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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429776/global-distribution-of-particle-phase-state-in-atmospheric-secondary-organic-aerosols
#1
Manabu Shiraiwa, Ying Li, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Thomas Berkemeier, Spyros N Pandis, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Koop, Ulrich Pöschl
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a large source of uncertainty in our current understanding of climate change and air pollution. The phase state of SOA is important for quantifying their effects on climate and air quality, but its global distribution is poorly characterized. We developed a method to estimate glass transition temperatures based on the molar mass and molecular O:C ratio of SOA components, and we used the global chemistry climate model EMAC with the organic aerosol module ORACLE to predict the phase state of atmospheric SOA...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426293/identifying-thermal-breakdown-products-of-thermoplastics
#2
Marianne Guillemot, Benoît Oury, Sandrine Melin
Polymers processed to produce plastic articles are subjected to temperatures between 150°C and 450°C or more during overheated processing and breakdowns. Heat-based processing of this nature can lead to emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the thermoplastic processing shop. In this study, laboratory experiments, qualitative and quantitative emissions measurement in thermoplastic factories were carried out. The first step was to identify the compounds released depending on the thermoplastic nature, the temperature and the type of process...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426211/dry-particulate-nitrate-deposition-in-china
#3
Lei Liu, Xiuying Zhang, Yan Zhang, Wen xU, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoming Zhang, Junlan Feng, Xinrui Chen, Yuehan Zhang, Xuehe Lu, Shanqian Wang, Wuting Zhang, Limin Zhao
A limited number of ground measurements of dry particulate nitrate deposition (NO3-) makes it difficult and challenging to fully know the status of the spatial and temporal variations of dry NO3- depositions over China. This study tries to expand the ground measurements of NO3- concentrations at monitoring sites to a national scale, based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 columns, NO2 profiles from an atmospheric chemistry transport model (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4, MOZART-4) and monitor-based sources, and then estimates the NO3- depositions on a regional scale based on an inferred model...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425288/tracking-nitrogen-sources-transformation-and-transport-at-a-basin-scale-with-complex-plain-river-networks
#4
Qitao Yi, Qiuwen Chen, Liuming Hu, Wenqing Shi
This research developed an innovative approach to reveal nitrogen sources, transformation and transport in large and complex river networks in the Taihu Lake basin using measurement of dual stable isotopes of nitrate. The spatial patterns of δ15N corresponded to the urbanization level, and the nitrogen cycle was associated with the hydrological regime at the basin level. During the high flow season of summer, nonpoint sources from fertilizer/soils and atmospheric deposition constituted the highest proportion of the total nitrogen load...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421252/altitude-distributions-and-source-analysis-of-ocps-and-pcbs-in-surface-soils-of-changbai-mountain-northeast-china
#5
Xiaochun Wang, Shu Chen, Kuiyuan Wan, Xiaocai Yin, Xiaohua Zhu, Jing Pan, Yongliang Yang
Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soils of Changbai Mountain, Northeastern China, have been quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and the altitude distributions and possible pollution sources were analyzed. The concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs and ∑7PCBs were in the range of 3.09-25.6, 0.96-19.4 and 7.32-26.1 ng/g dw, respectively. The concentration of α-HCH, β-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, PCB 101, 138, 153, and 180 showed increasing trends with altitude...
April 18, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420186/using-moss-to-assess-airborne-heavy-metal-pollution-in-taizhou-china
#6
Xiaoli Zhou, Qin Chen, Chang Liu, Yanming Fang
Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum) were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420130/gaseous-elemental-mercury-and-total-and-leached-mercury-in-building-materials-from-the-former-hg-mining-area-of-abbadia-san-salvatore-central-italy
#7
Orlando Vaselli, Barbara Nisi, Daniele Rappuoli, Jacopo Cabassi, Franco Tassi
Mercury has a strong environmental impact since both its organic and inorganic forms are toxic, and it represents a pollutant of global concern. Liquid Hg is highly volatile and can be released during natural and anthropogenic processes in the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. In this study, the distribution of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) and the total and leached mercury concentrations on paint, plaster, roof tiles, concrete, metals, dust and wood structures were determined in the main buildings and structures of the former Hg-mining area of Abbadia San Salvatore (Siena, Central Italy)...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417281/historical-record-of-anthropogenic-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-a-lake-sediment-from-the-southern-tibetan-plateau
#8
Ruiqiang Yang, Ruichen Zhou, Ting Xie, Chuanyong Jing
High-altitude lake sediments can be used as natural archives to reconstruct the history of pollutants. In this work, the temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in a sediment core collected from the southern Tibetan Plateau (TP), which was dated by using the (210)Pb dating method and validated with the (137)Cs fallout peak. The concentrations of the anthropogenic PAHs (Σ8PAH) in the sediment core ranged from 0.83 to 12 ng/g dw, and the fluxes of the Σ8PAH were in the range of 2...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416223/study-on-emission-of-hazardous-trace-elements-in-a-350%C3%A2-mw-coal-fired-power-plant-part-2-arsenic-chromium-barium-manganese-lead
#9
Shilin Zhao, Yufeng Duan, Lei Chen, Yaning Li, Ting Yao, Shuai Liu, Meng Liu, Jianhong Lu
Hazardous Trace elements (HTEs) emitted from coal combustion has raised widespread concern. Studies on the emission characteristics of five HTEs, namely arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) at three different loads (100%, 83%, 71% output) and different coal types were performed on a 350 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with SCR, ESP + FF, and WFGD. HTEs in the flue gas at the inlet/outlet of each air pollution control device (APCD) were sampled simultaneously based on US EPA Method 29...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415005/agricultural-sustainable-intensification-improved-nitrogen-use-efficiency-and-maintained-high-crop-yield-during-1980-2014-in-northern-china
#10
Xin Zhang, Roland Bol, Clive Rahn, Guangmin Xiao, Fanqiao Meng, Wenliang Wu
Global population increase will require rapid increase of food production from existing agricultural land by 2050, which will inevitably mean the increase of agricultural productivity. Due to agricultural sustainable intensification since the 1990s, crop production in Huantai County of northern China has risen to 15tha(-1)yr(-1) for the annual wheat-maize rotation system. We examined the temporal dynamics of nitrogen (N) budget, N losses, and N use efficiency (NUE) during the 35years (1980-2014) in Huantai...
April 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412622/population-production-pollution-nexus-based-air-pollution-management-model-for-alleviating-the-atmospheric-crisis-in-beijing-china
#11
X T Zeng, Y F Tong, L Cui, X M Kong, Y N Sheng, L Chen, Y P Li
In recent years, increscent emissions in the city of Beijing due to expanded population, accelerated industrialization and inter-regional pollutant transportation have led to hazardous atmospheric pollution issues. Although a number of anthropogenic control measures have been put into use, frequent/severe haze events have still challenged regional governments. In this study, a hybrid population-production-pollution nexus model (PPP) is proposed for air pollution management and air quality planning (AMP) with the aim to coordinate human activities and environmental protection...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411581/silica-nanoparticles-and-lead-acetate-co-exposure-triggered-synergistic-cytotoxicity-in-a549-cells-through-potentiation-of-mitochondria-dependent-apoptosis-induction
#12
Chun-Feng Lu, Li-Zhong Li, Wei Zhou, Jun Zhao, Yi-Mei Wang, Shuang-Qing Peng
The adverse effects of PM2.5 are the results of combined toxicities of finer particles and their adsorbed toxic pollutants. Nevertheless, the combined toxicity of finer particles and air pollutants still remains unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the combined cytotoxicity of silica nanoparticles (nano-SiO2, a typical atmospheric ultrafine particle) and lead acetate (Pb, a representative air pollutant) in A549 cells focusing on mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induction. The results showed that Pb exposure alone induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells, as evidenced by increased apoptotic rate and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, up-regulated caspases 3 and 9 expressions as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411469/primary-hepatocytes-from-arctic-char-salvelinus-alpinus-as-a-relevant-arctic-in-vitro-model-for-screening-contaminants-and-environmental-extracts
#13
Karina Petersen, Maria T Hultman, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Contaminants find their way to the Arctic through long-range atmospheric transport, transport via ocean currents, and through increased anthropogenic activity. Some of the typical pollutants reaching the Arctic (PAHs, PCBs) are known to induce cytochrome P450 1a (CYP1A) protein expression and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In addition, some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as estrogen mimics (xenoestrogens) have been documented in Arctic areas and they may interfere with natural sexual development and reproduction...
April 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401762/methane-black-carbon-and-ethane-emissions-from-natural-gas-flares-in-the-bakken-shale-nd
#14
Alexander Gvakharia, Eric A Kort, Adam R Brandt, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B Ryerson, Joshua P Schwarz, Mackenzie L Smith, Colm Sweeney
Incomplete combustion during flaring can lead to production of black carbon (BC) and loss of methane and other pollutants to the atmosphere, impacting climate and air quality. However, few studies have measured flare efficiency in a real-world setting. We use airborne data of plume samples from 37 unique flares in the Bakken region of North Dakota in May 2014 to calculate emission factors for BC, methane, ethane, and combustion efficiency for methane and ethane. We find no clear relationship between emission factors and aircraft-level wind speed, nor between methane and BC emission factors...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401393/the-role-of-forest-in-mitigating-the-impact-of-atmospheric-dust-pollution-in-a-mixed-landscape
#15
Artur Santos, Pedro Pinho, Silvana Munzi, Maria João Botelho, José Manuel Palma-Oliveira, Cristina Branquinho
Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial and urban areas in reducing atmospheric dust pollution. This was tested using lichen transplants as biomonitors in a Mediterranean regional area with high levels of dry deposition...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399504/source-apportionment-of-pb-containing-particles-in-beijing-during-january-2013
#16
Jing Cai, Jiandong Wang, Yanjun Zhang, Hezhong Tian, Chuanyong Zhu, Deborah S Gross, Min Hu, Jiming Hao, Kebin He, Shuxiao Wang, Mei Zheng
Although leaded gasoline has been banned in some megacities in China since 1997 and nationally since 2000, atmospheric lead (Pb) pollution is still an important issue in China, as its concentration in megacities such as Beijing remains high. To measure the Pb concentration and identify sources of Pb-containing particles in Beijing during January 2013, both an online Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS) and offline filters analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) were used at a monitoring site on the Peking University (PKU) campus...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397785/unexpected-increase-in-the-oxidation-capacity-of-the-urban-atmosphere-of-madrid-spain
#17
A Saiz-Lopez, R Borge, A Notario, J A Adame, D de la Paz, X Querol, B Artíñano, F J Gómez-Moreno, C A Cuevas
Atmospheric oxidants such as ozone (O3), hydroxyl and nitrate radicals (OH and NO3) determine the ability of the urban atmosphere to process organic and inorganic pollutants, which have an impact on air quality, environmental health and climate. Madrid city has experienced an increase of 30-40% in ambient air O3 levels, along with a decrease of 20-40% in NO2, from 2007 to 2014. Using air pollution observations and a high-resolution air quality model, we find a large concentration increase of up to 70% and 90% in OH and NO3, respectively, in downtown Madrid (domain-wide average increase of 10% and 32% for OH and NO3, respectively)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397117/pcdd-f-formation-during-thermal-desorption-of-p-p-ddt-contaminated-soil
#18
Zhonghua Zhao, Mingjiang Ni, Xiaodong Li, Alfons Buekens, Jianhua Yan
Thermal treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contaminated soil was shown in earlier work to generate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). In this study, the PCDD/F were studied arising during the remediation of p,p'-DDT contaminated soil by thermal desorption. Three kinds of soil (sandy, clayey and lateritic soil) were tested to investigate the effect of soil texture on PCDD/F formation. Those soils were artificially polluted with p,p'-DDT, obtaining a concentration level of 100 mg/kg...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395265/current-and-future-emissions-of-primary-pollutants-from-coal-fired-power-plants-in-shaanxi-china
#19
Yong Xu, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying, Hongke Hao, Dexiang Wang, Hongliang Zhang
A high-resolution inventory of primary atmospheric pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi in 2012 was built based on a detailed database compiled at unit level involving unit capacity, boiler size and type, commission time, corresponding control technologies, and average coal quality of 72 power plants. The pollutants included SO2, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)...
April 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393872/water-availability-drives-gas-exchange-and-growth-of-trees-in-northeastern-us-not-elevated-co2-and-reduced-acid-deposition
#20
Mathieu Levesque, Laia Andreu-Hayles, Neil Pederson
Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) exhibit high uncertainty about how climate change, elevated atmospheric CO2 (atm. CO2) concentration, and atmospheric pollutants will impact carbon sequestration in forested ecosystems. Although the individual roles of these environmental factors on tree growth are understood, analyses examining their simultaneous effects are lacking. We used tree-ring isotopic data and structural equation modeling to examine the concurrent and interacting effects of water availability, atm...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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