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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753853/db-01-1-racial-and-ethnic-differences-exist-in-terms-of-efficacy-of-different-classes-of-anti-hypertensive-medications-pro
#1
Kenneth Jamerson
Race and ethnicity provide an important construct that identifies individuals at increased risk for hypertension and related cardiovascular complications. While a significan proportion of health care disparity can be attributed to social, cultural and ecomnomic factors, mapping of the human genome allows for a biological construct of race. A systematic review of the effect of race on the response to antihypertensive therapy was performed in 2007. In this current review, an update of this subject is provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643090/db-01-1-racial-and-ethnic-differences-exist-in-terms-of-efficacy-of-different-classes-of-anti-hypertensive-medications-pro
#2
Kenneth Jamerson
Race and ethnicity provide an important construct that identifies individuals at increased risk for hypertension and related cardiovascular complications. While a significan proportion of health care disparity can be attributed to social, cultural and ecomnomic factors, mapping of the human genome allows for a biological construct of race. A systematic review of the effect of race on the response to antihypertensive therapy was performed in 2007. In this current review, an update of this subject is provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502059/moderate-physical-activity-in-healthy-adults-is-associated-with-cardiac-remodeling
#3
Timothy J W Dawes, Ben Corden, Sorcha Cotter, Antonio de Marvao, Roddy Walsh, James S Ware, Stuart A Cook, Declan P O'Regan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac mass and volumes are often elevated in athletes, but it is not known whether moderate physical activity is also associated with cardiac dilatation and hypertrophy in a healthy adult population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 1096 adults (54% female, median age 39 years) without cardiovascular disease or cardiomyopathy-associated genetic variants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine biventricular volumes and function. Physical activity was assessed using a validated activity questionnaire...
August 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438321/genetic-investigation-into-the-differential-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-among-black-and-white-individuals
#4
Jason D Roberts, Donglei Hu, Susan R Heckbert, Alvaro Alonso, Thomas A Dewland, Eric Vittinghoff, Yongmei Liu, Bruce M Psaty, Jeffrey E Olgin, Jared W Magnani, Scott Huntsman, Esteban G Burchard, Dan E Arking, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Tamara B Harris, Marco V Perez, Elad Ziv, Gregory M Marcus
IMPORTANCE: White persons have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with black individuals despite a lower prevalence of risk factors. This difference may be due, at least in part, to genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AF account for this paradoxical differential racial risk for AF and to use admixture mapping to search genome-wide for loci that may account for this phenomenon...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362963/assessment-of-vitamin-d-status-a-changing-landscape
#5
Markus Herrmann, Christopher-John L Farrell, Irene Pusceddu, Neus Fabregat-Cabello, Etienne Cavalier
In recent years it has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence as well as the progression of a broad range of diseases including osteoporosis, rickets, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis and cancer. Consequently, requests for the assessment of vitamin D status have increased dramatically. Despite significant progress in the analysis of vitamin D metabolites and an expansion of our pathophysiological knowledge of vitamin D, the assessment of vitamin D status remains a challenging and partially unresolved issue...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27310030/associations-between-inflammation-and-physical-function-in-african-americans-and-european-americans-with-prevalent-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#6
B Gwen Windham, Steven R Wilkening, Seth T Lirette, Iftikhar J Kullo, Stephen T Turner, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between inflammation and physical function and potential mediation by white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis using linear and logistic models with generalized estimating equations to account for family clustering, reporting results as regression coefficients (β) and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for education, alcohol, exercise, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cognition, ankle-brachial index, race (site), and supported interactions...
July 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170480/genetic-factors-associated-with-the-development-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
REVIEW
Olga Sergejeva, Roman Botov, Rasa Liutkevičienė, Loresa Kriaučiūnienė
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the macula and is the leading cause of significant and irreversible central visual loss. It is the most common cause of visual loss in people aged more than 60 years. This disease affects 2.5 million individuals in Europe. AMD is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Numerous risk factors have been reported, but the pathogenesis of AMD is complex and fairly understood. Age, female gender, obesity, race, education status, family history, hyperopia, iris color, cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, sunlight exposure and many other factors have been shown to be associated with AMD development...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966015/race-apol1-risk-and-egfr-decline-in-the-general-population
#8
Morgan E Grams, Casey M Rebholz, Yuan Chen, Andreea M Rawlings, Michelle M Estrella, Elizabeth Selvin, Lawrence J Appel, Adrienne Tin, Josef Coresh
The APOL1 high-risk genotype, present in approximately 13% of blacks in the United States, is a risk factor for kidney function decline in populations with CKD. It is unknown whether genetic screening is indicated in the general population. We evaluated the prognosis of APOL1 high-risk status in participants in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, including associations with eGFR decline, variability in eGFR decline, and related adverse health events (AKI, ESRD, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, pre-ESRD and total hospitalization rate, and mortality)...
September 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891998/national-lipid-association-annual-summary-of-clinical-lipidology-2016
#9
REVIEW
Harold E Bays, Peter H Jones, Carl E Orringer, W Virgil Brown, Terry A Jacobson
The National Lipid Association (NLA) Annual Summary of Clinical Lipidology is a yearly updated summary of principles important to the patient-centered evaluation, management, and care of patients with dyslipidemia. This summary is intended to be a "living document," with future annual updates based on emerging science, clinical considerations, and new NLA Position, Consensus, and Scientific Statements, thus providing an ongoing resource that applies the latest in medical science towards the clinical management of patients with dyslipidemia...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883866/blood-group-antigen-loci-demonstrate-multivariate-genetic-associations-with-circulating-cellular-adhesion-protein-levels-in-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#10
MULTICENTER STUDY
Nicholas B Larson, Paul A Decker, Christina L Wassel, James S Pankow, Weihong Tang, Naomi Q Hanson, Michael Y Tsai, Suzette J Bielinski
The cellular adhesion pathway is critical in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and genetic factors contributing to regulation of circulating levels of related proteins may be relevant to risk prediction of cardiovascular disease. In contrast to conducting separate genome-wide protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) mapping analyses of each individual protein, joint genetic association analyses of multiple quantitative traits can leverage cross-trait co-variation and identify simultaneous regulatory effects on protein levels across the pathway...
April 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26345841/association-between-1p13-3-genomic-markers-and-coronary-artery-disease-a-meta-analysis-involving-patients-and-controls
#11
J Guo, Y X Luo, L X Tao, X H Guo
Recently, genome-wide association studies on cardio-vascular disease identified a series of associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in an intergenic region of chromosome 1p13.3. We investigated the association of this locus with cardiovascular disease in 13 case-control studies and undertook a meta-analysis for effect size, heterogeneity, publication bias, and strength of evidence. English and Chinese language articles were screened for the association of 1p13.3 single nucleotide polymorphisms with coronary heart/artery disease or myocardial infarction as primary outcomes...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26293465/plasma-levels-of-soluble-interleukin-2-receptor-%C3%AE-associations-with-clinical-cardiovascular-events-and-genome-wide-association-scan
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Peter Durda, Jeremy Sabourin, Ethan M Lange, Mike A Nalls, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Nancy Swords Jenny, Jin Li, Jeremy Walston, Tamara B Harris, Bruce M Psaty, William Valdar, Yongmei Liu, Mary Cushman, Alex P Reiner, Russell P Tracy, Leslie A Lange
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL) -2 receptor subunit α regulates lymphocyte activation, which plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Associations between soluble IL-2Rα (sIL-2Rα) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been widely studied and little is known about the genetic determinants of sIL-2Rα levels. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured baseline levels of sIL-2Rα in 4408 European American (EA) and 766 African American (AA) adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and examined associations with baseline CVD risk factors, subclinical CVD, and incident CVD events...
October 2015: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26019129/cyp2c19-metabolizer-status-and-clopidogrel-efficacy-in-the-secondary-prevention-of-small-subcortical-strokes-sps3-study
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Caitrin W McDonough, Leslie A McClure, Braxton D Mitchell, Yan Gong, Richard B Horenstein, Joshua P Lewis, Thalia S Field, Robert L Talbert, Oscar R Benavente, Julie A Johnson, Alan R Shuldiner
BACKGROUND: The role of the CYP2C19 genotype on clopidogrel efficacy has been studied widely, with data suggesting reduced clopidogrel efficacy in loss-of-function variant carriers taking clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention; however, data are limited regarding the association between CYP2C19 genetic variants and outcomes in stroke patients. We investigated whether CYP2C19 metabolizer status affects the risk of recurrent stroke or major bleeding in subcortical stroke patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel...
May 27, 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25999400/racial-differences-in-circulating-natriuretic-peptide-levels-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#14
Deepak K Gupta, Brian Claggett, Quinn Wells, Susan Cheng, Man Li, Nisa Maruthur, Elizabeth Selvin, Josef Coresh, Suma Konety, Kenneth R Butler, Thomas Mosley, Eric Boerwinkle, Ron Hoogeveen, Christie M Ballantyne, Scott D Solomon
BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides promote natriuresis, diuresis, and vasodilation. Experimental deficiency of natriuretic peptides leads to hypertension (HTN) and cardiac hypertrophy, conditions more common among African Americans. Hospital-based studies suggest that African Americans may have reduced circulating natriuretic peptides, as compared to Caucasians, but definitive data from community-based cohorts are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels according to race in 9137 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants (22% African American) without prevalent cardiovascular disease at visit 4 (1996-1998)...
May 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25877345/cyp2c19-polymorphism-and-clinical-outcomes-among-patients-of-different-races-treated-with-clopidogrel-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Xuan Niu, Ling Mao, Yan Huang, Suraj Baral, Jian-yong Li, Yuan Gao, Yuan-peng Xia, Quan-wei He, Meng-die Wang, Man Li, Li Zou, Xiao-ping Miao, Bo Hu
Several studies have investigated the association between CYP2C19 polymorphism and clinical outcomes of patients treated with clopidogrel, but few have noticed the difference in association between Westerners and Asians. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library database and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thirty-six studies involving 44 655 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with clopidogrel were included, of which more than 68% had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
April 2015: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25863973/race-and-vitamin-d-binding-protein-gene-polymorphisms-modify-the-association-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-incident-heart-failure-the-aric-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Pamela L Lutsey, Erin D Michos, Jeffrey R Misialek, James S Pankow, Laura Loehr, Elizabeth Selvin, Jared P Reis, Myron Gross, John H Eckfeldt, Aaron R Folsom
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine if low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is associated with incident heart failure (HF) and if the association is: 1) partly mediated by traditional cardiovascular risk factors; 2) stronger among whites than blacks; and 3) stronger among those genetically predisposed to having high levels of vitamin D binding protein (DBP). BACKGROUND: Suboptimal 25(OH)D is a potential cardiovascular risk factor. METHODS: A total of 12,215 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants free of HF at baseline (1990 to 1992; median age, 56; 24% black) were followed through 2010...
May 2015: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25754318/understanding-the-importance-of-race-ethnicity-in-the-care-of-the-hypertensive-patient
#17
REVIEW
Keith C Ferdinand, Samar A Nasser
Although several risk factors contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) overall, hypertension (HTN) is the major controllable risk factor. Hypertension is disproportionately more prevalent among Blacks or African-Americans compared with other race/ethnic populations, and the control rates among this disparate population are alarming. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been demonstrated and evaluated among hypertensives and the conglomeration of genetics, environmental, and personal lifestyle activities concurrently impact the progression of hypertension-related comorbidities (i...
March 2015: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25741389/air-pollution-and-health-emerging-information-on-susceptible-populations
#18
Marie S O'Neill, Carrie V Breton, Robert B Devlin, Mark J Utell
Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying disease; demographic or anthropometric characteristics; genetic profile; race and ethnicity; lifestyle, behaviors, and socioeconomic position; and location of residence or daily activities. In health research, an individual or group may have an enhanced responsiveness to a given, identical level of pollution exposure compared to those who are less susceptible...
June 1, 2012: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25728832/endothelial-function-folate-pharmacogenomics-and-neurocognition-in-psychotic-disorders
#19
Tyler Grove, Stephan Taylor, Gregory Dalack, Vicki Ellingrod
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a well-described complication of schizophrenia, however, mechanisms connecting CVD with other facets of psychotic disorders, such as neurocognition, are not understood. The current study examined folate metabolism as a potential mechanism of CVD and neurocognitive deficits by: 1) using endothelial dysfunction as a biomarker of CVD, and 2) comparing enzymes associated with neurocognition, CVD, and critical to folate metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT)...
May 2015: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25679449/a-variant-in-the-osteoprotegerin-gene-is-associated-with-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-results-from-a-candidate-gene-study
#20
Cecilia P Chung, Joseph F Solus, Annette Oeser, Chun Li, Paolo Raggi, Jeffrey R Smith, C Michael Stein
OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have accelerated atherosclerosis, but there is limited information about the genetic contribution to atherosclerosis in this population. Therefore, we examined the association between selected genetic polymorphisms and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with RA. METHODS: Genotypes for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 152 candidate genes linked with autoimmune or cardiovascular risk were measured in 140 patients with RA...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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