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"Personalized medicine" disparities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696236/temporal-trends-and-characteristics-of-clinical-trials-for-which-only-one-racial-or-ethnic-group-is-eligible
#1
Brian L Egleston, Omar Pedraza, Yu-Ning Wong, Candace L Griffin, Eric A Ross, J Robert Beck
Background: Increasing diversity in clinical trials may be worthwhile. We examined clinical trials that restricted eligibility to a single race or ethnicity. Methods: We reviewed 19,246 trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov through January 2013. We mapped trial ZIP-codes to U.S. Census and American Community Survey data. The outcome was whether trials required participants to be from a single racial or ethnic group. Results: In adjusted analyses, the odds of trials restricting eligibility to a single race/ethnicity increased by 4% per year (95% CI 1...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490334/association-of-racial-ethnic-categories-with-the-ability-of-genetic-tests-to-detect-a-cause-of-cardiomyopathy
#2
Latrice G Landry, Heidi L Rehm
Importance: Individuals of all races/ethnicities have a fundamental right to access health care and benefit from advances in science and medicine, including genetic testing. Objective: To determine whether detection rates for cardiomyopathy genetic testing differed between white people, Asian people, and underrepresented minorities (individuals of black, Hispanic, Native American, Alaskan Native, or Pacific Islander descent). Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the genetic panel test results of 5729 probands who had a suspected diagnosis or family history of cardiomyopathy and who had been referred for testing between October 2003 and December 2017...
April 1, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471813/rural-urban-and-racial-ethnic-differences-in-awareness-of-direct-to-consumer-genetic-testing
#3
Ramzi G Salloum, Thomas J George, Natalie Silver, Merry-Jennifer Markham, Jaclyn M Hall, Yi Guo, Jiang Bian, Elizabeth A Shenkman
BACKGROUND: Access to direct-to-consumer genetic testing services has increased in recent years. However, disparities in knowledge and awareness of these services are not well documented. We examined awareness of genetic testing services by rural/urban and racial/ethnic status. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using pooled cross-sectional data from 4 waves (2011-2014) of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Descriptive statistics compared sample characteristics and information sources by rural/urban residence...
February 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451916/awareness-and-attitude-of-the-public-toward-personalized-medicine-in-korea
#4
Iyn-Hyang Lee, Hye-Young Kang, Hae Sun Suh, Sukhyang Lee, Eun Sil Oh, Hotcherl Jeong
OBJECTIVES: As personalized medicine (PM) is expected to greatly improve health outcomes, efforts have recently been made for its clinical implementation in Korea. We aimed to evaluate public awareness and attitude regarding PM. METHODS: We performed a self-administered questionnaire survey to 703 adults, who participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The primary outcome measures included public knowledge, attitude, and acceptance of PM. We conducted multinomial multivariate logistic analysis for outcome variables with three response categories and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses for dichotomous outcome variables...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350701/genetic-testing-how-genetics-and-genomics-can-affect-healthcare-disparities
#5
Deborah Allen
Advances in oncology care have transformed treatment approaches as genetics and genomics analyses promote implementation of personalized medicine. Genetics and genomics research in TP53 have demonstrated that some mutations are prevalent in minority populations. This has implications on personalized treatment approaches, particularly in early disease stages. The purpose of this article is to describe oncology nurses' role in applying these findings in practice to reduce disparities observed in cancer and survivorship care...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149222/personalized-medicine-and-hispanic-health-improving-health-outcomes-and-reducing-health-disparities-a-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-report
#6
M Larissa Avilés-Santa, John Heintzman, Nangel M Lindberg, Rafael Guerrero-Preston, Kenneth Ramos, Ana L Abraído-Lanza, Jonca Bull, Adolph Falcón, Mary Ann McBurnie, Ernest Moy, George Papanicolaou, Ileana L Piña, Jennifer Popovic, Shakira F Suglia, Miguel A Vázquez
Persons of Hispanic/Latino descent may represent different ancestries, ethnic and cultural groups and countries of birth. In the U.S., the Hispanic/Latino population is projected to constitute 29% of the population by 2060. A personalized approach focusing on individual variability in genetics, environment, lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants of health may advance the understanding of some of the major factors contributing to the health disparities experienced by Hispanics/Latinos and other groups in the U...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073909/genotype-driven-identification-of-a-molecular-network-predictive-of-advanced-coronary-calcium-in-clinseq%C3%A2-and-framingham-heart-study-cohorts
#7
Cihan Oguz, Shurjo K Sen, Adam R Davis, Yi-Ping Fu, Christopher J O'Donnell, Gary H Gibbons
BACKGROUND: One goal of personalized medicine is leveraging the emerging tools of data science to guide medical decision-making. Achieving this using disparate data sources is most daunting for polygenic traits. To this end, we employed random forests (RFs) and neural networks (NNs) for predictive modeling of coronary artery calcium (CAC), which is an intermediate endo-phenotype of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Model inputs were derived from advanced cases in the ClinSeq®; discovery cohort (n=16) and the FHS replication cohort (n=36) from 89 (th) -99 (th) CAC score percentile range, and age-matched controls (ClinSeq®; n=16, FHS n=36) with no detectable CAC (all subjects were Caucasian males)...
October 26, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684774/tumoral-expression-of-drug-and-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-in-breast-cancer-patients-of-different-ethnicities-with-implications-to-personalized-medicine
#8
Yan Li, Albert Steppi, Yidong Zhou, Feng Mao, Philip Craig Miller, Max M He, Tingting Zhao, Qiang Sun, Jinfeng Zhang
Drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (DXME) play important roles in drug responses and carcinogenesis. Recent studies have found that expression of DXME in cancer cells significantly affects drug clearance and the onset of drug resistance. In this study we compared the expression of DXME in breast tumor tissue samples from patients representing three ethnic groups: Caucasian Americans (CA), African Americans (AA), and Asian Americans (AS). We further combined DXME gene expression data with eQTL data from the GTEx project and with allele frequency data from the 1000 Genomes project to identify SNPs that may be associated with differential expression of DXME genes...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592923/omics-based-molecular-techniques-in-oral-pathology-centred-cancer-prospect-and-challenges-in-africa
#9
REVIEW
Henry A Adeola, Olujide O Soyele, Anthonio O Adefuye, Sikiru A Jimoh, Azeez Butali
BACKGROUND: The completion of the human genome project and the accomplished milestones in the human proteome project; as well as the progress made so far in computational bioinformatics and "big data" processing have contributed immensely to individualized/personalized medicine in the developed world. MAIN BODY: At the dawn of precision medicine, various omics-based therapies and bioengineering can now be applied accurately for the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and risk stratification of cancer in a manner that was hitherto not thought possible...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487884/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-can-genomics-improve-treatment-options-for-a-curable-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Amit Dipak Amin, Tara L Peters, Lingxiao Li, Soumya Sundara Rajan, Ramesh Choudhari, Soham D Puvvada, Jonathan H Schatz
Gene-expression profiling and next-generation sequencing have defined diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma diagnosis, as a heterogeneous group of subentities. Despite ongoing explosions of data illuminating disparate pathogenic mechanisms, however, the five-drug chemoimmunotherapy combination R-CHOP remains the frontline standard treatment. This has not changed in 15 years, since the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab was added to the CHOP backbone, which first entered use in the 1970s...
May 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459618/an-american-thoracic-society-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-report-addressing-respiratory-health-equality-in-the-united-states
#11
REVIEW
Juan C Celedón, Esteban G Burchard, Dean Schraufnagel, Carlos Castillo-Salgado, Marc Schenker, John Balmes, Enid Neptune, Kristin J Cummings, Fernando Holguin, Kristin A Riekert, Juan P Wisnivesky, Joe G N Garcia, Jesse Roman, Rick Kittles, Victor E Ortega, Susan Redline, Rasika Mathias, Al Thomas, Jonathan Samet, Jean G Ford
Health disparities related to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status persist and are commonly encountered by practitioners of pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine in the United States. To address such disparities and thus progress toward equality in respiratory health, the American Thoracic Society and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop in May of 2015. The workshop participants addressed health disparities by focusing on six topics, each of which concluded with a panel discussion that proposed recommendations for research on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine...
May 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442506/genome-wide-association-studies-of-chemotherapeutic-toxicities-genomics-of-inequality
#12
REVIEW
Brandon Mapes, Omar El Charif, Shereen Al-Sawwaf, M Eileen Dolan
With an estimated global population of cancer survivors exceeding 32 million and growing, there is a heightened awareness of the long-term toxicities resulting from cancer treatments and their impact on quality of life. Unexplained heterogeneity in the persistence and development of toxicities, as well as an incomplete understanding of their mechanisms, have generated a growing need for the identification of predictive pharmacogenomic markers. Early studies addressing this need used a candidate gene approach; however, over the last decade, unbiased and comprehensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided markers of phenotypic risk and potential targets to explore the mechanistic and regulatory pathways of biological functions associated with chemotherapeutic toxicity...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127673/opportunities-and-challenges-in-precision-medicine-improving-cancer-prevention-and-treatment-for-asian-americans
#13
Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Rachel Sacks, Jiyoung Ahn, Stella S Yi
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, and cancer cases among Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans are expected to rise by 132% by 2050. Yet, little is known about biologic and environmental factors that contribute to these higher rates of disease in this population. Precision medicine has the potential to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of morbidity and mortality trends among Asian American subgroups and to reduce cancer-related health disparities by recognizing patients as individuals with unique genetic, environmental, and lifestyle characteristics; identifying ways in which these differences impact cancer expression; and developing tailored disease prevention and clinical treatment strategies to address them...
February 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957667/clinical-cancer-genetics-disparities-among-latinos
#14
REVIEW
Marcia Cruz-Correa, Julyann Pérez-Mayoral, Julie Dutil, Miguel Echenique, Rafael Mosquera, Keila Rivera-Román, Sharee Umpierre, Segundo Rodriguez-Quilichini, Maria Gonzalez-Pons, Myrta I Olivera, Sherly Pardo
The three major hereditary cancer syndromes in Latinos (Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and Lynch Syndrome) have been shown to exhibit geographic disparities by country of origin suggesting admixture-based disparities. A solid infrastructure of clinical genetics geared towards diagnosis and prevention could aid in reducing the mortality of these cancer syndromes in Latinos. Currently, clinical cancer genetic services in Latin America are scarce. Moreover, limited studies have investigated the mutational spectrum of these cancer syndromes in Latinos resulting in gaps in personalized medicine affecting diagnosis, treatment and prevention...
June 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503959/using-genetic-technologies-to-reduce-rather-than-widen-health-disparities
#15
REVIEW
Caren E Smith, Stephanie M Fullerton, Keith A Dookeran, Heather Hampel, Adrienne Tin, Nisa M Maruthur, Jonathan C Schisler, Jeffrey A Henderson, Katherine L Tucker, José M Ordovás
Evidence shows that both biological and nonbiological factors contribute to health disparities. Genetics, in particular, plays a part in how common diseases manifest themselves. Today, unprecedented advances in genetically based diagnoses and treatments provide opportunities for personalized medicine. However, disadvantaged groups may lack access to these advances, and treatments based on research on non-Hispanic whites might not be generalizable to members of minority groups. Unless genetic technologies become universally accessible, existing disparities could be widened...
August 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447901/prostate-cancer-in-african-american-men-the-effect-of-androgens-and-micrornas-on-epidermal-growth-factor-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Assumpta C Nwaneri, Lucien McBeth, Terry D Hinds
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of mortality amongst elderly men in the USA and is second only to lung cancer. African Americans (AA) are at an increased risk of developing PC and are more likely to die from the disease in comparison to Caucasian Americans (CA). Chromosomal alterations or genetic differences between AA and CA may account for the variances observed in PC progression. Importantly, mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) or the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may contribute to the disparity...
December 2016: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401891/sarcomas-associated-with-genetic-cancer-predisposition-syndromes-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Mohamad Farid, Joanne Ngeow
UNLABELLED: : Sarcomas are rare mesenchymal malignancies that demonstrate great clinical and biological heterogeneity. A variety of sarcomas develop in the context of well-defined heritable cancer predisposition syndromes, associations that are often overlooked, given the rarity and diversity of sarcomas and the equivalent relative infrequency of cancer genetic syndromes. This review describes in detail selected heritable cancer predisposition syndromes that are known to be associated with sarcomas...
August 2016: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178191/structural-competency-in-the-u-s-healthcare-crisis-putting-social-and-policy-interventions-into-clinical-practice
#18
H Hansen, J Metzl
This symposium of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry illustrates structural competency: how clinical practitioners can intervene on social and institutional determinants of health. It will require training clinicians to see and act on structural barriers to health, to adapt imaginative structural approaches from fields outside of medicine, and to collaborate with disciplines and institutions outside of medicine. Case studies of effective work on all of these levels are presented in this volume. The contributors exemplify structural competency from many angles, from the implications of epigenetics for environmental intervention in personalized medicine to the ways clinicians can act on fundamental causes of disease, address abuses of power in clinical training, racially desegregate cities to reduce health disparities, address the systemic causes of torture by police, and implement harm-reduction programs for addiction in the face of punitive drug laws...
June 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118784/enhancing-biospecimen-knowledge-among-health-care-providers-and-representatives-from-community-organizations
#19
Heidi M Tham, Sarah Hohl, Wade Copeland, Katherine J Briant, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Beti Thompson
In a personalized medicine environment, it is necessary to have access to a range of biospecimens to establish optimal plans for disease diagnosis and treatment for individual patients. Cancer research is especially dependent on biospecimens for determining ideal personalized treatment for patients. Unfortunately, the vast majority of biospecimens are collected from non-Hispanic White individuals; thus, minority representation is lacking. This has negative implications for comprehensive cancer treatment. The Geographic Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP) Region 6 implemented a series of biospecimen education seminars adapted from the Biospecimen and Biobanking module of an existing Cancer Education and Training Program...
September 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061195/studying-the-genetics-of-complex-disease-with-ancestry-specific-human-phenotype-networks-the-case-of-type-2-diabetes-in-east-asian-populations
#20
Jingya Qiu, Jason H Moore, Christian Darabos
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, East Asians develop T2DM at a higher rate, younger age, and lower body mass index than their European ancestry counterparts. The reason behind this occurrence remains elusive. With comprehensive searches through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS catalog literature, we compiled a database of 2,800 ancestry-specific SNPs associated with T2DM and 70 other related traits...
May 2016: Genetic Epidemiology
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