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atmospheric pollution

Lamri Naidja, Hocine Ali-Khodja, Salah Khardi
In order to assess the significance of PM in ambient air, it is necessary to evaluate their physical and chemical characteristics as well as identify their major emission sources. On a global scale, particulate matter in the atmosphere arises mainly from the combustion process of motorized vehicles, but natural sources are still considered as the major contributors. In Africa, PM emissions differ from those in developed countries; human activities such as biomass burning in households, poor household waste management, and the high number of diesel-powered vehicles are the predominant anthropogenic sources...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lulu Cui, Rui Li, Yunchen Zhang, Ya Meng, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen
Continuous HONO measurement was conducted to study the formation features of HONO during the haze episodes at Shanghai, China. The HONO concentration ranged from 0.26 to 5.84ppb and averaged at 2.31ppb during the measurement period. The HONO concentration during the haze episode (P1), the haze-fog episode (P2) and the clean period (P3) were 2.80, 2.35 and 1.78ppb, respectively. Heterogeneous conversion of NO2 was the dominate pathway for nocturnal HONO formation, and the heterogeneous conversion efficiency of NO2 to HONO was closely associated with the PM2...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jian Zhong, Irina Nikolova, Xiaoming Cai, A Rob MacKenzie, Roy M Harrison
This study implements a two-box model coupled with ultrafine particle (UFP) multicomponent microphysics for a compartmentalised street canyon. Canyon compartmentalisation can be described parsimoniously by three parameters relating to the features of the canyon and the atmospheric state outside the canyon, i.e. the heterogeneity coefficient, the vortex-to-vortex exchange velocity, and the box height ratio. The quasi-steady solutions for the two compartments represent a balance among emissions, microphysical aerosol dynamics (i...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sung-Wook Yun, Philippe C Baveye, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Dong-Hyeon Kang, Si-Young Lee, Min-Jae Kong, Chan-Gi Park, Hae-Do Kim, Jinkwan Son, Chan Yu
Soil contamination due to atmospheric deposition of metals originating from smelters is a global environmental problem. A common problem associated with this contamination is the discrimination between anthropic and natural contributions to soil metal concentrations: In this context, we investigated the characteristics of soil contamination in the surrounding area of a world class smelter. We attempted to combine several approaches in order to identify sources of metals in soils and to examine contamination characteristics, such as pollution level, range, and spatial distribution...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Markus Köhler, Patrick Oßwald, Dominik Krueger, Ryan Whitside
This manuscript describes a high-temperature flow reactor experiment coupled to the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique. This flexible tool offers a detailed observation of chemical gas-phase kinetics in reacting flows under well-controlled conditions. The vast range of operating conditions available in a laminar flow reactor enables access to extraordinary combustion applications that are typically not achievable by flame experiments. These include rich conditions at high temperatures relevant for gasification processes, the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime or investigations of complex technical fuels...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
A Travaglini, S Masieri, C Cavaliere, M A Brighetti
Allergies caused by inhalant allergens, particularly pollens, are steadily increasing in urban centers. It is known that atmospheric pollution is strongly related to the inflammatory disease of the upper and lower airways but it is equally important in the development of sensitization towards pollens. Particulate Matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have an enhancement function on the persistence of pollens in the air, increasing the concentration and duration of pollinosis. It is therefore essential to use air quality control methods in urban centers to monitor the presence of pollen and fine dust that can drive the doctor and the patient to improve prevention, a step of primary importance in the treatment of allergies...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Jose L Roscales, Juan Muñoz-Arnanz, María Ros, Alba Vicente, Laura Barrios, Begoña Jiménez
The Stockholm Convention (SC) on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) calls for the Parties' effectiveness evaluation of those measures taken to meet the reduction and eventual elimination of POPs from the environment. With that goal, air concentrations of different POP families have been measured uninterruptedly since 2008 under the Spanish Monitoring Program (SMP) by means of passive air sampling. This work focuses on data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determined in a total of 321 samples collected seasonally each year in 5 urban and 7 background sites...
March 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guor-Cheng Fang, Chao-Yang Huang, Yuan-Jie Zhuang, Wen-Chuan Huang, Kai-Hsiang Tsai, You-Fu Xiao
The ambient air particulates pollutants of total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 were collected by using PS-1 and Wilbur PM2.5 sampler, simultaneously during the year of 2015-2017 at a photoelectric factory in Science Park of central Taiwan. And those of the ambient air atmospheric metallic elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) concentrations which attached on the TSP and PM2.5 were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. In addition, identifying anthropogenic and natural pollutants sources were conducted by using the enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Yinhong Hu, Xiaolin Dou, Juanyong Li, Feng Li
The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete), permeable pavement (bricks with round holes), shrub coverage ( Buxus megistophylla Levl...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mei Mei, Haojun Song, Lina Chen, Bin Hu, Ru Bai, Diandou Xu, Ying Liu, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated levels of air pollution contribute to an increased incidence or severity of asthma. Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the impact of early-life exposure to size-fractionated ambient particulate matter (PM) on asthma in adults. We aimed to determine the effect on the development and exacerbation of asthma in the adult after the mice were exposed as juveniles to three size-fractionated ambient particulates collected from Beijing...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Qi Yao, Zijiang Yang, Hong Li, Michael D Buser, John D Wanjura, Peter M Downey, Chen Zhang, Collin Craige, Alba Torrents, Laura L McConnell, Gregory A Holt, Cathleen J Hapeman
Poultry-emitted air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and ammonia, have raised concerns due to potential negative effects on human health and the environment. However, developing and optimizing remediation technologies requires a better understanding of air pollutant concentrations, the emission plumes, and the relationships between the pollutants. Therefore, we conducted ten field experiments to characterize PM (total suspended particulate [TSP], particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter [PM10 ], and particulate matter less than 2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xuepeng Zhao, Yangang Liu, Fangquan Yu, Andrew K Heidinger
Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Kelsey Craig
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is an atmospheric pollutant that is moderately persistent in the atmosphere and highly water soluble. When applied as a pesticide, SO2 may be transported, deposited, or transformed in various chemical reactions. SO2 participates in the sulfur biogeochemical cycle, which involves complex reactions of sulfur-containing compounds between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The main degradation route of SO2 is atmospheric oxidation, and sulfur oxides may undergo long-distance transport prior to removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition...
March 11, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ye Zhang, April Z Gu, Tianyu Cen, Xiangyang Li, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Particles exhausted from petrol and diesel consumptions are major components of urban air pollution that can be exposed to human via direct inhalation or other routes due to atmospheric deposition into water and soil. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to modern health care. However, how the petrol and diesel exhaust particles affect the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in various environments remain largely unknown. This study investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of four representative petrol and diesel exhaust particles, namely 97 octane petrol, 93 octane petrol, light diesel oil, and marine heavy diesel oil, on the horizontal transfer of ARGs between two opportunistic Escherichia coli (E...
March 7, 2018: Environment International
Shaofei Kong, Qin Yan, Huang Zheng, Haibiao Liu, Wei Wang, Shurui Zheng, Guowei Yang, Mingming Zheng, Jian Wu, Shihua Qi, Guofeng Shen, Lili Tang, Yan Yin, Tianliang Zhao, Huan Yu, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, Tao Zhang, Jujun Ruan, Mingzhi Huang
Under great efforts in fighting against serious haze problem of China since 2013, decreasing of air pollutants especially for fine particles (PM2.5 ) has been revealed for several key regions. This study tried to answer whether the reduction of PM2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was coincident with PM2.5 because of long-term pollution control measures (PCM), and to assess source-oriented health risks associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. Field measurements were carried out before and after the publishing of local air pollution protection plan for Nanjing, a mega-city in east China...
March 7, 2018: Environment International
Jiafu Li, Ying Zhang, Tingting Sun, Huawei Hao, Hao Wu, Lili Wang, Yuxing Chen, Limin Xing, Zhiguang Niu
In our study, health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere and soil were evaluated. The toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs (TEQ) in surrounding atmosphere and soil of studied MSWI were 0.05-0.12 pg I-TEQ Nm-3 and 7.622-15.450 ng I-TEQ kg-1 , respectively. The PCDFs/PCDDs (F/D) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI ranged from 0...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Giovanni De Feo, Sabino De Gisi, Sabato De Vita, Michele Notarnicola
The main aim of this study was to define and apply a multidisciplinary and multi-criteria approach to sustainability in evaluating alternative end-uses for disused areas. Taking into account the three pillars of sustainability (social, economic and environmental dimension) as well as the need for stakeholders to have new practical instruments, the innovative approach consists of four modules stated (i) sociological, (ii) economic, (iii) environmental and (iv) multi-criteria assessment. By means of a case study on a small Municipality in Southern Italy, three end-uses alternatives, representing three essential services for citizens, were selected: Municipal gym; Market area; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) separate collection centre...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pan-Pan Gao, Yi-Bo Zhao, Hong-Gang Ni
This study reports results from a tunnel experiment impact of real-world traffic-related particle and gas parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and HPAHs) on urban air. The traffic related emission characteristics and subsequent environmental behavior of these compounds were investigated. To understand the significance of real-world transport emissions to the urban air, traffic-related mass emissions of PAHs and HPAHs were estimated based on measured emission factors. According to our results, PAHs and HPAHs emissions via particulate phase were greater than those via gaseous phase; particles in 2...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tobias Daugaard-Petersen, Rikke Langebæk, Frank F Rigét, Markus Dyck, Robert J Letcher, Lars Hyldstrup, Jens-Erik Bech Jensen, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-range transported to the Arctic via atmospheric and oceanic currents, where they biomagnify to high concentrations in the tissues of apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern of POP exposure is their physiological effects on vital organ-tissues posing a threat to the health and survival of polar bears. Here we examined the relationship between selected POPs and baculum bone mineral density (BMD) in the East Greenland and seven Canadian subpopulations of polar bears...
March 6, 2018: Environment International
Fan Wang, Zicheng Zuo, Hong Shang, Yingjie Zhao, Yuliang Li
A moderate method is first developed here for superfast (in seconds) growth of an ultrafine graphdiyne (GDY) nanochain on arbitrary substrates in the atmosphere. This is an environmentally friendly and metal-catalyst-free method, efficiently eliminating extraneous contaminations for the carbon materials. The seamless GDY coating on any substrates demonstrates that an all-carbon GDY possesses outstanding controllability and processability, perfectly compensating for the drawbacks of prevailing all-carbon materials...
March 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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