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atmospheric pollution

Pyeong-Koo Lee, Soonyoung Yu, Hye Jung Chang, Hye Young Cho, Min-Ju Kang, Byung-Gon Chae
Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maryam Bello-Akinosho, Rosina Makofane, Rasheed Adeleke, Mapitsi Thantsha, Michael Pillay, George Johannes Chirima
Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production...
2016: BioMed Research International
Hamza Ferkous, Slimane Merouani, Oualid Hamdaoui, Christian Pétrier
This work explores the effect of persulfate (PS) on the sonochemical degradation of organic pollutants taking naphthol blue black (NBB), an anionic diazo dye, as a substrate model. The sonolytic experiments were conducted in the absence and presence of PS under various experimental conditions including acoustic power (10-80W), frequency (20 and 585kHz) and saturating gas (argon, air and nitrogen). Experimental results showed that PS decomposition into sulfate radical (SO4(-)) takes place by sonolysis and increasing PS concentration up to 1g/L would result in an increase in the NBB degradation rate...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Wenting Dai, Jihong Dong, Wanglin Yan, Jiren Xu
The paper divided the whole coal life cycle, explained each phase characteristics, and took coal mine in China as a study case to assess the ecological risk in coal utilization phase. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) the whole coal life cycle is divided into coal mining, processing, transportation, utilization, and waste disposal. (2) The key points of production organization and characteristics in the five phases have great differences. The coal mining phase is characterized by the damage of the key ecological factors (water, soil, atmosphere, vegetation, etc...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
N Lomtatidze, G Dumbadze, M Chkhaidze, R Khakhnelidze
This paper presents statistical data of 2012-2015 on the diseases caused by the atmospheric air and water pollutions in Ajara region. The research on the content of dust, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide as well as carbon monoxide in the atmospheric air was held together with the National Environment Agency Ajara Monitoring Service. The results of the research have shown that the average content of the dust reached its maximum in 2012 (0.60 mg/m3) and it dropped to the minimum in 2015 (0.441 mg/m3). As for average content of carbon monoxide the maximum was observed in 2013 (3...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Sahar Soltan, Hoda Jafari, Shahrara Afshar, Omid Zabihi
In the present study, silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were loaded to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles by sol-gel method to make a high porosity photocatalyst nano-hybrid. These photocatalysts were synthesized using titanium tetrachloride and tetraethyl orthosilicate as titanium and silicon sources, respectively, and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope methods. Subsequently, the optimizations of the component and operation conditions were investigated. Then, nano-sized TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 were supported on concrete bricks by the dip coating process...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Hu Ningjing, Huang Peng, Zhang Hui, Wang Xiaojing, Zhu Aimei, Liu Jihua, Shi Xuefa
Geochemical sources, spatio-temporal distribution, and associated environmental risk of Cd in the Bohai Sea were investigated using data from 405 surface sediment samples and two sediment cores. Local point Cd sources, TOC content, and currents are the main controlling factors of Cd distribution. The contribution of Cd from river discharge surpasses that from atmospheric deposition. Sediment-quality guidelines, enrichment factors, and chemical fraction analysis were used to assess metal toxicity in the collected sediments...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Baoying Li, Yihe Zhang, Ruifeng Du, Lin Gan, Xuelian Yu
In this paper, novel types of Bi2S3-Au heterostructures are fabricated through rationally controlling the growth atmosphere. Under argon condition, Au nanoparticles are preferentially deposited onto the tips of Bi2S3 nanorods to form Bi2S3-Au dumbbelled heterostructures. In contrast, due to the etching effect by amine, Au nanoparticles are randomly anchored onto the surface of nanorods to form Bi2S3-Au nanocorns in the presence of oxygen. Furthermore, the size of gold nanoparticles can be controlled through adjusting the concentration of reaction precursors...
October 18, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Isabella Gandolfi, Claudia Canedoli, Valeria Imperato, Ilario Tagliaferri, Panagiotis Gkorezis, Jaco Vangronsveld, Emilio Padoa Schioppa, Maddalena Papacchini, Giuseppina Bestetti, Andrea Franzetti
Plants and their associated bacteria have been suggested to play a role in air pollution mitigation, especially in urban areas. Particularly, epiphytic bacteria might be able to degrade atmospheric hydrocarbons. However, phyllospheric bacterial communities are highly variable depending on several factors, e.g. tree species, leaf age and physiology, environmental conditions. In this work, bacterial communities hosted by urban Platanus x acerifolia leaves were taxonomically characterized using high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, and their temporal and spatial variability was assessed by comparing samples collected from different locations in the city of Milan (Italy) and in different months...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Debananda Roy, Gurdeep Singh, Pankaj Yadav
Source apportionment study of PM10 (Particulate Matter) in a critically polluted area of Jharia coalfield, India has been carried out using Dispersion model, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) techniques. Dispersion model Atmospheric Dispersion Model (AERMOD) was introduced to simplify the complexity of sources in Jharia coalfield. PCA and CMB analysis indicates that monitoring stations near the mining area were mainly affected by the emission from open coal mining and its associated activities such as coal transportation, loading and unloading of coal...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Avinash S Bansode, Supriya E More, Ejaz Ahmad Siddiqui, Shruti Satpute, Absar Ahmad, Sudha V Bhoraskar, Vikas L Mathe
The paper reports the use of atmospheric non-thermal plasma torch as a catalyst for degradation of various organic pollutants dissolved in water. A flow of He mixed with air was used to produce the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), at the tip of the torch, using pulsed electric excitation at 12 kV. The torch, operated at a power of 750 mW/mm(2), was seen to completely degrade the aqueous solutions of the pollutants namely methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine-B (RB), at around 10(-4) M concentrations, the concentration of polluants is one order higher than of routinely used heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, within 10 min of irradiation time at room temperature...
October 13, 2016: Chemosphere
C Vijayakumar, M Ramesh, A Murugesan, N Panneerselvam, D Subramaniam, M Bharathiraja
The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sascha Nehr, Elisabeth Hösen, Shin-Ichi Tanabe
Despite the fact that the special characteristics of indoor air pollution make closed environments quite different from outdoor environments, the conceptual ideas for assessing air quality indoors and outdoors are similar. Therefore, the elaboration of International Standards for air quality characterization in view of controlling indoor air quality should resort to this common basis. In this short review we describe the possibilities of standardization of tools dedicated to indoor air quality characterization with a focus on the tools permitting to study the indoor air chemistry...
October 11, 2016: Environment International
Huihong Guo, Hui Wang, Qingqian Liu, Hailong An, Chao Liu, Xinli Xia, Weilun Yin
Air pollution caused by particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is a serious environmental problem. Plants can improve air quality by removing PM2.5 from the atmosphere. However, direct evidence of PM2.5 absorption and assimilation into plants has not yet been found. In this study, we demonstrate that (15)NH4(+) in PM2.5 was absorbed by poplar leaves in low and high PM2.5 treatment groups (namely, LPT and HPT). Then, (15)N was subsequently transferred to other parts of the treated seedlings as shown by (15)N tracing and simulated PM2...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kelly Buettner-Schmidt, Blake Boursaw, Marie L Lobo, Mark J Travers
OBJECTIVE: In 2012, North Dakota enacted a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places. Disparities in tobacco control exist in rural areas. This study's objective was to determine the extent to which the passage of a comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law in a predominantly rural state influenced tobacco smoke pollution in rural and nonrural venues. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: A longitudinal cohort design study comparing the levels of tobacco smoke pollution before and after passage of the statewide smoke-free law was conducted in 64 restaurants and bars statewide in North Dakota...
October 10, 2016: Public Health Nursing
Kazuichi Hayakwa, Ning Tang, Akira Toriba
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Moreover, some oxidative metabolites of these pollutants, such as hydroxylated and epoxide PAHs, cause endocrine disruption or produce reactive oxygen species. These compounds have become a large concern from the view point of particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. This report deals with recent studies concerning analytical methods for PAHs, NPAHs and related compounds in atmospheric and biological samples...
October 9, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Geun-Hye Yu, Seungshik Park, Kwon-Ho Lee
In this study, 24 h size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected between September 2012 and August 2013 at an urban site in Korea to investigate seasonal mass size distributions of PM and its water-soluble components as well as to infer the possible sources of size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) was also computed to identify the possible source regions of size-resolved WSOC. The seasonal average contribution of water-soluble organic matter to PM1...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Mikołaj Maga, Maciej K Janik, Agnieszka Wachsmann, Olga Chrząstek-Janik, Mateusz Koziej, Mateusz Bajkowski, Paweł Maga, Katarzyna Tyrak, Krzysztof Wójcik, Iwona Gregorczyk-Maga, Rafał Niżankowski
BACKGROUND: The poor air quality and cigarette smoking are the most important reasons for increased carbon monoxide (CO) level in exhaled air. However, the influence of high air pollution concentration in big cities on the exhaled CO level has not been well studied yet. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of smoking habit and air pollution in the place of living on the level of CO in exhaled air. METHODS: Citizens from two large cities and one small town in Poland were asked to complete a survey disclosing their place of residence, education level, work status and smoking habits...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Research
Guangping Fan, Yu Wang, Guodong Fang, Xiangdong Zhu, Dongmei Zhou
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are manmade organic compounds, and pollution due to PCBs has been a global environmental problem because of their persistence, long-range atmospheric transport and bioaccumulation. Many physical, chemical and biological technologies have been utilized to remediate PCBs contaminated soils and sediments, and there are some emerging new technologies and combined methods that may provide cost-effective alternatives to the existing remediation practice. This review provides a general overview on the recent developments in chemical treatment and electrokinetic remediation (EK) technologies related to PCBs remediation...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Pankaj Attri, Maksudbek Yusupov, Ji Hoon Park, Lakshmi Prasanna Lingamdinne, Janardhan Reddy Koduru, Masaharu Shiratani, Eun Ha Choi, Annemie Bogaerts
Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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