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atmospheric pollution

Ximeng Zhao, Tianyu Gao, Jianbo Zhang
The interaction between photochemical oxidants and aerosol particles has been examined in previous atmospheric pollution studies. The heterogeneous reaction can affect the concentration of gases and free radicals, as well as the morphology and properties of particles. In this report, the interaction between the photochemical oxidant peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and soot particles was investigated using a flow tube system. We used real-time online monitoring equipment to track changes in PAN concentrations. Substances on the soot surface were detected using ion chromatography (IC), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and other surface analysis methods...
March 6, 2017: Chemosphere
Myrto Gratsea, Eleni Liakakou, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Anastasios Adamopoulos, Eirini Tsilibari, Evangelos Gerasopoulos
To evaluate the role of biomass burning emissions, and in particular of residential wood heating, as a result of the economic recession in Greece, carbon monoxide (CO) atmospheric concentrations from five (5) stations of the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network in Athens, spanning the period 2000-2015, in conjunction with black carbon (BC) concentrations from the NOA (National Observatory of Athens) station at Thissio were analysed. The contribution of the different sources to the diurnal cycle of these two pollutants is clear, resulting to a morning peak, mainly due to traffic, and a late evening peak attributed both to fossil fuel (traffic plus central heating) and biomass combustion...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jie Yuan, Siyue Li, Xi Han, Qiuyang Chen, Xiaoli Cheng, Quanfa Zhang
There are increasing concerns in nitrogen (N) pollution worldwide, especially in aquatic ecosystems, and thus quantifying its sources in waterways is critical for pollution prevention and control. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal variabilities of inorganic N concentration (i.e., NO3(-), NH4(+)) and total dissolved N (TDN) and identified their sources in waters and suspended matters using an isotopical approach in the Jinshui River, a river with a length of 87km in the monsoon-climate region of China...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zhiwen Dong, Dahe Qin, Xiang Qin, Jianyong Cui, Shichang Kang
Trace elements in the atmosphere could provide information about regional atmospheric pollution. This study presented a whole year of precipitation observation data regarding the concentrations of trace metals (e.g., Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Cd, Mo, Pb, Sb, Ti, and Zn), and a TEM-EDX (transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer) analysis from June 2014 to September 2015 at a remote alpine glacier basin in Northwest China, the Laohugou (LHG) basin (4200 m a.s.l.), to determine the regional scale of atmospheric conditions and chemical processing in the free troposphere in the region...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
T Grigas, J Ovadnevaite, D Ceburnis, E Moran, F M McGovern, S G Jennings, C O'Dowd
Since the 1980's, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980-2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72-79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Guo-Liang Shi, Jiao Xu, Xing Peng, Zhimei Xiao, Kui Chen, Yingze Tian, Xinbei Guan, Yinchang Feng, Haofei Yu, Athanasios Nenes, Armistead G Russell
Acidity (pH) plays a key role in the physical and chemical behavior of PM2.5. However, understanding of how specific PM sources impact aerosol pH is rarely considered. Performing source apportionment of PM2.5, allows a unique link of sources pH of aerosol from polluted city. Hourly water-soluble (WS) ions of PM2.5 were measured online from December 25th 2014 to June 19th 2015 in a northern city in China. Five sources were resolved including secondary nitrate (41%), secondary sulfate (26%), coal combustion (14%), mineral dust (11%) and vehicle exhaust (9%)...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rui Li, Haijian Bing, Yanhong Wu, Jun Zhou, Zhongxiang Xiang
The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of regional human activity on trace metal accumulation in remote alpine ecosystems under long-distance atmospheric transport. Trace metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) in soils of the Mt. Luoji, Southwest China, were investigated along a large altitudinal gradient [2200-3850 m above sea level (a.s.l.)] to elaborate the key factors controlling their distribution by Pb isotopic composition and statistical models. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils (O and A horizons) were relatively low at the altitudes of 3500-3700 m a...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Song Cui, Qiang Fu, Yi-Fan Li, Jianmin Ma, Chongguo Tian, Liyan Liu, Leiming Zhang
The present study investigated the environmental distribution and fate of low molecular weight (LMW) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in China using the ChnGIPERM (Chinese Gridded Industrial Pollutants Emission and Residue Model), in which the air-soil exchange, spatial-temporal variations and the heterogeneity of secondary emission and residue in the non-source areas were studied. The model simulated the temporal and spatial variations of the PCB28 concentration in soils and air which agreed well with historical monitoring data across China...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yun-Juan Zhu, Dan Sun, Nuo-Er Yang, Yong-Sheng Ding, Wei-Bing Feng, Wen-Jun Hong, Shi-Mao Zhu, Yi-Fan Li
Atmospheric samples were collected using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air sampling device for every 3 months from June 2012 to May 2013 in Shanghai rural regions in order to investigate the concentrations, profiles, spatial distributions, and seasonal variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Twelve PBDE congeners (BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-49, BDE-66, BDE-85, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-138, BDE-153, BDE-154, and BDE-183) were measured and analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable PBDEs were examined in all air samples, which indicated that these pollutants are widespread in the research areas...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gennaro D'Amato, Carolina Vitale, Nelson Rosario, Herberto Josè Chong Neto, Deborah Carla Chong-Silva, Francisco Mendonça, Josè Perini, Loraine Landgraf, Dirceu Solé, Mario Sánchez-Borges, Ignacio Ansotegui, Maria D'Amato
BACKGROUND: Tropical forests cover less than 10 per cent of all land area (1.8 × 107 km(2)) and over half of the tropical-forest area (1.1 × 107 Km(2)) is represented by humid tropical forests (also called tropical rainforests). The Amazon basin contains the largest rainforest on Earth, almost 5.8 million km(2), and occupies about 40% of South America; more than 60% of the basin is located in Brazil and the rest in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
Lei Ding, Chao Liu, Kunlun Chen, Yalin Huang, Beidi Diao
Atmospheric pollution emissions have become a matter of public concern in recent years. However, most of the existing researches on NOx pollution are from the natural science and technology perspective, few studies have been conducted from an economic point, and regional differences have not been given adequate attention. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2006 to 2013 and the LMDI model to analyze the key driving factors and regional dilemmas of NOx emissions. The results show that significant regional disparities still exit on NOx emissions and its reduction effect 27 provinces didn't accomplish their corresponding reduction targets...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Emeline Lequy, Nicolas P A Saby, Ilia Ilyin, Aude Bourin, Stéphane Sauvage, Sébastien Leblond
Air pollution in trace elements (TE) remains a concern for public health in Europe. For this reasons, networks of air pollution concentrations or exposure are deployed, including a moss bio-monitoring programme in Europe. Spatial determinants of TE concentrations in mosses remain unclear. In this study, the French dataset of TE in mosses is analyzed by spatial autoregressive model to account for spatial structure of the data and several variables proven or suspected to affect TE concentrations in mosses. Such variables include source (atmospheric deposition and soil concentrations), protocol (sampling month, collector, and moss species), and environment (forest type and canopy density, distance to the coast or the highway, and elevation)...
March 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yutong Liang, Qiaozhi Zha, Weihao Wang, Long Cui, Ka Hei Lui, Kin Fai Ho, Zhe Wang, Shun-Cheng Lee, Tao Wang
Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important precursor of OH radicals in the atmosphere. In urban areas, emissions from vehicles are the main source of air pollutants including reactive nitrogen. Previously reported emission ratios of HONO (HONO/NOx) from vehicles were measured in the late 1990s which needs to be updated due to the significant changes in emission control technologies. We measured the emission ratio of a fleet of vehicles (38% diesel on average) from 11 to 21 March, 2015 in a road tunnel in Hong Kong...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Ching-Hui Huang, Heng-Cheng Lin, Chen-Dao Tsai, Hung-Kai Huang, Ie-Bin Lian, Chia-Chu Chang
This study investigated the interaction effects of meteorological factors and air pollutants on the onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data of ACS patients were obtained from the Taiwan ACS Full Spectrum Registry and comprised 3164 patients with a definite onset date during the period October 2008 and January 2010 at 39 hospitals. Meteorological conditions and air pollutant concentrations at the 39 locations during the 488-day period were obtained. Time-lag Poisson and logistic regression were used to explore their association with ACS incidence...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Weijun Li, Liang Xu, Xiaohuan Liu, Jianchao Zhang, Yangting Lin, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, Daizhou Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang, Roy M Harrison, Xiaoye Zhang, Longyi Shao, Pingqing Fu, Athanasios Nenes, Zongbo Shi
It has long been hypothesized that acids formed from anthropogenic pollutants and natural emissions dissolve iron (Fe) in airborne particles, enhancing the supply of bioavailable Fe to the oceans. However, field observations have yet to provide indisputable evidence to confirm this hypothesis. Single-particle chemical analysis for hundreds of individual atmospheric particles collected over the East China Sea shows that Fe-rich particles from coal combustion and steel industries were coated with thick layers of sulfate after 1 to 2 days of atmospheric residence...
March 2017: Science Advances
Jung Hoon Choi, Jijeong Ryu, Sodam Jeon, Jungju Seo, Yung-Hun Yang, Seung Pil Pack, Sungwook Choung, Kyoung-Soon Jang
Airborne particulate matter consisting of ionic species, salts, heavy metals and carbonaceous material is one of the most serious environmental pollutants owing to its impacts on the environment and human health. Although elemental and organic carbon compounds are known to be major components of aerosols, information on the elemental composition of particulate matter remains limited because of the broad range of compounds involved and the limits of analytical instruments. In this study, we investigated water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds in fine (PM2...
March 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Lawrence Lau, Jun He
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in navigation, surveying, geophysical and geodynamic studies, machine guidance, etc. High-precision GPS applications such as geodetic surveying need millimeter and centimeter level accuracy. Since GPS signals are affected by atmospheric effects, methods of correcting or eliminating ionospheric and tropospheric bias are needed in GPS data processing. Relative positioning can be used to mitigate the atmospheric effect, but its efficiency depends on the baseline lengths...
March 3, 2017: Sensors
Anna Di Palma, Fiore Capozzi, Valeria Spagnuolo, Simonetta Giordano, Paola Adamo
Particulate matter has to be constantly monitored because it is an important atmospheric transport form of potentially harmful contaminants. The cost-effective method of the moss-bags can be employed to evaluate both loads and chemical composition of PM. PM entrapped by the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum exposed in bags in 9 European sites was characterized for number, size and chemical composition by SEM/EDX. Moreover, moss elemental uptake of 53 elements including rare earth elements was estimated by ICP-MS analysis...
February 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Dayana M Agudelo-Castañeda, Elba C Teixeira, Ismael L Schneider, Sheila Rincón Lara, Luis F O Silva
We investigated the carcinogenic and mutagenic respiratory health risks related to the exposure to atmospheric PAHs in an urban area. Our study focused in the association of these pollutants and their possible effect in human health, principally respiratory and circulatory diseases. Also, we determined a relationship between the inhalation risk of PAHs and meteorological conditions. We validated the hypothesis that in winter PAHs with high molecular weight associated to submicron particles (PM1) may increase exposure risk, especially for respiratory diseases, bronchitis and pneumonia diseases...
March 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Olga Vladimirovna Kalugina, Tatiana Alekseevna Mikhailova, Olga Vladimirovna Shergina
The study demonstrates the efficiency of using Pinus sylvestris L. as a bio-indicator of polluting substances that enter the environment with the emission of a large aluminum smelter. Recent research has demonstrated that pollution from aluminum smelter emissions covers a vast territory. The highest content of polluting elements is registered at a distance of 3 km from the smelter, with maximum concentrations found in the industrial zone (0.5 km from the smelter). The farther from the aluminum smelter, the lower the amount of polluting elements in the needles, although the F level still exceeds the background values at a distance of about 60 km from the source, the levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd up to 50 km, S up to 40 km, and Fe and Cu up to 35 km mostly in north-eastern and south-eastern directions correlating with prevailing atmospheric transfer of the emissions...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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