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atmospheric pollution

M Rumayor, J R Gallego, E Rodríguez-Valdés, M Díaz-Somoano
High contents of mercury (Hg) have been found in old mining-metallurgy sites occurring a widespread contamination and degradation of the land. The ability to identify the Hg species present in these areas is essential to clarify fate of Hg and its bioavailability and additionally, to be able to parameterize remediation techniques based on thermal desorption in order to carry out a full-scale decontamination of the land. This study has proven the usefulness of a thermal programmed desorption procedure (Hg-TPD) for identifying Hg species in contaminated samples related to mining-metallurgy activities...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zorana J Andersen, Line Ravnskjaer, Klaus Kaae Andersen, Steffen Loft, Jorgen Brandt, Thomas Becker, Matthias Ketzel, Ole Hertel, Elsebeth Lynge, Elvira Vaclavik Brauner
BACKGROUND: An association between air pollution and breast cancer risk has been suggested but evidence is sparse and inconclusive. METHODS: We included 22,877 female nurses from the Danish Nurse cohort who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and followed them for incidence of breast cancer (N=1,145) until 2013 in the Danish Cancer Register. We estimated annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µg/m3 (PM2.5) and < 10 µg/m3 (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at nurses' residences since 1990 using an atmospheric chemistry transport model...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Junming Guo, Shichang Kang, Jie Huang, Qianggong Zhang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shiwei Sun, Lekhendra Tripathee, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K Panday, Mika Sillanpää, Rukumesh Paudyal
The Kathmandu Valley, located in the Himalayan foothills in Nepal, is heavily polluted. In order to investigate ambient particulate-bound mercury (Hg) in the Kathmandu Valley, a total 64 total suspended particulates (TSP) samples were collected from a sub-urban site in the Kathmandu Valley, the capital region of Nepal during a sampling period of an entire year (April 2013-April 2014). They were analyzed for ambient particulate-bound Hg (PBM) using thermal desorption combined with cold vapor atomic spectroscopy...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Karla Pozo, Santosh Kumar Sarkar, Victor H Estellano, Soumita Mitra, Ondrej Audi, Petr Kukucka, Petra Přibylová, Jana Klánová, Simonetta Corsolini
Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed concurrently at five sites across Kolkata megacity and the rural mangrove wetland of Sundarban (UNESCO World Heritage Site) between January-March in 2014. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltricholoroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Derived air concentrations (pg/m(3)) for Kolkata ranged: for ∑α- and γ-HCH between 70 and 207 (114 ± 62), ∑6DDTs: 127-216 (161 ± 36), ∑7PCBs: 53-213 (141 ± 64), and ∑10PBDEs: 0...
November 29, 2016: Chemosphere
Frédéric B Piel, Sanjay Tewari, Valentine Brousse, Antonis Analitis, Anna Font, Stephan Menzel, Subarna Chakravorty, Swee Lay Thein, Baba Inusa, Paul Telfer, Marianne de Montalembert, Gary W Fuller, Klea Katsouyanni, David C Rees
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an increasing global health burden. This inherited disease is characterised by a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, which can only partly be explained by genetic factors. Environmental factors are likely to play an important role but studies of their impact on disease severity are limited and their results are often inconsistent. This study investigated associations between a range of environmental factors and hospital admissions of young patients with SCD in London and in Paris between 2008 and 2012...
December 1, 2016: Haematologica
Xingbao Gao, Bingjing Ji, Dahai Yan, Qifei Huang, Xuemei Zhu
Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d(-1)) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Xinyue Guo, Hongbing Ji, Cai Li, Yang Gao, Huaijian Ding, Lei Tang, Jinguo Feng
Miyun Reservoir is one of the most important drinking water sources for Beijing. Thirteen atmospheric PM sampling sites were established around this reservoir to analyze the mineral composition, morphological characteristics, element concentration, and sources of atmospheric PM pollution, using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The average monthly dry deposition flux of aerosols was 15.18 g/m(2), with a range of 5.78-47.56 g/m(2)...
November 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Christina G Duckworth, Codie R Picariello, Rachel K Thomason, Krina S Patel, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser
Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO2, as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni)...
November 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Xiang Gao, Wei Ouyang, Zengchao Hao, Yandan Shi, Peng Wei, Fanghua Hao
Although climate warming and agricultural land use changes are two of the primary instigators of increased diffuse pollution, they are usually considered separately or additively. This likely lead to poor decisions regarding climate adaptation. Climate warming and farmland responses have synergistic consequences for diffuse nitrogen pollution, which are hypothesized to present different spatio-temporal patterns. In this study, we propose a modeling framework to simulate the synergistic impacts of climate warming and warming-induced farmland shifts on diffuse pollution...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Rinda Hedwig, Kurnia Lahna, Zener Sukra Lie, Marincan Pardede, Koo Hendrik Kurniawan, May On Tjia, Kiichiro Kagawa
This report presents the results of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) study on biological and food samples of high water content using a picosecond (ps) laser at low output energy of 10 mJ and low-pressure helium ambient gas at 2 kPa. Evidence of excellent emission spectra of various analyte elements with very low background is demonstrated for a variety of samples without the need of sample pretreatment. Specifically, limits of detection in the range of sub-ppm are obtained for hazardous Pb and B impurities in carrots and meatballs...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Gehui Wang, Renyi Zhang, Mario E Gomez, Lingxiao Yang, Misti Levy Zamora, Min Hu, Yun Lin, Jianfei Peng, Song Guo, Jingjing Meng, Jianjun Li, Chunlei Cheng, Tafeng Hu, Yanqin Ren, Yuesi Wang, Jian Gao, Junji Cao, Zhisheng An, Weijian Zhou, Guohui Li, Jiayuan Wang, Pengfei Tian, Wilmarie Marrero-Ortiz, Jeremiah Secrest, Zhuofei Du, Jing Zheng, Dongjie Shang, Limin Zeng, Min Shao, Weigang Wang, Yao Huang, Yuan Wang, Yujiao Zhu, Yixin Li, Jiaxi Hu, Bowen Pan, Li Cai, Yuting Cheng, Yuemeng Ji, Fang Zhang, Daniel Rosenfeld, Peter S Liss, Robert A Duce, Charles E Kolb, Mario J Molina
Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Radhia Fourati, Antonio Scopa, Chedlia Ben Ahmed, Ferjani Ben Abdallah, Roberto Terzano, Concetta Eliana Gattullo, Ignazio Allegretta, Fernanda Galgano, Marisa Carmela Caruso, Adriano Sofo
This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Chemlali) located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory and in a control unpolluted site, managed with similar cultivation techniques. The aim was to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of polluted plants (PP), exposed to atmospheric metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) as compared to control plants (CP). Leaves, roots and fruits of PP showed a depression of their non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defences and a disruption of their hormonal homeostasis...
November 12, 2016: Chemosphere
Angela K Baker, Carina Sauvage, Ute R Thorenz, Peter van Velthoven, David E Oram, Andreas Zahn, Carl A M Brenninkmeijer, Jonathan Williams
The chlorine radical is a potent atmospheric oxidant, capable of perturbing tropospheric oxidative cycles normally controlled by the hydroxyl radical. Significantly faster reaction rates allow chlorine radicals to expedite oxidation of hydrocarbons, including methane, and in polluted environments, to enhance ozone production. Here we present evidence, from the CARIBIC airborne dataset, for extensive chlorine radical chemistry associated with Asian pollution outflow, from airborne observations made over the Malaysian Peninsula in winter...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
G Titos, A Del Águila, A Cazorla, H Lyamani, J A Casquero-Vera, C Colombi, E Cuccia, V Gianelle, G Močnik, A Alastuey, F J Olmo, L Alados-Arboledas
Biomass burning (BB) is a significant source of atmospheric particles in many parts of the world. Whereas many studies have demonstrated the importance of BB emissions in central and northern Europe, especially in rural areas, its impact in urban air quality of southern European countries has been sparsely investigated. In this study, highly time resolved multi-wavelength absorption coefficients together with levoglucosan (BB tracer) mass concentrations were combined to apportion carbonaceous aerosol sources...
November 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen
With rapid industrialization and urbanization, China is facing a great challenge with regard to severe fog-haze pollutions, which were characterized by high fine particulate concentration level and visibility impairment. The control strategies for atmosphere pollutions in China were not only cutting-edge topics of atmospheric research, but also an urgent issue to be addressed by the Chinese government and the public. Focused on the core scientific issues of the haze and fog pollution, this paper reviews the main studies conducted in China, especially after 2010, including formation mechanisms, evolution features, and factors contributing to the fog-haze pollutions...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jianwei Xing, Jinming Song, Huamao Yuan, Xuegang Li, Ning Li, Liqin Duan, Xuming Kang, Qidong Wang
Atmospheric wet deposition (AWD) is an important pathway for anthropogenic and natural pollutants entering aquatic ecosystems. However, the study on the magnitudes and ecological effects of AWD of various nutrient species (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) on Jiaozhou Bay is scarce. To address these issues, in this study, wet deposition samples were collected at a coastline site along Jiaozhou Bay from June 2015 to May 2016. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including NH4-N, NO3-N and NO2-N), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP, i...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Dejun Wan, Zhangxiong Han, Jinsong Yang, Guanglin Yang, Xingqi Liu
Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their <63 μm fractions using an ICP-OES. The results suggest that Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and V in the dust are not or slightly enriched and their concentrations vary slightly between different sites, implying their natural origins; whereas Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb are often notably enriched and their concentrations vary significantly between different functional areas, indicating their anthropogenic sources...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Johnny Gaspéri, Sophie Ayrault, Elodie Moreau-Guigon, Fabrice Alliot, Pierre Labadie, Hélène Budzinski, Martine Blanchard, Bogdan Muresan, Emilie Caupos, Mathieu Cladière, David Gateuille, Bruno Tassin, Louise Bordier, Marie-Jeanne Teil, Catherine Bourges, Annie Desportes, Marc Chevreuil, Régis Moilleron
Soils are playing a central role in the transfer and accumulation of anthropogenic pollutants in urbanized regions. Hence, this study aimed at examining the contamination levels of selected soils collected within and around the Paris conurbation (France). This also evaluated factors controlling contamination. Twenty-three trace and major elements as well as 82 organic micropollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates (PAEs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols (APs), and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analyzed...
November 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Banu Cetin, Fatma Ozturk, Melek Keles, Sema Yurdakul
Istanbul, one of the mega cities in the world located between Asia and Europe, has suffered from severe air pollution problems due to rapid population growth, traffic and industry. Atmospheric levels of PAHs and PCBs were investigated in Istanbul at 22 sampling sites during four different sampling periods using PUF disk passive air samplers and spatial and temporal variations of these chemicals were determined. Soil samples were also taken at the air sampling sites. At all sites, the average ambient air Σ15PAH and Σ41PCB concentrations were found as 85...
November 5, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Jie Wang, Li Li, Jianguo Liu, Bowen Ti
The practice of incorporating post-harvest crop waste is widely used because it maintains soil fertility and avoids environmental pollution from straw burning. However, the practice of straw incorporation may also retain the pesticides that are applied to crop plants, which may pose a potential long term risk to local and regional environments if the applied pesticide is a Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) substance or a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP). Here we investigate the influence of the "receiving-retention-release" route on the distribution of a POP pesticide (endosulfan) and the associated environmental risk among different environmental compartments...
November 5, 2016: Environmental Pollution
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