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Cardiovascular genetic risk race

Joseph Yeboah, Michael J Blaha, Erin D Michos, Waqas Qureshi, Michael Miedema, Peter Flueckiger, Carlos J Rodriguez, Moyses Szklo, Alain G Bertoni
We assessed the relationships among adult height, coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, and atrial fibrillation (Afib) in a multi-ethnic cohort. We used race/ethnicity -specific height (dichotomized by median and quartiles) as the predictor variable within the four race/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N = 6,814). After a mean of 10.2 years of follow-up (2000-2012), 556 ASCVD events (8.2%) and 539 afib events (7.9%) occurred...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Yan Chen, Yingying Sang, Shoshana H Ballew, Adrienne Tin, Alex R Chang, Kunihiro Matsushita, Josef Coresh, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Miklos Z Molnar, Morgan E Grams
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that potassium levels may differ by race. The basis for these differences and whether associations between potassium levels and adverse outcomes differ by race are unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Associations between race and potassium level and the interaction of race and potassium level with outcomes were investigated in the Racial and Cardiovascular Risk Anomalies in Chronic Kidney Disease (RCAV) Study, a cohort of US veterans (N=2,662,462)...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Cavin K Ward-Caviness, Lucas M Neas, Colette Blach, Carol S Haynes, Karen LaRocque-Abramson, Elizabeth Grass, Z Elaine Dowdy, Robert B Devlin, David Diaz-Sanchez, Wayne E Cascio, Marie Lynn Miranda, Simon G Gregory, Svati H Shah, William E Kraus, Elizabeth R Hauser
Air pollution is a worldwide contributor to cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Traffic-related air pollution is a widespread environmental exposure and is associated with multiple cardiovascular outcomes such as coronary atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, and myocardial infarction. Despite the recognition of the importance of both genetic and environmental exposures to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, studies of how these two contributors operate jointly are rare. We performed a genome-wide interaction study (GWIS) to examine gene-traffic exposure interactions associated with coronary atherosclerosis...
2017: PloS One
Amelia K Boehme, Charles Esenwa, Mitchell S V Elkind
Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation...
February 3, 2017: Circulation Research
Raymond Noordam, Colleen M Sitlani, Christy L Avery, James D Stewart, Stephanie M Gogarten, Kerri L Wiggins, Stella Trompet, Helen R Warren, Fangui Sun, Daniel S Evans, Xiaohui Li, Jin Li, Albert V Smith, Joshua C Bis, Jennifer A Brody, Evan L Busch, Mark J Caulfield, Yii-Der I Chen, Steven R Cummings, L Adrienne Cupples, Qing Duan, Oscar H Franco, Rául Méndez-Giráldez, Tamara B Harris, Susan R Heckbert, Diana van Heemst, Albert Hofman, James S Floyd, Jan A Kors, Lenore J Launer, Yun Li, Ruifang Li-Gao, Leslie A Lange, Henry J Lin, Renée de Mutsert, Melanie D Napier, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Neil Poulter, Alexander P Reiner, Kenneth M Rice, Jeffrey Roach, Carlos J Rodriguez, Frits R Rosendaal, Naveed Sattar, Peter Sever, Amanda A Seyerle, P Eline Slagboom, Elsayed Z Soliman, Nona Sotoodehnia, David J Stott, Til Stürmer, Kent D Taylor, Timothy A Thornton, André G Uitterlinden, Kirk C Wilhelmsen, James G Wilson, Vilmundur Gudnason, J Wouter Jukema, Cathy C Laurie, Yongmei Liu, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Patricia B Munroe, Jerome I Rotter, Ramachandran S Vasan, Bruce M Psaty, Bruno H Stricker, Eric A Whitsel
BACKGROUND: Increased heart rate and a prolonged QT interval are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and can be influenced by the use of various medications, including tricyclic/tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs). We aim to identify genetic loci that modify the association between TCA use and RR and QT intervals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted race/ethnic-specific genome-wide interaction analyses (with HapMap phase II imputed reference panel imputation) of TCAs and resting RR and QT intervals in cohorts of European (n=45 706; n=1417 TCA users), African (n=10 235; n=296 TCA users) and Hispanic/Latino (n=13 808; n=147 TCA users) ancestry, adjusted for clinical covariates...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
B Gwen Windham, Seth T Lirette, Myriam Fornage, Emelia J Benjamin, Kirby G Parker, Stephen T Turner, Clifford R Jack, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
Background: Studies of adiposity and brain pathology in African Americans (AA) are sparse despite higher rates of obesity, dementia, and dementia-associated brain pathology in AA. This study examined relations of adiposity to white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and total brain volume (TBV) in AA and non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Methods: Waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study at Visits 1 (mean age 57 [±11]) and 2 (mean age 61 [±10], mean 5...
June 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Kieren J Egan, Kristen L Knutson, Alexandre C Pereira, Malcolm von Schantz
In recent years, strong evidence has emerged suggesting that insufficient duration, quality, and/or timing of sleep are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and various mechanisms for this association have been proposed. Such associations may be related to endophenotypic features of the sleep homeostat and the circadian oscillator, or may be state-like effects of the environment. Here, we review recent literature on sleep, circadian rhythms and CVD with a specific emphasis on differences between racial/ethnic groups...
June 3, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Kenneth Jamerson
Race and ethnicity provide an important construct that identifies individuals at increased risk for hypertension and related cardiovascular complications. While a significan proportion of health care disparity can be attributed to social, cultural and ecomnomic factors, mapping of the human genome allows for a biological construct of race. A systematic review of the effect of race on the response to antihypertensive therapy was performed in 2007. In this current review, an update of this subject is provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kenneth Jamerson
Race and ethnicity provide an important construct that identifies individuals at increased risk for hypertension and related cardiovascular complications. While a significan proportion of health care disparity can be attributed to social, cultural and ecomnomic factors, mapping of the human genome allows for a biological construct of race. A systematic review of the effect of race on the response to antihypertensive therapy was performed in 2007. In this current review, an update of this subject is provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Timothy J W Dawes, Ben Corden, Sorcha Cotter, Antonio de Marvao, Roddy Walsh, James S Ware, Stuart A Cook, Declan P O'Regan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac mass and volumes are often elevated in athletes, but it is not known whether moderate physical activity is also associated with cardiac dilatation and hypertrophy in a healthy adult population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 1096 adults (54% female, median age 39 years) without cardiovascular disease or cardiomyopathy-associated genetic variants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine biventricular volumes and function. Physical activity was assessed using a validated activity questionnaire...
August 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Jason D Roberts, Donglei Hu, Susan R Heckbert, Alvaro Alonso, Thomas A Dewland, Eric Vittinghoff, Yongmei Liu, Bruce M Psaty, Jeffrey E Olgin, Jared W Magnani, Scott Huntsman, Esteban G Burchard, Dan E Arking, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Tamara B Harris, Marco V Perez, Elad Ziv, Gregory M Marcus
IMPORTANCE: White persons have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with black individuals despite a lower prevalence of risk factors. This difference may be due, at least in part, to genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AF account for this paradoxical differential racial risk for AF and to use admixture mapping to search genome-wide for loci that may account for this phenomenon...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Markus Herrmann, Christopher-John L Farrell, Irene Pusceddu, Neus Fabregat-Cabello, Etienne Cavalier
In recent years it has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence as well as the progression of a broad range of diseases including osteoporosis, rickets, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis and cancer. Consequently, requests for the assessment of vitamin D status have increased dramatically. Despite significant progress in the analysis of vitamin D metabolites and an expansion of our pathophysiological knowledge of vitamin D, the assessment of vitamin D status remains a challenging and partially unresolved issue...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
B Gwen Windham, Steven R Wilkening, Seth T Lirette, Iftikhar J Kullo, Stephen T Turner, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between inflammation and physical function and potential mediation by white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis using linear and logistic models with generalized estimating equations to account for family clustering, reporting results as regression coefficients (β) and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for education, alcohol, exercise, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cognition, ankle-brachial index, race (site), and supported interactions...
July 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Olga Sergejeva, Roman Botov, Rasa Liutkevičienė, Loresa Kriaučiūnienė
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the macula and is the leading cause of significant and irreversible central visual loss. It is the most common cause of visual loss in people aged more than 60 years. This disease affects 2.5 million individuals in Europe. AMD is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Numerous risk factors have been reported, but the pathogenesis of AMD is complex and fairly understood. Age, female gender, obesity, race, education status, family history, hyperopia, iris color, cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, sunlight exposure and many other factors have been shown to be associated with AMD development...
2016: Medicina
Morgan E Grams, Casey M Rebholz, Yuan Chen, Andreea M Rawlings, Michelle M Estrella, Elizabeth Selvin, Lawrence J Appel, Adrienne Tin, Josef Coresh
The APOL1 high-risk genotype, present in approximately 13% of blacks in the United States, is a risk factor for kidney function decline in populations with CKD. It is unknown whether genetic screening is indicated in the general population. We evaluated the prognosis of APOL1 high-risk status in participants in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, including associations with eGFR decline, variability in eGFR decline, and related adverse health events (AKI, ESRD, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, pre-ESRD and total hospitalization rate, and mortality)...
September 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Harold E Bays, Peter H Jones, Carl E Orringer, W Virgil Brown, Terry A Jacobson
The National Lipid Association (NLA) Annual Summary of Clinical Lipidology is a yearly updated summary of principles important to the patient-centered evaluation, management, and care of patients with dyslipidemia. This summary is intended to be a "living document," with future annual updates based on emerging science, clinical considerations, and new NLA Position, Consensus, and Scientific Statements, thus providing an ongoing resource that applies the latest in medical science towards the clinical management of patients with dyslipidemia...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Nicholas B Larson, Paul A Decker, Christina L Wassel, James S Pankow, Weihong Tang, Naomi Q Hanson, Michael Y Tsai, Suzette J Bielinski
The cellular adhesion pathway is critical in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and genetic factors contributing to regulation of circulating levels of related proteins may be relevant to risk prediction of cardiovascular disease. In contrast to conducting separate genome-wide protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) mapping analyses of each individual protein, joint genetic association analyses of multiple quantitative traits can leverage cross-trait co-variation and identify simultaneous regulatory effects on protein levels across the pathway...
April 2016: Human Genetics
J Guo, Y X Luo, L X Tao, X H Guo
Recently, genome-wide association studies on cardio-vascular disease identified a series of associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in an intergenic region of chromosome 1p13.3. We investigated the association of this locus with cardiovascular disease in 13 case-control studies and undertook a meta-analysis for effect size, heterogeneity, publication bias, and strength of evidence. English and Chinese language articles were screened for the association of 1p13.3 single nucleotide polymorphisms with coronary heart/artery disease or myocardial infarction as primary outcomes...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Peter Durda, Jeremy Sabourin, Ethan M Lange, Mike A Nalls, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Nancy Swords Jenny, Jin Li, Jeremy Walston, Tamara B Harris, Bruce M Psaty, William Valdar, Yongmei Liu, Mary Cushman, Alex P Reiner, Russell P Tracy, Leslie A Lange
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL) -2 receptor subunit α regulates lymphocyte activation, which plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Associations between soluble IL-2Rα (sIL-2Rα) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been widely studied and little is known about the genetic determinants of sIL-2Rα levels. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured baseline levels of sIL-2Rα in 4408 European American (EA) and 766 African American (AA) adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and examined associations with baseline CVD risk factors, subclinical CVD, and incident CVD events...
October 2015: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Caitrin W McDonough, Leslie A McClure, Braxton D Mitchell, Yan Gong, Richard B Horenstein, Joshua P Lewis, Thalia S Field, Robert L Talbert, Oscar R Benavente, Julie A Johnson, Alan R Shuldiner
BACKGROUND: The role of the CYP2C19 genotype on clopidogrel efficacy has been studied widely, with data suggesting reduced clopidogrel efficacy in loss-of-function variant carriers taking clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention; however, data are limited regarding the association between CYP2C19 genetic variants and outcomes in stroke patients. We investigated whether CYP2C19 metabolizer status affects the risk of recurrent stroke or major bleeding in subcortical stroke patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel...
May 27, 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
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