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"Personalized medicine" disparities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149222/personalized-medicine-and-hispanic-health-improving-health-outcomes-and-reducing-health-disparities-a-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-report
#1
M Larissa Avilés-Santa, John Heintzman, Nangel M Lindberg, Rafael Guerrero-Preston, Kenneth Ramos, Ana L Abraído-Lanza, Jonca Bull, Adolph Falcón, Mary Ann McBurnie, Ernest Moy, George Papanicolaou, Ileana L Piña, Jennifer Popovic, Shakira F Suglia, Miguel A Vázquez
Persons of Hispanic/Latino descent may represent different ancestries, ethnic and cultural groups and countries of birth. In the U.S., the Hispanic/Latino population is projected to constitute 29% of the population by 2060. A personalized approach focusing on individual variability in genetics, environment, lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants of health may advance the understanding of some of the major factors contributing to the health disparities experienced by Hispanics/Latinos and other groups in the U...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073909/genotype-driven-identification-of-a-molecular-network-predictive-of-advanced-coronary-calcium-in-clinseq%C3%A2-and-framingham-heart-study-cohorts
#2
Cihan Oguz, Shurjo K Sen, Adam R Davis, Yi-Ping Fu, Christopher J O'Donnell, Gary H Gibbons
BACKGROUND: One goal of personalized medicine is leveraging the emerging tools of data science to guide medical decision-making. Achieving this using disparate data sources is most daunting for polygenic traits. To this end, we employed random forests (RFs) and neural networks (NNs) for predictive modeling of coronary artery calcium (CAC), which is an intermediate endo-phenotype of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Model inputs were derived from advanced cases in the ClinSeq®; discovery cohort (n=16) and the FHS replication cohort (n=36) from 89 (th) -99 (th) CAC score percentile range, and age-matched controls (ClinSeq®; n=16, FHS n=36) with no detectable CAC (all subjects were Caucasian males)...
October 26, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684774/tumoral-expression-of-drug-and-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-in-breast-cancer-patients-of-different-ethnicities-with-implications-to-personalized-medicine
#3
Yan Li, Albert Steppi, Yidong Zhou, Feng Mao, Philip Craig Miller, Max M He, Tingting Zhao, Qiang Sun, Jinfeng Zhang
Drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (DXME) play important roles in drug responses and carcinogenesis. Recent studies have found that expression of DXME in cancer cells significantly affects drug clearance and the onset of drug resistance. In this study we compared the expression of DXME in breast tumor tissue samples from patients representing three ethnic groups: Caucasian Americans (CA), African Americans (AA), and Asian Americans (AS). We further combined DXME gene expression data with eQTL data from the GTEx project and with allele frequency data from the 1000 Genomes project to identify SNPs that may be associated with differential expression of DXME genes...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592923/omics-based-molecular-techniques-in-oral-pathology-centred-cancer-prospect-and-challenges-in-africa
#4
REVIEW
Henry A Adeola, Olujide O Soyele, Anthonio O Adefuye, Sikiru A Jimoh, Azeez Butali
BACKGROUND: The completion of the human genome project and the accomplished milestones in the human proteome project; as well as the progress made so far in computational bioinformatics and "big data" processing have contributed immensely to individualized/personalized medicine in the developed world. MAIN BODY: At the dawn of precision medicine, various omics-based therapies and bioengineering can now be applied accurately for the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and risk stratification of cancer in a manner that was hitherto not thought possible...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487884/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-can-genomics-improve-treatment-options-for-a-curable-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Amit Dipak Amin, Tara L Peters, Lingxiao Li, Soumya Sundara Rajan, Ramesh Choudhari, Soham D Puvvada, Jonathan H Schatz
Gene-expression profiling and next-generation sequencing have defined diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma diagnosis, as a heterogeneous group of subentities. Despite ongoing explosions of data illuminating disparate pathogenic mechanisms, however, the five-drug chemoimmunotherapy combination R-CHOP remains the frontline standard treatment. This has not changed in 15 years, since the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab was added to the CHOP backbone, which first entered use in the 1970s...
May 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459618/an-american-thoracic-society-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-report-addressing-respiratory-health-equality-in-the-united-states
#6
Juan C Celedón, Esteban G Burchard, Dean Schraufnagel, Carlos Castillo-Salgado, Marc Schenker, John Balmes, Enid Neptune, Kristin J Cummings, Fernando Holguin, Kristin A Riekert, Juan P Wisnivesky, Joe G N Garcia, Jesse Roman, Rick Kittles, Victor E Ortega, Susan Redline, Rasika Mathias, Al Thomas, Jonathan Samet, Jean G Ford
Health disparities related to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status persist and are commonly encountered by practitioners of pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine in the United States. To address such disparities and thus progress toward equality in respiratory health, the American Thoracic Society and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop in May of 2015. The workshop participants addressed health disparities by focusing on six topics, each of which concluded with a panel discussion that proposed recommendations for research on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine...
May 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442506/genome-wide-association-studies-of-chemotherapeutic-toxicities-genomics-of-inequality
#7
REVIEW
Brandon Mapes, Omar El Charif, Shereen Al-Sawwaf, M Eileen Dolan
With an estimated global population of cancer survivors exceeding 32 million and growing, there is a heightened awareness of the long-term toxicities resulting from cancer treatments and their impact on quality of life. Unexplained heterogeneity in the persistence and development of toxicities, as well as an incomplete understanding of their mechanisms, have generated a growing need for the identification of predictive pharmacogenomic markers. Early studies addressing this need used a candidate gene approach; however, over the last decade, unbiased and comprehensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided markers of phenotypic risk and potential targets to explore the mechanistic and regulatory pathways of biological functions associated with chemotherapeutic toxicity...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127673/opportunities-and-challenges-in-precision-medicine-improving-cancer-prevention-and-treatment-for-asian-americans
#8
Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Rachel Sacks, Jiyoung Ahn, Stella S Yi
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, and cancer cases among Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans are expected to rise by 132% by 2050. Yet, little is known about biologic and environmental factors that contribute to these higher rates of disease in this population. Precision medicine has the potential to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of morbidity and mortality trends among Asian American subgroups and to reduce cancer-related health disparities by recognizing patients as individuals with unique genetic, environmental, and lifestyle characteristics; identifying ways in which these differences impact cancer expression; and developing tailored disease prevention and clinical treatment strategies to address them...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957667/clinical-cancer-genetics-disparities-among-latinos
#9
REVIEW
Marcia Cruz-Correa, Julyann Pérez-Mayoral, Julie Dutil, Miguel Echenique, Rafael Mosquera, Keila Rivera-Román, Sharee Umpierre, Segundo Rodriguez-Quilichini, Maria Gonzalez-Pons, Myrta I Olivera, Sherly Pardo
The three major hereditary cancer syndromes in Latinos (Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and Lynch Syndrome) have been shown to exhibit geographic disparities by country of origin suggesting admixture-based disparities. A solid infrastructure of clinical genetics geared towards diagnosis and prevention could aid in reducing the mortality of these cancer syndromes in Latinos. Currently, clinical cancer genetic services in Latin America are scarce. Moreover, limited studies have investigated the mutational spectrum of these cancer syndromes in Latinos resulting in gaps in personalized medicine affecting diagnosis, treatment and prevention...
June 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503959/using-genetic-technologies-to-reduce-rather-than-widen-health-disparities
#10
Caren E Smith, Stephanie M Fullerton, Keith A Dookeran, Heather Hampel, Adrienne Tin, Nisa M Maruthur, Jonathan C Schisler, Jeffrey A Henderson, Katherine L Tucker, José M Ordovás
Evidence shows that both biological and nonbiological factors contribute to health disparities. Genetics, in particular, plays a part in how common diseases manifest themselves. Today, unprecedented advances in genetically based diagnoses and treatments provide opportunities for personalized medicine. However, disadvantaged groups may lack access to these advances, and treatments based on research on non-Hispanic whites might not be generalizable to members of minority groups. Unless genetic technologies become universally accessible, existing disparities could be widened...
August 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447901/prostate-cancer-in-african-american-men-the-effect-of-androgens-and-micrornas-on-epidermal-growth-factor-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Assumpta C Nwaneri, Lucien McBeth, Terry D Hinds
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of mortality amongst elderly men in the USA and is second only to lung cancer. African Americans (AA) are at an increased risk of developing PC and are more likely to die from the disease in comparison to Caucasian Americans (CA). Chromosomal alterations or genetic differences between AA and CA may account for the variances observed in PC progression. Importantly, mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) or the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may contribute to the disparity...
December 2016: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401891/sarcomas-associated-with-genetic-cancer-predisposition-syndromes-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Mohamad Farid, Joanne Ngeow
UNLABELLED: : Sarcomas are rare mesenchymal malignancies that demonstrate great clinical and biological heterogeneity. A variety of sarcomas develop in the context of well-defined heritable cancer predisposition syndromes, associations that are often overlooked, given the rarity and diversity of sarcomas and the equivalent relative infrequency of cancer genetic syndromes. This review describes in detail selected heritable cancer predisposition syndromes that are known to be associated with sarcomas...
August 2016: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178191/structural-competency-in-the-u-s-healthcare-crisis-putting-social-and-policy-interventions-into-clinical-practice
#13
H Hansen, J Metzl
This symposium of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry illustrates structural competency: how clinical practitioners can intervene on social and institutional determinants of health. It will require training clinicians to see and act on structural barriers to health, to adapt imaginative structural approaches from fields outside of medicine, and to collaborate with disciplines and institutions outside of medicine. Case studies of effective work on all of these levels are presented in this volume. The contributors exemplify structural competency from many angles, from the implications of epigenetics for environmental intervention in personalized medicine to the ways clinicians can act on fundamental causes of disease, address abuses of power in clinical training, racially desegregate cities to reduce health disparities, address the systemic causes of torture by police, and implement harm-reduction programs for addiction in the face of punitive drug laws...
June 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118784/enhancing-biospecimen-knowledge-among-health-care-providers-and-representatives-from-community-organizations
#14
Heidi M Tham, Sarah Hohl, Wade Copeland, Katherine J Briant, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Beti Thompson
In a personalized medicine environment, it is necessary to have access to a range of biospecimens to establish optimal plans for disease diagnosis and treatment for individual patients. Cancer research is especially dependent on biospecimens for determining ideal personalized treatment for patients. Unfortunately, the vast majority of biospecimens are collected from non-Hispanic White individuals; thus, minority representation is lacking. This has negative implications for comprehensive cancer treatment. The Geographic Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP) Region 6 implemented a series of biospecimen education seminars adapted from the Biospecimen and Biobanking module of an existing Cancer Education and Training Program...
September 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061195/studying-the-genetics-of-complex-disease-with-ancestry-specific-human-phenotype-networks-the-case-of-type-2-diabetes-in-east-asian-populations
#15
Jingya Qiu, Jason H Moore, Christian Darabos
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, East Asians develop T2DM at a higher rate, younger age, and lower body mass index than their European ancestry counterparts. The reason behind this occurrence remains elusive. With comprehensive searches through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS catalog literature, we compiled a database of 2,800 ancestry-specific SNPs associated with T2DM and 70 other related traits...
May 2016: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802756/achieving-equity-in-an-evolving-healthcare-system-opportunities-and-challenges
#16
Joni Strom Williams, Rebekah J Walker, Leonard E Egede
For decades, disparities in health have been well documented in the United States and regrettably, remain prevalent despite evidence and appeals for their elimination. Compared with the majority, racial and ethnic minorities continue to have poorer health status and health outcomes for most chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and end-stage renal disease. Many factors, such as affordability, access and diversity in the healthcare system, influence care and outcomes, creating challenges that make the task of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity daunting and elusive...
January 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26435701/role-of-genomics-in-eliminating-health-disparities
#17
REVIEW
Meghana V Kashyap, Michael Nolan, Marc Sprouse, Ranajit Chakraborty, Deanna Cross, Rhonda Roby, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education, and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2014 Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts in research, patient care, and community outreach on the "Role of Genomics in Eliminating Health Disparities." Rapid advances in genomics and pharmacogenomics are leading the field of medicine to use genetics and genetic risk to build personalized or individualized medicine strategies...
2015: Journal of Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26400505/aging-genetic-variations-and-ethnopharmacology-building-cultural-competence-through-awareness-of-drug-responses-in-ethnic-minority-elders
#18
Diana Lynn Woods, Janet C Mentes, Mary Cadogan, Linda R Phillips
Unique drug responses that may result in adverse events are among the ethnocultural differences described by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. These differences, often attributed to a lack of adherence on the part of the older adult, may be linked to genetic variations that influence drug responses in different ethnic groups. The paucity of research coupled with a lack of knowledge among health care providers compound the problem, contributing to further disparities, especially in this era of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics...
January 2017: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26380179/lung-cancer-care-the-impact-of-facilities-and-area-measures
#19
REVIEW
Christopher S Lathan
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the US, and while treatment disparities by race and class have been well described in the literature, the impact of social determinates of health, and specific characteristics of the treatment centers have been less well characterized. As the treatment of lung cancer relies more upon a precision and personalized medicine approach, where patients obtain treatment has an impact on outcomes and could be a major factor in treatment disparities. The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the manner in which lung cancer care can be impacted by poor access to high quality treatment centers, and how the built environment can be a mitigating factor in the pursuit of treatment equity...
August 2015: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26223182/genetics-of-autoimmune-diseases-insights-from-population-genetics
#20
REVIEW
Paula S Ramos, Andrew M Shedlock, Carl D Langefeld
Human genetic diversity is the result of population genetic forces. This genetic variation influences disease risk and contributes to health disparities. Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are a family of complex heterogeneous disorders with similar underlying mechanisms characterized by immune responses against self. Collectively, ADs are common, exhibit gender and ethnic disparities, and increasing incidence. As natural selection is an important influence on human genetic variation, and immune function genes are enriched for signals of positive selection, it is thought that the prevalence of AD risk alleles seen in different population is partially the result of differing selective pressures (for example, due to pathogens)...
November 2015: Journal of Human Genetics
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