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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150676/severe-pollution-in-china-amplified-by-atmospheric-moisture
#1
Xuexi Tie, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Di Chang, Ulrich Pöschl, Thorsten Hoffmann, Uli Dusek, Guohui Li, Douglas R Worsnop, Colin D O'Dowd
In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in Beijing shows that atmospheric water vapour plays a critical role in enhancing the heavy haze events. Under weak solar radiation and stagnant moist meteorological conditions in winter, air pollutants and water vapour accumulate in a shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL)...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149710/prevalence-and-sources-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-the-atmospheric-environment-of-lake-victoria-east-africa
#2
Kenneth Arinaitwe, Derek C G Muir, Bernard T Kiremire, Phil Fellin, Henrik Li, Camilla Teixeira, Drake N Mubiru
The large surface area of Lake Victoria (about 68,800 km(2)) makes it vulnerable to high atmospheric deposition of chemical pollutants. We present measurements of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the lake's atmospheric environment. High volume air (24 h) samples were collected within the northern Lake Victoria watershed in Uganda over two periods; 1999-2004 [at Kakira (KAK) and Entebbe (EBB)] and 2008-2010 (at EBB only). Precipitation samples were also collected monthly during the 2008-2010 period at EBB...
November 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145101/the-distribution-and-trends-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-and-mercury-in-marine-mammals-from-canada-s-eastern-arctic
#3
REVIEW
Tanya M Brown, Robie W Macdonald, Derek C G Muir, Robert J Letcher
Arctic contaminant research in the marine environment has focused on organohalogen compounds and mercury mainly because they are bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic. This review summarizes and discusses the patterns and trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Eastern Canadian Arctic relative to the rest of the Canadian Arctic. The review provides explanations for these trends and looks at the implications of climate-related changes on contaminants in these marine mammals in a region that has been reviewed little...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142613/surface-data-assimilation-of-chemical-compounds-over-north-america-and-its-impact-on-air-quality-and-air-quality-health-index-aqhi-forecasts
#4
Alain Robichaud
The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of initializing GEM-MACH, Environment and Climate Change Canada's air quality (AQ) forecast model, with multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOA). A series of 48-h air quality forecasts were launched for July 2012 (summer case) and January 2014 (winter case) for ozone, NO2, and PM2.5. In this setup, the GEM-MACH model (version 1.3.8.2) was initialized with surface analysis increments (from MPSOA) which were projected in the vertical by applying an appropriate fractional weighting in order to obtain 3D analyses in the lower troposphere...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140398/legacy-organochlorine-pollutants-in-glacial-watersheds-a-review
#5
K R Miner, J Blais, C Bogdal, S Villa, M Schwikowski, P Pavlova, C Steinlin, C Gerbi, K J Kreutz
Northern Hemisphere alpine glaciers have been identified as a point of concentration and reemergence of legacy organochlorine pollutants (OCPs). In this review, we compile a selection of published literature combining long-range, global atmospheric transport and distribution-based compartmental environmental flux models, as well as data from glacial meltwater, ice core, crevasse and proglacial lake sediment studies. Regional studies of ice and meltwater in alpine glaciers of the northern latitudes show similarities in sample deposition profiles and concentration due to chemical atmospheric residence time, precipitation type and glacier flow rates...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140324/method-to-retrieve-the-nocturnal-aerosol-optical-depth-with-a-ccd-laser-aerosol-detective-system
#6
Yuxuan Bian, Chunsheng Zhao, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Gang Zhao, Hongjian Liu
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a crucial parameter in describing the atmospheric pollution and analyzing the influences of aerosol on the radiative equilibrium. Currently, no method can precisely and continuously measure the nocturnal AOD. In this study, a novel method was developed to retrieve the nocturnal AOD based on a remote sensing instrument called the charge-coupled device-laser aerosol detective system (CCD-LADS). CCD-LADS consists of a CCD camera, a continuous laser, a fisheye lens, and related filters...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136594/quantitative-assessment-of-human-health-risks-induced-by-vehicle-exhaust-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-at-zhengzhou-via-multimedia-fugacity-models-with-cancer-risk-assessment
#7
Qian Li, Minjeong Kim, Ying Liu, ChangKyoo Yoo
Traffic-related pollution released a large amount of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have severely influenced environmental safety and human health until now. However, the important issue of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from vehicle exhaust in urban populated areas has not been sufficiently investigated yet. This study focused on environmental behavior of vehicle exhaust PAHs (VEPAHs) and resultant health risk on local residents in urban populated areas. This study combined the multimedia fugacity models (Level III and Level IV) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model, for analyzing the VEPAHs' environmental fate and related health risk on local residents in Zhengzhou of the central China...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136593/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-organochlorine-pesticides-in-surface-water-from-the-yongding-river-basin-china-seasonal-distribution-source-apportionment-and-potential-risk-assessment
#8
Yizhen Wang, Shilu Zhang, Wenyan Cui, Xianzhi Meng, Xianqiang Tang
The presence of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 15 persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface water of the Yongding River Basin was analyzed through GC/MS/MS during the spring and summer at 46 sampling sites. The goal was to investigate their seasonal distribution, possible sources, and potential risk. Our results showed that the total PAH concentration in surface water of Yongding River Basin ranged from 41.60 to 1482.60ng/L with a mean value of 137.85ng/L in the spring, and from 53...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134799/e-waste-driven-pollution-in-pakistan-the-first-evidence-of-environmental-and-human-exposure-to-flame-retardants-frs-in-karachi-city
#9
Mehreen Iqbal, Jabir Hussain Syed, Knut Breivik, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal Chaudhry, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Riffat Naseem Malik
Informal e-waste recycling activities have been shown to be a major emitter of organic flame retardants (FRs), contributing to both environmental and human exposure to laborers at e-waste recycling sites in some West African countries, as well as in China and India. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of selected organic FRs in both air and soil samples collected from areas with intensive informal e-waste recycling activities in Karachi, Pakistan. Dechlorane Plus (DP) and "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were often detected in high concentrations in soils, while phosphorous-based FRs (OPFRs) dominated atmospheric samples...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134522/capacity-of-six-shrub-species-to-retain-atmospheric-particulates-with-different-diameters
#10
Xiaodan Sun, Haimei Li, Xiao Guo, Yingkun Sun, Shimei Li
Garden plants can absorb and retain atmospheric particles and are important for remediating environmental pollution. In this study, the dust retention characteristics of six typical shrub species were measured in the greenbelt of a road in the Chengyang District of Qingdao, China, and the maximum capacity for dust retention of each species was determined. The different diameters and areas occupied by particulate matter (PM) were analyzed on the leaf surfaces of the plants. Based on the results for the six shrub species, the rank order of average content of dust retention per unit leaf area was Euonymus japonicus > Pyracantha fortuneana > Ligustrum vicaryi > Amygdalus triloba > Ligustrum sinense > Forsythia suspensa, whereas the rank order of average content per unit volume was E...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132088/analysing-the-impacts-of-air-quality-policies-on-ecosystem-services-a-case-study-for-telemark-norway
#11
L Hein, L White, A Miles, P Roberts
There is an increasing interest in considering the effects of air pollution on ecosystem services supply in order to enhance cost-benefit analyses of air pollution policies. This paper presents a generic, conceptual approach that can be used to link atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to ecosystem services supply and societal benefits. The approach is applied in a case study in the Telemark county of Norway. First, we examine the potential effects of four European air quality policy scenarios on N deposition in the ecosystems of this county...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130366/autophagy-and-inflammation-in-chronic-respiratory-disease
#12
Alexandra C Racanelli, Sarah Ann Kikkers, Augustine M K Choi, Suzanne M Cloonan
Persistent inflammation within the respiratory tract underlies the pathogenesis of numerous chronic pulmonary diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. Chronic inflammation in the lung may arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental influences, including exposure to microbes, particles from the atmosphere, irritants, pollutants, allergens and toxic molecules. To this end, an immediate, strong and highly regulated inflammatory defense mechanism is needed for the successful maintenance of homeostasis within the respiratory system...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129430/relationship-of-particulate-matter-and-ozone-with-3-nitrotyrosine-in-the-atmosphere
#13
Tatsuo Ito, Keiki Ogino, Kenjiro Nagaoka, Kei Takemoto
The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in the past few decades. Bio-aerosol proteins and their chemical modifications, such as 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), in the atmosphere have been attracting attention due to their promotive effects on allergies. 3-NT is generated from the amino acid, tyrosine, through a reaction with ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we measured 3-NT and evaluated the relationships among 3-NT and various pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), NOx (NO + NO2), ozone (O3), PM7, total suspended particulate matter (TSP) containing proteins, humidity, and temperature...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128689/simulating-the-mesoscale-transport-of-krypton-85
#14
Anne Felsberg, J Ole Ross, Clemens Schlosser, Gerald Kirchner
Due to its half-life, chemical inertness and low solubility in water, radioactive (85)Kr is a valuable tracer for testing the performance of atmospheric dispersion models in simulating long-range transport of pollutants. This paper evaluates the capability of simulating the dispersion of radiokrypton emitted by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in north-west France. Three time periods during which elevated activity concentrations of (85)Kr in ground level air were detected in south-west Germany are chosen. Simulations have been performed using the HYSPLIT code and the European Centre for Median-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data base...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127869/trans-boundary-air-pollution-in-a-city-under-various-atmospheric-conditions
#15
Ming Luo, Xiangting Hou, Yefu Gu, Ngar-Cheung Lau, Steve Hung-Lam Yim
Trans-boundary air pollution (TAP) is a crucial factor affecting air quality, and its contribution may vary over time and differ under various atmospheric conditions. This study firstly applies an integrated statistical scheme to estimate the contributions of TAP and local sources to air pollutants in a city, and then investigate the influences of tropical cyclones (TC) on TAP. Hong Kong is chosen as an example because of its significant and special TAP characteristics. This study focuses on four major air pollutants, namely, respirable and fine suspended particulates (RSP/PM10 and FSP/PM2...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127837/usage-proposal-of-a-common-urban-decorative-tree-salix-alba-l-to-monitor-the-dispersion-of-gaseous-mercury-a-case-study-from-turda-romania
#16
J M Esbrí, H Cacovean, P Higueras
Closure of chloralkali plants poses a risk of abandonment of important sources of gaseous mercury. In this work, an assessment has been made of the potential for pollution from one of these plants in the proximity of a densely populated town in central Romania. The work involved a comparison between two major types of monitoring survey: biomonitoring using leaves of a tree common in urban environments; and LUMEX-based gaseous mercury analysis. For biomonitoring, 21 samples from Salix alba L. trees were taken in Turda area...
November 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127795/an-investigation-of-the-leaf-retention-capacity-efficiency-and-mechanism-for-atmospheric-particulate-matter-of-five-greening-tree-species-in-beijing-china
#17
Jinqiang Liu, Zhiguo Cao, Songyan Zou, Huanhuan Liu, Xiao Hai, Shihua Wang, Jie Duan, Benye Xi, Guangxuan Yan, Shaowei Zhang, Zhongkui Jia
Urban trees have the potential to reduce air pollution, but the retention capacity and efficiency of different tree species for atmospheric particulate matter (PM) accumulation and the underlying mechanism hasn't been well understood. To select tree species with high air purification abilities, the supplementing ultrasonic cleaning (UC) procedure was first introduced into the conventional leaf cleaning methods [single water cleaning (WC) or plus brush cleaning (BC)] for eluting the leaf-retained PM. Further updates to the methodology were applied to investigate the retention capacity, efficiency, and mechanism for PM of five typical greening tree species in Beijing, China...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123138/chemical-and-cellular-oxidant-production-induced-by-naphthalene-secondary-organic-aerosol-soa-effect-of-redox-active-metals-and-photochemical-aging
#18
Wing Y Tuet, Yunle Chen, Shierly Fok, Dong Gao, Rodney J Weber, Julie A Champion, Nga L Ng
Exposure to air pollution is a leading global health risk. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitute a large portion of ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study, the water-soluble oxidative potential (OP) determined by dithiothreitol (DTT) consumption and intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production was measured for SOA generated from the photooxidation of naphthalene in the presence of iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate seed particles. The measured intrinsic OP varied for aerosol formed using different initial naphthalene concentrations, however, no trends were observed between OP and bulk aerosol composition or seed type...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120176/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-the-east-antarctic-atmosphere-inter-annual-observations-from-2010-2015-using-high-flow-through-passive-sampling
#19
Susan Bengtson Nash, Sean Wild, Darryl W Hawker, Roger Cropp, Hayley Hung, Frank Wania, Hang Xiao, Pernilla Bohlin Nizzetto, Anders Bignert, Sara Broomhall
In the first multi-year sampling effort for POPs in the eastern Antarctic atmosphere, 32 PCBs and 38 organochlorine pesticides were targeted in air collected with a high-flow-through passive sampler. Agricultural chemicals were found to dominate atmospheric profiles, in particular HCB and endosulfan-I, with average concentrations of 12,600 and 550 fg/m3, respectively. HCB showed higher concentrations in the austral summer, indicative of local, temperature-dependent volatilisation, whilst endosulfan-I appeared to show fresh, late-austral-summer input followed by temporally decreasing levels throughout the year...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116536/spatial-temporal-variations-in-surface-ozone-over-ushuaia-and-the-antarctic-region-observations-from-in-situ-measurements-satellite-data-and-global-models
#20
Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Matthew J Ashfold, Md Firoz Khan, Andrew D Robinson, Conor Bolas, Mohd Talib Latif, Benjamin M Wallis, Mohammed Iqbal Mead, Haris Hafizal Abdul Hamid, Neil R P Harris, Zamzam Tuah Ahmad Ramly, Goh Thian Lai, Ju Neng Liew, Fatimah Ahamad, Royston Uning, Azizan Abu Samah, Khairul Nizam Maulud, Wayan Suparta, Siti Khalijah Zainudin, Muhammad Ikram Abdul Wahab, Mazrura Sahani, Moritz Müller, Foong Swee Yeok, Nasaruddin Abdul Rahman, Aazani Mujahid, Kenobi Isima Morris, Nicholas Dal Sasso
The Antarctic continent is known to be an unpopulated region due to its extreme weather and climate conditions. However, the air quality over this continent can be affected by long-lived anthropogenic pollutants from the mainland. The Argentinian region of Ushuaia is often the main source area of accumulated hazardous gases over the Antarctic Peninsula. The main objective of this study is to report the first in situ observations yet known of surface ozone (O3) over Ushuaia, the Drake Passage, and Coastal Antarctic Peninsula (CAP) on board the RV Australis during the Malaysian Antarctic Scientific Expedition Cruise 2016 (MASEC'16)...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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