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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#1
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087121/upper-extremity-outcome-measures-for-collagen-vi-related-myopathy-and-lama2-related-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Roxanna M Bendixen, Jocelyn Butrum, Mina S Jain, Rebecca Parks, Bonnie Hodsdon, Carmel Nichols, Michelle Hsia, Leslie Nelson, Katherine C Keller, Michelle McGuire, Jeffrey S Elliott, Melody M Linton, Irene C Arveson, Fatou Tounkara, Ruhi Vasavada, Elizabeth Harnett, Monal Punjabi, Sandra Donkervoort, Jahannaz Dastgir, Meganne E Leach, Anne Rutkowski, Melissa Waite, James Collins, Carsten G Bönnemann, Katherine G Meilleur
Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) comprises a rare group of genetic muscle diseases that present at birth or early during infancy. Two common subtypes of CMD are collagen VI-related muscular dystrophy (COL6-RD) and laminin alpha 2-related dystrophy (LAMA2-RD). Traditional outcome measures in CMD include gross motor and mobility assessments, yet significant motor declines underscore the need for valid upper extremity motor assessments as a clinical endpoint. This study validated a battery of upper extremity measures in these two CMD subtypes for future clinical trials...
December 5, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079738/vision-problems-and-reduced-reading-outcomes-in-queensland-schoolchildren
#3
Shelley Hopkins, Geoff P Sampson, Peter L Hendicott, Joanne M Wood
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between vision and reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren to determine whether vision problems are associated with lower reading outcomes in these populations. METHODS: Vision testing and reading assessments were performed on 508 Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia divided into two age groups: Grades 1 and 2 (6-7 years of age) and Grades 6 and 7 (12-13 years of age). Vision parameters measured included cycloplegic refraction, near point of convergence, heterophoria, fusional vergence range, rapid automatized naming, and visual motor integration...
January 12, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079509/excellent-balance-skills-despite-active-and-inactive-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-unexpected-results-of-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Josephine Merker, Matthias Hartmann, Florian Kreuzpointner, Ansgar Schwirtz, Johannes-Peter Haas
OBJECTIVES: Postural control (PC) is fundamental for human movements. Different factors, such as injuries or diseases, can adversely affect PC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PC in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients with different disease activity levels in comparison to healthy peers. METHODS: JIA patients with active and inactive lower limb joints (n=36 each group) were examined. Both groups have been on medication and have had physiotherapy for at least 5 years...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078364/-ligament-injuries-of-fingers-and-thumbs
#5
R Schmitt
Degenerative and traumatic ligament lesions of the carpometacarpal joints frequently occur at the thumb ray, whereas the carpometacarpal amphiarthrosis of other finger rays are rarely affected. The metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of the thumb and fingers are stabilized by bilaterally running collateral ligaments and palmar plates. At the base of the metacarpophalangeal joints, several ligaments of the extensor hoods guide the extensor tendons and coordinate the fine motoric skills of phalangeal flexing and extending...
January 11, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077667/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-high-stages-of-motor-planning-hierarchy
#6
Luca Casartelli, Alessandra Federici, Ambra Cesareo, Emilia Biffi, Giulia Valtorta, Massimo Molteni, Luca Ronconi, Renato Borgatti
Motor planning is not a monolithic process, and distinct stages of motor planning are responsible for encoding different levels of abstractness. However, how these distinct components are mapped into different neural substrates remains an open question. We studied one of these high-level motor planning components, defined as second-order motor planning, in a patient (R.G.) with an extremely rare case of cerebellar agenesis but without any other cortical malformations. Second-order motor planning dictates that when two acts have to be performed sequentially, planning of the second act can influence the execution of the first...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074999/-predictive-value-of-cerebellar-growth-and-general-movements-assessments-for-neurodevelopment-of-very-preterm-infants-at-18-24-months-corrected-age
#7
M Cunha, F Correa, A Cadete, A Oliveira, H Figueiredo, P Valerio, R Barroso, H Carreiro
INTRODUCTION: Fidgety movements assessments is very sensitive predicting long-term outcome or cerebral palsy of preterm, disrupted cerebellar growth has been reported in these patients. AIM: To compare the predictive value of cerebellar ultrasound growth and fidgety movements assessments, for neurodevelopment outcome of very preterm at 18-24 month's corrected age (CA). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Prospective study of 88 infants cohort (<= 32 weeks' gestation), transverse cerebellar diameter was obtained by ultrasound via mastoid fontanel, in a weekly basis, until 40 weeks CA...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072633/visual-motion-processing-subserves-faster-visuomotor-reaction-in-badminton-players
#8
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
INTRODUCTION: Athletes participating in ball or racquet sports have to respond to visual stimuli under critical time pressure. Previous studies used visual contrast stimuli to determine visual perception and visuomotor reaction in athletes and non-athletes however, especially ball and racquet sports are characterized by motion rather than contrast visual cues. Since visual contrast and motion signals are processed in different cortical regions, this study aimed to determine differences in perception and processing of visual motion between athletes and non-athletes...
January 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071965/standing-activity-intervention-and-motor-function-in-a-young-child-with-cerebral-palsy-a-case-report
#9
Olukemi Audu, Carol Daly
PURPOSE: There is limited evidence to fully justify the use of standing interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This case report describes the impact of an 8-week standing program on motor function in a child with severe CP living in western Africa. METHODS: The subject was diagnosed with ischemic - hypoxic encephalopathy shortly after birth and with CP at 12 months of age. Gross Motor Function Classification of CP was level IV. Early attempts at physical therapy were interrupted by limited access to medical services...
January 10, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069760/axotomized-corticospinal-neurons-increase-supra-lesional-innervation-and-remain-crucial-for-skilled-reaching-after-bilateral-pyramidotomy
#10
Alice C Mosberger, Jenifer C Miehlbradt, Nadja Bjelopoljak, Marc P Schneider, Anna-Sophia Wahl, Benjamin V Ineichen, Miriam Gullo, Martin E Schwab
Skilled upper limb function heavily depends on the corticospinal tract. After bilateral lesions to this tract, motor control is disrupted but can be partially substituted by other motor systems to allow functional recovery. However, the remaining roles of motor cortex and especially of axotomized corticospinal neurons (CSNs) are not well understood. Using the single pellet retrieval task in adult rats, we induced significant recovery of skilled reaching after bilateral pyramidotomy by rehabilitative reaching training, and show that reach-related motor cortex activity, recorded in layer V, topographically reappeared shortly after axotomy...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057008/correlates-of-preschool-children-s-objectively-measured-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-splashy-study
#11
Einat A Schmutz, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Thomas Radtke, Stefanie Muff, Tanja H Kakebeeke, Annina E Zysset, Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Kerstin Stülb, Amar Arhab, Andrea H Meyer, Simone Munsch, Jardena J Puder, Oskar G Jenni, Susi Kriemler
BACKGROUND: Identifying ways to promote physical activity and decrease sedentary time during childhood is a key public health issue. Research on the putative influences on preschool children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) is limited and has yielded inconsistent results. Our aim was to identify correlates of PA and SB in preschool children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were drawn from the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY), a Swiss population-based cohort study...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056023/short-term-motor-skill-acquisition-improves-with-size-of-self-controlled-virtual-hands
#12
Ori Ossmy, Roy Mukamel
Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054495/comparison-of-motor-competence-levels-on-two-assessments-across-childhood
#13
Alessandro H N Ré, Samuel W Logan, Maria T Cattuzzo, Rafael S Henrique, Mariana C Tudela, David F Stodden
This study compared performances and motor delay classifications for the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition (TGMD-2) and the Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder (KTK) in a sample of 424 healthy children (47% girls) between 5 and 10 years of age. Low-to-moderate correlations (r range = 0.34-0.52) were found between assessments across age. In general, both boys and girls demonstrated higher raw scores across age groups. However, percentile scores indicated younger children outperformed older children, denoting a normative percentile-based decrease in motor competence (MC) in the older age groups...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045215/relationship-between-motor-proficiency-and-body-composition-in-6-to-10-year-old-children
#14
José Marmeleira, Guida Veiga, Hugo Cansado, Armando Raimundo
AIM: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between motor skill competence and body composition of 6- to 10-year-old children. METHODS: Seventy girls and 86 boys participated. Body composition was measured by body mass index and skinfold thickness. Motor proficiency was evaluated through the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form, which included measures of gross motor skills and fine motor skills. RESULTS: Significant associations were found for both sexes between the percentage of body fat and (i) the performance in each gross motor task, (ii) the composite score for gross motor skills and (iii) the motor proficiency score...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043057/a-narrative-review-of-texting-as-a-visually-dependent-cognitive-motor-secondary-task-during-locomotion
#15
REVIEW
T Krasovsky, P L Weiss, R Kizony
Typing while walking is an example of people's ability to interact with technology while engaged in real life activities. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have investigated the typing of text messages (texting) as a dual task during locomotion. The objective of this review is to (1) describe the task requirements of texting-while-walking, (2) evaluate the measurement and psychometric properties of texting as a dual task, and (3) formulate methodological recommendations for researchers who use and report on texting-while-walking...
December 22, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039750/competing-features-influence-children-s-attention-to-number
#16
Jenny Yun-Chen Chan, Michèle M M Mazzocco
Spontaneous focus on numerosity (SFON), an attentional process that some consider distinct from number knowledge, predicts later mathematical skills. Here we assessed the "spontaneity" and malleability of SFON using a picture-matching task. We asked children to view a target picture and to choose which of four other pictures matched the target. We tested whether attention to number (defined as number-based matches) was affected by (a) age, (b) the presence of very noticeable (or salient) features among alternative match choices, and (c) the examiner's use of motor actions to emphasize numerosity...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038502/interaction-between-motor-ability-and-skill-learning-in-children-application-of-implicit-and-explicit-approaches
#17
Jon P Maxwell, Catherine M Capio, Rich S W Masters
The benefits of implicit and explicit motor learning approaches in young adults have been studied extensively, but much less in children. This study investigated the relationship between fundamental motor ability and implicit/explicit learning in children using the errorless learning paradigm. First, the motor ability of 261 children (142 boys, 119 girls) aged 9-12 years (M = 9.74, SD = 0.67) was measured. Second, children with motor ability scores in the upper and lower quartile learned a golf-putting skill in either an errorless (implicit) or errorful (explicit) learning condition...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034969/a-prospective-randomized-study-to-evaluate-a-new-learning-tool-for-ultrasound-guided-regional-anesthesia
#18
Sanjib Das Adhikary, Demetrius Karanzalis, Wai-Man Raymond Liu, Admir Hadzic, Patrick M McQuillan
OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the effectiveness of a new learning tool for needle insertion accuracy skills during a simulated ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia procedure. METHODS : Thirty participants were included in this randomized controlled study. After viewing a prerecorded video of a single, discreet, ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia task, all participants performed the same task three consecutive times (pretest), and needle insertion accuracy skills in a phantom model were recorded as baseline...
December 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033698/balance-performance-of-deaf-children-with-and-without-cochlear-implants
#19
Amir-Abbas Ebrahimi, Guita Movallali, Ali-Ashraf Jamshidi, Hojjat Allah Haghgoo, Mehdi Rahgozar
 The aim of this study was to compare the static and dynamic balance performance of deaf children with and without cochlear implants. This is a cross-sectional study of 145 school children, aged between 7 and 12 years comprising 85 children with congenital or early acquired bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss (the hearing loss group) and 60 normal hearing aged-matched control counterparts were assessed using the balance subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The hearing loss group, 50 without cochlear implants (the non-implant group) and 35 of them with unilateral cochlear implants (the implant group) were recruited from schools for the deaf and normal hearing children (the control group) randomly selected from two randomly selected elementary schools of Tehran city...
November 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033506/preconditioning-tdcs-facilitates-subsequent-tdcs-effect-on-skill-acquisition-in-older-adults
#20
Hakuei Fujiyama, Mark R Hinder, Azadeh Barzideh, Charis Van de Vijver, Andreea C Badache, Maria Nathalya Manrique-C, Paola Reissig, Xue Zhang, Oron Levin, Jeffery J Summers, Stephan P Swinnen
Functional motor declines that often occur with advancing age-including reduced efficacy to learn new skills-can have a substantial impact on the quality of life. Recent studies using noninvasive brain stimulation indicate that priming the corticospinal system by lowering the threshold for the induction of long-term potentiation-like plasticity before skill training may facilitate subsequent skill learning. Here, we used "priming" protocol, in which we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applying the cathode over the primary motor cortex (M1) before the anode placed over M1 during unimanual isometric force control training (FORCEtraining)...
December 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
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