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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095954/predicting-air-quality-at-first-ingress-into-vehicles-visiting-the-international-space-station
#1
Amelia A Romoser, Robert R Scully, Thomas F Limero, Vanessa De Vera, Patti F Cheng, Jennifer J Hand, John T James, Valerie E Ryder
INTRODUCTION: NASA regularly performs ground-based offgas tests (OGTs), which allow prediction of accumulated volatile pollutant concentrations at first entry on orbit, on whole modules and vehicles scheduled to connect to the International Space Station (ISS). These data guide crew safety operations and allow for estimation of ISS air revitalization systems impact from additional pollutant load. Since volatiles released from vehicle, module, and payload materials can affect crew health and performance, prediction of first ingress air quality is important...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092743/stable-isotope-composition-of-mercury-forms-in-flue-gases-from-a-typical-coal-fired-power-plant-inner-mongolia-northern-china
#2
Shunlin Tang, Chaohui Feng, Xinbin Feng, Jianming Zhu, Ruoyu Sun, Huipeng Fan, Lina Wang, Ruiyang Li, Tonghua Mao, Ting Zhou
Mercury forms emitted from coal combustion via air pollution control devices are speculated to carry different Hg isotope signatures. Yet, their Hg isotope composition is still not reported. Here, we present the first onsite Hg isotope data for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) of flue gases from a typical lignite-fired power plant (CFPP). Significant mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and insignificant mass independent fractionation (MIF) are observed between feed coal and coal combustion products...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089209/assessment-of-seasonal-variations-in-persistent-organic-pollutants-across-the-region-of-tuscany-using-passive-air-samplers
#3
Victor H Estellano, Karla Pozo, Petra Přibylová, Jana Klánová, Ondřej Audy, Silvano Focardi
Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured for an entire year in the region of Tuscany, Italy. Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed over four sampling periods of 3-5 months from April 2008 to July 2009 in urban (n = 6) and rural (n = 4) sites. The aim of the study was to characterize the spatial and seasonal variations in selected POPs. The POP concentrations (pg m(-3)) in the air were dominated by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑7PCBs)...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087514/the-influence-of-meteorological-factors-and-atmospheric-pollutants-on-the-risk-of-preterm-birth
#4
Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Marie Pedersen, Claire Bernard, Inmaculada Aguilera, Rob M J Beelen, Leda Chatzi, Marta Cirach, Asta Danileviciute, Audrius Dedele, Manon van Eijsden, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Mariana F Fernández, Francesco Forastiere, Ulrike Gehring, Regina Grazuleviciene, Olena Gruzieva, Barbara Heude, Gerard Hoek, Kees de Hoogh, Edith H van den Hooven, Siri E Håberg, Carmen Iñiguez, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Aitana Lertxundi, Johanna Lepeule, Per Nafstad, Wenche Nystad, Evridiki Patelarou, Daniela Porta, Dirkje Postma, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Peter Rudnai, Valérie Siroux, Jordi Sunyer, Euripides Stephanou, Mette Sørensen, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Derek Tuffnell, Mihály J Varró, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Alet Wijga, John Wright, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef, Manolis Kogevinas, Rémy Slama
Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087511/invited-commentary-ambient-environment-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth
#5
Sandie Ha, Pauline Mendola
Preterm birth is a common adverse birth outcome known to be associated with increased infant mortality, and it often results in a higher burden of offspring morbidity in both the short and long terms. The potential for environmental factors, particularly air pollution and meteorological parameters, to increase preterm birth risk has received significant attention worldwide, but the findings are generally inconsistent, with variations in study designs and methods across populations and geographic locations. In the current issue of the Journal, Giorgis-Allemand et al...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081386/effects-of-biodiesel-made-from-swine-and-chicken-fat-residues-on-co-co2-and-nox-emissions
#6
Vivian Feddern, Anildo Cunha Junior, Marina C De Prá, Marcio L Busi da Silva, Rodrigo da S Nicoloso, Martha M Higarashi, Arlei Coldebella, Paulo G de Abreu
Implications Emissions from motor vehicles can contribute considerably to the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The use of biodiesel to replace or augment diesel can not only decrease our dependency on fossil fuels but also help decrease air pollution. Thus, different sources of feedstocks are constantly being explored for affordable biodiesel production. However, the amount of CO, CO2 and/or NOx emissions can vary largely depending on type of feedstock used to produce biodiesel. In this work we demonstrated animal fat feasibility in replacing petrodiesel with less impact regarding greenhouse gas emissions than other sources...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076393/alder-nitrogen-and-lake-ecology-terrestrial-aquatic-linkages-in-the-postglacial-history-of-lone-spruce-pond-southwestern-alaska
#7
Bianca B Perren, Yarrow Axford, Darrell S Kaufman
Diatoms, combined with a multiproxy study of lake sediments (organic matter, N, δ15N, δ13C, biogenic silica, grain size, Cladocera and chironomids, Alnus pollen) from Lone Spruce Pond, Alaska detail the late-glacial to Holocene history of the lake and its response to regional climate and landscape change over the last 14.5 cal ka BP. We show that the immigration of alder (Alnus viridis) in the early Holocene marks the rise of available reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the lake as well as the establishment of a primarily planktonic diatom community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071047/linking-load-fuel-and-emission-controls-to-photochemical-production-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-from-a-diesel-engine
#8
Shantanu H Jathar, Beth Friedman, Abril A Galang, Michael F Link, Patrick Brophy, John Volckens, Sailaja Eluri, Delphine K Farmer
Diesel engines are important sources of fine particle pollution in urban environments but their contribution to the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is not well constrained. We investigated direct emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and photochemical production of SOA from a diesel engine using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). In less than a day of simulated atmospheric aging, SOA production exceeded POA emissions by an order of magnitude or more. Efficient combustion at higher engine loads coupled to the removal of SOA precursors and particle emissions by aftertreatment systems reduced POA emission factors by an order of magnitude and SOA production factors by factors of 2-10...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069367/co-variability-and-its-association-with-household-cooking-fuels-consumption-over-the-indo-gangetic-plains
#9
Alok Kumar Pandey, Amit Kumar Mishra, Ritesh Kumar, Shivesh Berwal, Rakhesh Devadas, Alfredo Huete, Krishan Kumar
This study examines the spatio-temporal trends obtained from decade long (Jan 2003-Dec 2014) satellite observational data of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) on carbon monoxide (CO) concentration over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region. The time sequence plots of columnar CO levels over the western, central and eastern IGP regions reveal marked seasonal behaviour, with lowest CO levels occurring during the monsoon months and the highest CO levels occurring during the pre-monsoon period...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067267/polydatin-protects-the-respiratory-system-from-pm2-5-exposure
#10
Xiao-Dan Yan, Qi-Ming Wang, Cai Tie, Hong-Tao Jin, Yan-Xing Han, Jin-Lan Zhang, Xiao-Ming Yu, Qi Hou, Piao-Piao Zhang, Ai-Ping Wang, Pei-Cheng Zhang, Zhonggao Gao, Jian-Dong Jiang
Atmospheric particle is one of the risk factors for respiratory disease; however, their injury mechanisms are poorly understood, and prevention methods are highly desirable. We constructed artificial PM2.5 (aPM2.5) particles according to the size and composition of actual PM2.5 collected in Beijing. Using these artificial particles, we created an inhalation-injury animal model. These aPM2.5 particles simulate the physical and chemical characteristics of the actual PM2.5, and inhalation of the aPM2.5 in rat results in a time-dependent change in lung suggesting a declined lung function, injury from oxidative stress and inflammation in lung...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063657/persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-the-atmosphere-of-three-chilean-cities-using-passive-air-samplers
#11
Karla Pozo, Germán Oyola, Victor H Estellano, Tom Harner, Anny Rudolph, Petra Prybilova, Petr Kukucka, Ondrej Audi, Jana Klánová, America Metzdorff, Silvano Focardi
In this study passive air samplers containing polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed in three cities across Chile; Santiago (STG) (n=5, sampling sites), Concepciόn (CON) (n=6) and Temuco (TEM) (n=6) from 2008 to 2009. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7 indicator congeners), chlorinated pesticides hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes (DDTs) and flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062109/shipping-emissions-and-their-impacts-on-air-quality-in-china
#12
REVIEW
Yan Zhang, Xin Yang, Richard Brown, Liping Yang, Lidia Morawska, Zoran Ristovski, Qingyan Fu, Cheng Huang
China has >400 ports, is home to 7 of 10 biggest ports in the world and its waterway infrastructure construction has been accelerating over the past years. But the increasing number of ports and ships means increasing emissions, and in turn, increasing impact on local and regional air pollution. This paper presents an overview of the broad field of ship emissions in China and their atmospheric impacts, including topics of ship engine emissions and control, ship emission factors and their measurements, developing of ship emission inventories, shipping and port emissions of the main shipping areas in China, and quantitative contribution of shipping emissions to the local and regional air pollution...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060487/how-does-the-amount-and-composition-of-pm-deposited-on-platanus-acerifolia-leaves-change-across-different-cities-in-europe
#13
Chiara Baldacchini, Ana Castanheiro, Nairuhi Maghakyan, Gregorio Sgrigna, Jolien Verhelst, Rocio Alonso, Jorge H Amorim, Patrick Bellan, Juergen Breuste, Oliver Bühler, Ilie C Cântar, Paloma Cariñanos, Giulia Carriero, Galina Churkina, Lucian Dinca, Raffaela Esposito, Stanislaw W Gawronski, Maren Kern, Didier Le Thiec, Marco Moretti, Tine Ningal, Eleni C Rantzoudi, Iztok Sinjur, Biljana Stojanova, Mira Aničić Urošević, Violeta Velikova, Ivana Zivojinovic, Lilit Sahakyan, Carlo Calfapietra, Roeland Samson
Particulate matter (PM) deposited on Platanus acerifolia tree leaves has been sampled in the urban areas of 28 European cities, over 20 countries, with the aim of testing leaf deposited particles as indicator of atmospheric PM concentration and composition. Leaves have been collected close to streets characterised by heavy traffic and within urban parks. Leaf surface density, dimensions, and elemental composition of leaf deposited particles have been compared with leaf magnetic content, and discussed in connection with air quality data...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054264/a-review-of-airq-models-and-their-applications-for-forecasting-the-air-pollution-health-outcomes
#14
Gea Oliveri Conti, Behzad Heibati, Itai Kloog, Maria Fiore, Margherita Ferrante
Even though clean air is considered as a basic requirement for the maintenance of human health, air pollution continues to pose a significant health threat in developed and developing countries alike. Monitoring and modeling of classic and emerging pollutants is vital to our knowledge of health outcomes in exposed subjects and to our ability to predict them. The ability to anticipate and manage changes in atmospheric pollutant concentrations relies on an accurate representation of the chemical state of the atmosphere...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051851/the-impact-of-iodide-mediated-ozone-deposition-and-halogen-chemistry-on-surface-ozone-concentrations-across-the-continental-united-states
#15
Brett Gantt, Golam Sarwar, Jia Xing, Heather Simon, Donna Schwede, William T Hutzell, Rohit Mathur, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
The air quality of many large coastal areas in the United States is affected by the confluence of polluted urban and relatively clean marine airmasses, each with distinct atmospheric chemistry. In this context, the role of iodide-mediated ozone (O3) deposition over seawater and marine halogen chemistry accounted for in both the lateral boundary conditions and coastal waters surrounding the continental U.S. is examined using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Several nested simulations are conducted in which these halogen processes are implemented separately in the continental U...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#16
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051105/evaluation-of-hdpe-and-ldpe-degradation-by-fungus-implemented-by-statistical-optimization
#17
Nupur Ojha, Neha Pradhan, Surjit Singh, Anil Barla, Anamika Shrivastava, Pradip Khatua, Vivek Rai, Sutapa Bose
Plastic in any form is a nuisance to the well-being of the environment. The 'pestilence' caused by it is mainly due to its non-degradable nature. With the industrial boom and the population explosion, the usage of plastic products has increased. A steady increase has been observed in the use of plastic products, and this has accelerated the pollution. Several attempts have been made to curb the problem at large by resorting to both chemical and biological methods. Chemical methods have only resulted in furthering the pollution by releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere; whereas; biological methods have been found to be eco-friendly however they are not cost effective...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045070/carbon-monoxide-pollution-aggravates-ischemic-heart-failure-through-oxidative-stress-pathway
#18
Cyril Reboul, Julien Boissière, Lucas André, Gregory Meyer, Patrice Bideaux, Gilles Fouret, Christine Feillet-Coudray, Philippe Obert, Alain Lacampagne, Jérôme Thireau, Olivier Cazorla, Sylvain Richard
Risk of hospital readmission and cardiac mortality increases with atmospheric pollution for patients with heart failure. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Carbon monoxide (CO) a ubiquitous environmental pollutant could be involved. We explored the effect of daily exposure of CO relevant to urban pollution on post-myocardial infarcted animals. Rats with ischemic heart failure were exposed 4 weeks to daily peaks of CO mimicking urban exposure or to standard filtered air. CO exposure worsened cardiac contractile dysfunction evaluated by echocardiography and at the cardiomyocyte level...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040339/novel-pollutants-in-the-moscow-atmosphere-in-winter-period-gas-chromatography-high-resolution-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-study
#19
D M Mazur, O V Polyakova, V B Artaev, A T Lebedev
The most common mass spectrometry approach analyzing contamination of the environment deals with targeted analysis, i.e. detection and quantification of the selected (priority) pollutants. However non-targeted analysis is becoming more often the method of choice for environmental chemists. It involves implementation of modern analytical instrumentation allowing for comprehensive detection and identification of the wide variety of compounds of the environmental interest present in the sample, such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, musks, nanomaterials, perfluorinated compounds, hormones, disinfection by-products, flame retardants, personal care products, and many others emerging contaminants...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040212/pollution-pathways-and-release-estimation-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-pfos-and-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-in-central-and-eastern-china
#20
Zhaoyang Liu, Yonglong Lu, Pei Wang, Tieyu Wang, Shijie Liu, Andrew C Johnson, Andrew J Sweetman, Yvette Baninla
China has gradually become the most important manufacturing and consumption centre for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the world, and inadvertently become the world's major contamination hotspots. However, a systematic analysis of pollution pathways for PFOS/PFOA into the different environmental compartments and their quantification in China has yet to be carried out. This study focused on PFOS and PFOA release into the environment in the central and eastern region of China, which accounts for the vast majority of national emission...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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