected Former Food Products (FFPs) intended for animal nutrition produced in the framework of IZS PLV 06/14 RC project by a FFP processing plant. Six FFP samples, both mash and pelleted, were analysed for the enumeration of Total Viable Count (TVC) (ISO 4833), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528-1), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649-1), coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CPS) (ISO 6888), presumptive B...
May 17, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513203/automating-the-incremental-evolution-of-controllers-for-physical-robots
#15
Andrés Faíña, Lars Toft Jacobsen, Sebastian Risi
Evolutionary robotics is challenged with some key problems that must be solved, or at least mitigated extensively, before it can fulfill some of its promises to deliver highly autonomous and adaptive robots. The reality gap and the ability to transfer phenotypes from simulation to reality constitute one such problem. Another lies in the embodiment of the evolutionary processes, which links to the first, but focuses on how evolution can act on real agents and occur independently from simulation, that is, going from being, as Eiben, Kernbach, & Haasdijk [2012, p...
May 17, 2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508345/deep-monocular-3d-reconstruction-for-assisted-navigation-in-bronchoscopy
#16
Marco Visentini-Scarzanella, Takamasa Sugiura, Toshimitsu Kaneko, Shinichiro Koto
PURPOSE: In bronchoschopy, computer vision systems for navigation assistance are an attractive low-cost solution to guide the endoscopist to target peripheral lesions for biopsy and histological analysis. We propose a decoupled deep learning architecture that projects input frames onto the domain of CT renderings, thus allowing offline training from patient-specific CT data. METHODS: A fully convolutional network architecture is implemented on GPU and tested on a phantom dataset involving 32 video sequences and [Formula: see text]60k frames with aligned ground truth and renderings, which is made available as the first public dataset for bronchoscopy navigation...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506510/can-occult-invasive-disease-in-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-be-predicted-using-computer-extracted-mammographic-features
#17
Bibo Shi, Lars J Grimm, Maciej A Mazurowski, Jay A Baker, Jeffrey R Marks, Lorraine M King, Carlo C Maley, E Shelley Hwang, Joseph Y Lo
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether mammographic features assessed by radiologists and using computer algorithms are prognostic of occult invasive disease for patients showing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) only in core biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed data from 99 subjects with DCIS (74 pure DCIS, 25 DCIS with occult invasion). We developed a computer-vision algorithm capable of extracting 113 features from magnification views in mammograms and combining these features to predict whether a DCIS case will be upstaged to invasive cancer at the time of definitive surgery...
May 11, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504938/perceptual-real-time-2d-to-3d-conversion-using-cue-fusion
#18
Thomas Leimkuehler, Petr Kellnhofer, Tobias Ritschel, Karol Myszkowski, Hans-Peter Seidel
We propose a system to infer binocular disparity from a monocular video stream in real-time. Different from classic reconstruction of physical depth in computer vision, we compute perceptually plausible disparity, that is numerically inaccurate, but results in a very similar overall depth impression with plausible overall layout, sharp edges, fine details and agreement between luminance and disparity. We use several simple monocular cues to estimate disparity maps and confidence maps of low spatial and temporal resolution in real-time...
May 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502685/transorbital-glue-embolization-of-a-recurrent-venous-varix-using-real-time-image-guidance-in-the-neuroangiography-suite
#19
Sophia F Shakur, Denise Brunozzi, Pete Setabutr, Ahmed E Hussein, Fady T Charbel, Ali Alaraj
Orbital lesions are challenging to access due to their location amidst critical anatomical structures. Here, we demonstrate direct transorbital cannulation of an orbital venous varix using image guidance. A 36-year-old male was diagnosed to have a left orbital venous varix approximately 5 years ago at an outside institution. He subsequently underwent surgery for direct intraoperative embolization of the venous varix followed by surgical resection. The patient recently presented to us with left eye pain, proptosis, double vision, and conjunctival hemorrhage precipitated by straining or lying flat...
May 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502662/-what-not-detectors-help-the-brain-see-in-depth
#20
Nuno R Goncalves, Andrew E Welchman
Binocular stereopsis is one of the primary cues for three-dimensional (3D) vision in species ranging from insects to primates. Understanding how the brain extracts depth from two different retinal images represents a tractable challenge in sensory neuroscience that has so far evaded full explanation. Central to current thinking is the idea that the brain needs to identify matching features in the two retinal images (i.e., solving the "stereoscopic correspondence problem") so that the depth of objects in the world can be triangulated...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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