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Cardiovascular genetic risk race

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110996/atrial-ectopy-as-a-mediator-of-the-association-between-race-and-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Matthew A Christensen, Kaylin T Nguyen, Phyllis K Stein, Raymond B Fohtung, Elsayed Z Soliman, Thomas A Dewland, Eric Vittinghoff, Bruce M Psaty, Susan R Heckbert, Gregory M Marcus
BACKGROUND: Blacks have a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) despite having more AF risk factors, but the mechanism remains unknown. Premature atrial contraction (PAC) burden is a recently identified risk factor for AF. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the burden of PACs explains racial differences in AF risk. METHODS: PAC burden (number per hour) was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring in a randomly selected subset of patients in the Cardiovascular Health Study...
October 23, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938955/cumulative-psychological-stress-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-middle-aged-and-older-women-rationale-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#2
REVIEW
Michelle A Albert, Eva M Durazo, Natalie Slopen, Alan M Zaslavsky, Julie E Buring, Ted Silva, Daniel Chasman, David R Williams
Although a growing body of evidence indicates strong links between psychological stress (stress) and untoward cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, comprehensive examination of these effects remains lacking. The "Cumulative Psychological Stress and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Middle Aged and Older Women" study is embedded within the landmark Women's Health Study (WHS) follow-up cohort and seeks to evaluate the individual and joint effects of stressors (cumulative stress) on incident CVD risk, including myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization and CVD death...
October 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912752/disparities-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-factors-in-blacks-and-whites-dissecting-racial-paradox-of-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Kwame Osei, Trudy Gaillard
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750825/differences-in-natriuretic-peptide-levels-by-race-ethnicity-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#4
MULTICENTER STUDY
Deepak K Gupta, Lori B Daniels, Susan Cheng, Christopher R deFilippi, Michael H Criqui, Alan S Maisel, Joao A Lima, Hossein Bahrami, Philip Greenland, Mary Cushman, Russell Tracy, David Siscovick, Alain G Bertoni, Valentina Cannone, John C Burnett, John Jeffrey Carr, Thomas J Wang
Natriuretic peptides (NP) are cardiac-derived hormones with favorable cardiometabolic actions. Low NP levels are associated with increased risks of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, conditions with variable prevalence by race and ethnicity. Heritable factors underlie a significant proportion of the interindividual variation in NP concentrations, but the specific influences of race and ancestry are unknown. In 5597 individuals (40% white, 24% black, 23% Hispanic, and 13% Chinese) without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, multivariable linear regression and restricted cubic splines were used to estimate differences in serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels according to, ethnicity, and ancestry...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535166/adult-height-prevalent-coronary-artery-calcium-score-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-outcomes-in-a-multiethnic-cohort
#5
Joseph Yeboah, Michael J Blaha, Erin D Michos, Waqas Qureshi, Michael Miedema, Peter Flueckiger, Carlos J Rodriguez, Moyses Szklo, Alain G Bertoni
We assessed the relationships among adult height, coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, and atrial fibrillation (AFib) in a multiethnic cohort. We used race/ethnicity-specific height (dichotomized by median value and in quartiles) as the predictor variable within the 4 racial/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 6,814). After a mean of 10.2 years of follow-up (2000-2012), 556 ASCVD events (8.2%) and 539 AFib events (7...
October 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363732/race-serum-potassium-and-associations-with-esrd-and-mortality
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yan Chen, Yingying Sang, Shoshana H Ballew, Adrienne Tin, Alex R Chang, Kunihiro Matsushita, Josef Coresh, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Miklos Z Molnar, Morgan E Grams
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that potassium levels may differ by race. The basis for these differences and whether associations between potassium levels and adverse outcomes differ by race are unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Associations between race and potassium level and the interaction of race and potassium level with outcomes were investigated in the Racial and Cardiovascular Risk Anomalies in Chronic Kidney Disease (RCAV) Study, a cohort of US veterans (N=2,662,462)...
August 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355232/a-genome-wide-trans-ethnic-interaction-study-links-the-pigr-fcamr-locus-to-coronary-atherosclerosis-via-interactions-between-genetic-variants-and-residential-exposure-to-traffic
#7
Cavin K Ward-Caviness, Lucas M Neas, Colette Blach, Carol S Haynes, Karen LaRocque-Abramson, Elizabeth Grass, Z Elaine Dowdy, Robert B Devlin, David Diaz-Sanchez, Wayne E Cascio, Marie Lynn Miranda, Simon G Gregory, Svati H Shah, William E Kraus, Elizabeth R Hauser
Air pollution is a worldwide contributor to cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Traffic-related air pollution is a widespread environmental exposure and is associated with multiple cardiovascular outcomes such as coronary atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, and myocardial infarction. Despite the recognition of the importance of both genetic and environmental exposures to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, studies of how these two contributors operate jointly are rare. We performed a genome-wide interaction study (GWIS) to examine gene-traffic exposure interactions associated with coronary atherosclerosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154098/stroke-risk-factors-genetics-and-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Amelia K Boehme, Charles Esenwa, Mitchell S V Elkind
Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation...
February 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039329/a-genome-wide-interaction-analysis-of-tricyclic-tetracyclic-antidepressants-and-rr-and-qt-intervals-a-pharmacogenomics-study-from-the-cohorts-for-heart-and-aging-research-in-genomic-epidemiology-charge-consortium
#9
Raymond Noordam, Colleen M Sitlani, Christy L Avery, James D Stewart, Stephanie M Gogarten, Kerri L Wiggins, Stella Trompet, Helen R Warren, Fangui Sun, Daniel S Evans, Xiaohui Li, Jin Li, Albert V Smith, Joshua C Bis, Jennifer A Brody, Evan L Busch, Mark J Caulfield, Yii-Der I Chen, Steven R Cummings, L Adrienne Cupples, Qing Duan, Oscar H Franco, Rául Méndez-Giráldez, Tamara B Harris, Susan R Heckbert, Diana van Heemst, Albert Hofman, James S Floyd, Jan A Kors, Lenore J Launer, Yun Li, Ruifang Li-Gao, Leslie A Lange, Henry J Lin, Renée de Mutsert, Melanie D Napier, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Neil Poulter, Alexander P Reiner, Kenneth M Rice, Jeffrey Roach, Carlos J Rodriguez, Frits R Rosendaal, Naveed Sattar, Peter Sever, Amanda A Seyerle, P Eline Slagboom, Elsayed Z Soliman, Nona Sotoodehnia, David J Stott, Til Stürmer, Kent D Taylor, Timothy A Thornton, André G Uitterlinden, Kirk C Wilhelmsen, James G Wilson, Vilmundur Gudnason, J Wouter Jukema, Cathy C Laurie, Yongmei Liu, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Patricia B Munroe, Jerome I Rotter, Ramachandran S Vasan, Bruce M Psaty, Bruno H Stricker, Eric A Whitsel
BACKGROUND: Increased heart rate and a prolonged QT interval are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and can be influenced by the use of various medications, including tricyclic/tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs). We aim to identify genetic loci that modify the association between TCA use and RR and QT intervals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted race/ethnic-specific genome-wide interaction analyses (with HapMap phase II imputed reference panel imputation) of TCAs and resting RR and QT intervals in cohorts of European (n=45 706; n=1417 TCA users), African (n=10 235; n=296 TCA users) and Hispanic/Latino (n=13 808; n=147 TCA users) ancestry, adjusted for clinical covariates...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994005/associations-of-brain-structure-with-adiposity-and-changes-in-adiposity-in-a-middle-aged-and-older-biracial-population
#10
B Gwen Windham, Seth T Lirette, Myriam Fornage, Emelia J Benjamin, Kirby G Parker, Stephen T Turner, Clifford R Jack, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
Background: Studies of adiposity and brain pathology in African Americans (AA) are sparse despite higher rates of obesity, dementia, and dementia-associated brain pathology in AA. This study examined relations of adiposity to white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and total brain volume (TBV) in AA and non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Methods: Waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study at Visits 1 (mean age 57 [±11]) and 2 (mean age 61 [±10], mean 5...
June 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908540/the-role-of-race-and-ethnicity-in-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-cardiovascular-health
#11
REVIEW
Kieren J Egan, Kristen L Knutson, Alexandre C Pereira, Malcolm von Schantz
In recent years, strong evidence has emerged suggesting that insufficient duration, quality, and/or timing of sleep are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and various mechanisms for this association have been proposed. Such associations may be related to endophenotypic features of the sleep homeostat and the circadian oscillator, or may be state-like effects of the environment. Here, we review recent literature on sleep, circadian rhythms and CVD with a specific emphasis on differences between racial/ethnic groups...
June 3, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753853/db-01-1-racial-and-ethnic-differences-exist-in-terms-of-efficacy-of-different-classes-of-anti-hypertensive-medications-pro
#12
Kenneth Jamerson
Race and ethnicity provide an important construct that identifies individuals at increased risk for hypertension and related cardiovascular complications. While a significan proportion of health care disparity can be attributed to social, cultural and ecomnomic factors, mapping of the human genome allows for a biological construct of race. A systematic review of the effect of race on the response to antihypertensive therapy was performed in 2007. In this current review, an update of this subject is provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643090/db-01-1-racial-and-ethnic-differences-exist-in-terms-of-efficacy-of-different-classes-of-anti-hypertensive-medications-pro
#13
Kenneth Jamerson
Race and ethnicity provide an important construct that identifies individuals at increased risk for hypertension and related cardiovascular complications. While a significan proportion of health care disparity can be attributed to social, cultural and ecomnomic factors, mapping of the human genome allows for a biological construct of race. A systematic review of the effect of race on the response to antihypertensive therapy was performed in 2007. In this current review, an update of this subject is provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502059/moderate-physical-activity-in-healthy-adults-is-associated-with-cardiac-remodeling
#14
Timothy J W Dawes, Ben Corden, Sorcha Cotter, Antonio de Marvao, Roddy Walsh, James S Ware, Stuart A Cook, Declan P O'Regan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac mass and volumes are often elevated in athletes, but it is not known whether moderate physical activity is also associated with cardiac dilatation and hypertrophy in a healthy adult population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 1096 adults (54% female, median age 39 years) without cardiovascular disease or cardiomyopathy-associated genetic variants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine biventricular volumes and function. Physical activity was assessed using a validated activity questionnaire...
August 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438321/genetic-investigation-into-the-differential-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-among-black-and-white-individuals
#15
Jason D Roberts, Donglei Hu, Susan R Heckbert, Alvaro Alonso, Thomas A Dewland, Eric Vittinghoff, Yongmei Liu, Bruce M Psaty, Jeffrey E Olgin, Jared W Magnani, Scott Huntsman, Esteban G Burchard, Dan E Arking, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Tamara B Harris, Marco V Perez, Elad Ziv, Gregory M Marcus
IMPORTANCE: White persons have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with black individuals despite a lower prevalence of risk factors. This difference may be due, at least in part, to genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AF account for this paradoxical differential racial risk for AF and to use admixture mapping to search genome-wide for loci that may account for this phenomenon...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362963/assessment-of-vitamin-d-status-a-changing-landscape
#16
REVIEW
Markus Herrmann, Christopher-John L Farrell, Irene Pusceddu, Neus Fabregat-Cabello, Etienne Cavalier
In recent years it has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence as well as the progression of a broad range of diseases including osteoporosis, rickets, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis and cancer. Consequently, requests for the assessment of vitamin D status have increased dramatically. Despite significant progress in the analysis of vitamin D metabolites and an expansion of our pathophysiological knowledge of vitamin D, the assessment of vitamin D status remains a challenging and partially unresolved issue...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27310030/associations-between-inflammation-and-physical-function-in-african-americans-and-european-americans-with-prevalent-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#17
B Gwen Windham, Steven R Wilkening, Seth T Lirette, Iftikhar J Kullo, Stephen T Turner, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between inflammation and physical function and potential mediation by white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis using linear and logistic models with generalized estimating equations to account for family clustering, reporting results as regression coefficients (β) and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for education, alcohol, exercise, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cognition, ankle-brachial index, race (site), and supported interactions...
July 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170480/genetic-factors-associated-with-the-development-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#18
REVIEW
Olga Sergejeva, Roman Botov, Rasa Liutkevičienė, Loresa Kriaučiūnienė
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the macula and is the leading cause of significant and irreversible central visual loss. It is the most common cause of visual loss in people aged more than 60 years. This disease affects 2.5 million individuals in Europe. AMD is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Numerous risk factors have been reported, but the pathogenesis of AMD is complex and fairly understood. Age, female gender, obesity, race, education status, family history, hyperopia, iris color, cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, sunlight exposure and many other factors have been shown to be associated with AMD development...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966015/race-apol1-risk-and-egfr-decline-in-the-general-population
#19
Morgan E Grams, Casey M Rebholz, Yuan Chen, Andreea M Rawlings, Michelle M Estrella, Elizabeth Selvin, Lawrence J Appel, Adrienne Tin, Josef Coresh
The APOL1 high-risk genotype, present in approximately 13% of blacks in the United States, is a risk factor for kidney function decline in populations with CKD. It is unknown whether genetic screening is indicated in the general population. We evaluated the prognosis of APOL1 high-risk status in participants in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, including associations with eGFR decline, variability in eGFR decline, and related adverse health events (AKI, ESRD, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, pre-ESRD and total hospitalization rate, and mortality)...
September 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891998/national-lipid-association-annual-summary-of-clinical-lipidology-2016
#20
REVIEW
Harold E Bays, Peter H Jones, Carl E Orringer, W Virgil Brown, Terry A Jacobson
The National Lipid Association (NLA) Annual Summary of Clinical Lipidology is a yearly updated summary of principles important to the patient-centered evaluation, management, and care of patients with dyslipidemia. This summary is intended to be a "living document," with future annual updates based on emerging science, clinical considerations, and new NLA Position, Consensus, and Scientific Statements, thus providing an ongoing resource that applies the latest in medical science towards the clinical management of patients with dyslipidemia...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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