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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738669/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-transfer-interhemispheric-training-programme-in-the-early-stages-of-fencing-training
#1
Mateusz Witkowski, Michał Bronikowski, Agnieszka Nowik, Maciej Tomczak, Jan Strugarek
BACKGROUND: A high level of motor coordination (with an emphasis on the accuracy of hand movements) is an important part of fencers' training. Research on motor coordination shows that both hemispheres of the brain are involved in controlling the action of each of the upper limbs. As the physical training of one hand is believed to significantly increase the performance of the other (untrained) hand [14], the authors attempt to verify the hypothesis that specialized training of the nondominant limb can improve the performance of the dominant hand in fencing...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737868/languaje-what-makes-us-humans
#2
Horacio Lejarraga
Pediatrician carry out the surveillance of language in preschool children as one of the components of child development (language, fine and gross motor skills, etc.). However, language is more than that. The process of transformation of the magic meaning on the word present in the initial stages of human evolution (Myth period) into a new, symbolic meaning as representative of the object (Logos period) took around 40,000 years. With the mastering of language, man was capable of thinking; from then onwards, these two functions, thought and language, became inextricably linked, the evolved hand in hand...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735370/gait-and-cognitive-impairments-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-specific-contribution-of-falls-and-fear-of-falling
#3
Alon Kalron, Gilles Allali
Our goal was to identify the specific contribution of fear of falling (FoF) and falls with quantitative gait impairments and cognition capabilities in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Patients were separated into four individual subgroups as to the presence of FoF and falls (i.e., fearless/non-fallers, fearless/fallers, FoF/non-fallers and FoF/fallers). The Falls Efficacy Scale International questionnaire was used to assess the level of concern of falling. Participants were defined as "fallers" and "non-fallers" based on their fall history...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735100/attention-modulates-specific-motor-cortical-circuits-recruited-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#4
J L Mirdamadi, L Y Suzuki, S K Meehan
Skilled performance and acquisition is dependent upon afferent input to motor cortex. The present study used short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to probe how manipulation of sensory afference by attention affects different circuits projecting to pyramidal tract neurons in motor cortex. SAI was assessed in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while participants performed a low or high attention demanding visual detection task. SAI was evoked by preceding a suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulus with electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734971/robotic-assistance-confers-ambidexterity-to-laparoscopic-surgeons
#5
Souzana Choussein, Serene S Srouji, Leslie V Farland, Ashley Wietsma, Stacey A Missmer, Michael Hollis, Richard N Yu, Charles N Pozner, Antonio R Gargiulo
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a robotic surgical platform can complement the fine motor skills of the non-dominant hand, compensating for the innate difference in dexterity between the surgeon's hands, thereby conferring virtual ambidexterity. DESIGN: Crossover intervention study. DESIGN CLASSIFICATION: Level II-1 evidence. SETTING: Centers for medical simulation of two tertiary care hospitals of Harvard Medical School...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733834/long-term-intensive-gymnastic-training-induced-changes-in-intra-and-inter-network-functional-connectivity-an-independent-component-analysis
#6
Huiyuan Huang, Junjing Wang, Carol Seger, Min Lu, Feng Deng, Xiaoyan Wu, Yuan He, Chen Niu, Jun Wang, Ruiwang Huang
Long-term intensive gymnastic training can induce brain structural and functional reorganization. Previous studies have identified structural and functional network differences between world class gymnasts (WCGs) and non-athletes at the whole-brain level. However, it is still unclear how interactions within and between functional networks are affected by long-term intensive gymnastic training. We examined both intra- and inter-network functional connectivity of gymnasts relative to non-athletes using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI)...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730904/occupational-therapists-awareness-of-guidelines-for-assessment-and-diagnosis-of-developmental-coordination-disorder-mesure-selon-laquelle-les-ergoth%C3%A3-rapeutes-connaissent-les-lignes-directrices-relatives-%C3%A3-l-%C3%A3-valuation-et-au-diagnostic-du-trouble-du-d%C3%A3-veloppement
#7
Morgan Karkling, Alissa Paul, Jill G Zwicker
BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a motor skills disorder that can have negative lifelong psychosocial impacts if not diagnosed. Occupational therapists have a role in facilitating a diagnosis for children with DCD through assessment. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of understanding of current DCD guidelines for assessment and diagnosis among occupational therapists working in paediatric settings in British Columbia, Canada...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730883/affected-aspects-regarding-literacy-and-numeracy-in-children-treated-for-brain-tumors
#8
Malin Lönnerblad, Riikka Lovio, Eva Berglund, Ingrid Van't Hooft
The aim of this study was to investigate the test results of reading speed, reading comprehension, word comprehension, spelling, basic arithmetic skills, and number sense (intuitive understanding of numbers) by children treated for brain tumors. This is a retrospective study based on medical records, including standardized academic tests. In the years of 2010 to 2014, all children in the area of Stockholm between 7 and 18 years (IQ <70) who had no major linguistic or motor difficulties after they had undergone treatment for brain tumors were offered a special education assessment one year after treatment, at school start, or the year before a transition from one stage to another...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729373/the-importance-of-managing-the-patient-and-not-the-gene-expanded-phenotype-of-gle1-associated-arthrogryposis
#10
Queenie K-G Tan, Allyn McConkie-Rosell, Jane Juusola, Kathryn E Gustafson, Carolyn E Pizoli, Anne F Buckley, Yong-Hui Jiang
GLE1 encodes a protein important for mRNA export and appears to play roles in translation initiation and termination as well. Pathogenic variants in GLE1 mutations have been associated with lethal contracture syndrome (LCCS1) and Lethal Arthrogryposis with Anterior Horn Cell Disease (LAAHD); phenotypes reported in individuals include fetal akinesia and a severe form of motor neuron disease, typically presenting with prenatal symptoms and perinatal lethality. In this paper, we identified bi-allelic missense mutations in GLE1 by trio whole exome sequencing (WES) in an individual affected with congenital motor weakness and contractures as well as feeding and respiratory difficulties...
July 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728887/effectiveness-of-exercise-intervention-on-improving-fundamental-movement-skills-and-motor-coordination-in-overweight-obese-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Ahreum Han, Allan Fu, Stephen Cobley, Ross H Sanders
OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is negatively associated with fundamental movement skill and motor coordination, which in turn constrains physical activity participation and adherence thereby forming a 'vicious cycle'. However, developing motor skill and coordination in childhood could help to break the vicious cycle to reduce childhood obesity. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of exercise and physical activity interventions on improving fundamental movement skill and motor coordination in overweight/obese children and adolescents...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728459/effect-of-a-12-week-physical-activity-program-on-gross-motor-skills-in-children
#12
Ryan D Burns, You Fu, Yi Fang, James C Hannon, Timothy A Brusseau
This study examined the effects of a 12-week Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on gross motor skill development in children from low-income families. Participants were 1,460 school-aged children (mean age = 8.4 ± 1.8 years; 730 girls, 730 boys) recruited from three schools receiving U.S. governmental financial assistance. Students were recruited from grades K-6. CSPAP was implemented over one semester during the 2014-2015 school year. Select gross motor skill items were assessed during each student's physical education class at baseline and at a 12-week follow-up using the Test for Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2)...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727643/improving-early-adolescent-girls-motor-skill-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Natalie Lander, Philip J Morgan, Jo Salmon, Lisa M Barnett
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) levels decline substantially during adolescence, and are consistently lower in girls. Competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor for the decline in PA typically observed in adolescent girls; yet, girls' mastery in FMS is low. Whilst interventions can improve FMS, there is a lack of interventions targeting girls, and very few are conducted in high schools. Additionally, interventions are usually conducted by researchers, not teachers, and thus have little chance of being embedded into curricula...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725933/-callus-distraction-and-bone-transport-in-the-treatment-of-bone-defects
#14
REVIEW
R Baumgart, B Schuster, T Baumgart
BACKGROUND: The method of "callus distraction" is the only technique which spontaneously produces vascularized bone within the surrounding soft tissues during lengthening reconstructive procedures. Remodeling of the regenerate bone to specific mechanical load can be influenced by the surgeon. In principle, there is no limit to the amount of new bone formation which can be created; this vascularized bone is both resistant to infection and can be created to replace resected infected bone...
July 19, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724575/a-multidirectional-gravity-assist-algorithm-that-enhances-locomotor-control-in-patients-with-stroke-or-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Jean-Baptiste Mignardot, Camille G Le Goff, Rubia van den Brand, Marco Capogrosso, Nicolas Fumeaux, Heike Vallery, Selin Anil, Jessica Lanini, Isabelle Fodor, Grégoire Eberle, Auke Ijspeert, Brigitte Schurch, Armin Curt, Stefano Carda, Jocelyne Bloch, Joachim von Zitzewitz, Grégoire Courtine
Gait recovery after neurological disorders requires remastering the interplay between body mechanics and gravitational forces. Despite the importance of gravity-dependent gait interactions and active participation for promoting this learning, these essential components of gait rehabilitation have received comparatively little attention. To address these issues, we developed an adaptive algorithm that personalizes multidirectional forces applied to the trunk based on patient-specific motor deficits. Implementation of this algorithm in a robotic interface reestablished gait dynamics during highly participative locomotion within a large and safe environment...
July 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724337/handedness-effects-of-imagined-fine-motor-movements
#16
Christopher M Donoff, Christopher R Madan, Anthony Singhal
Previous studies of movement imagery have found inter-individual differences in the ability to imagine whole-body movements. The majority of these studies have used subjective scales to measure imagery ability, which may be confounded by other factors related to effort. Madan and Singhal [2013. Introducing TAMI: An objective test of ability in movement imagery. Journal of Motor Behavior, 45(2), 153-166. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2013.763764 ] developed the Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI) to address these confounds by using a multiple-choice format with objectively correct responses...
July 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722685/neural-control-of-finger-movement-via-intracortical-brain-machine-interface
#17
Zachary T Irwin, Karen E Schroeder, Philip P Vu, Autumn J Bullard, Derek M Tat, Chrono S Nu, Alex Vaskov, Samuel R Nason, David E Thompson, Nicole Bentley, Parag G Patil, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a promising source of prosthesis control signals for individuals with severe motor disabilities. Previous BMI studies have primarily focused on predicting and controlling whole-arm movements; precise control of hand kinematics, however, has not been fully demonstrated. Here, we investigate the continuous decoding of precise finger movements in rhesus macaques. APPROACH: In order to elicit precise and repeatable finger movements, we have developed a novel behavioral task paradigm which requires the subject to acquire virtual fingertip position targets...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720401/multisensory-integration-induces-body-ownership-of-a-handtool-but-not-any-handtool
#18
Veronica Weser, Gianluca Finotti, Marcello Costantini, Dennis R Proffitt
Bodily boundaries are computed by integrating multisensory bodily signals and can be experimentally manipulated using bodily illusions. Research on tool use demonstrates that tools alter body representations motorically to account for changes in a user's action repertoire. The present experiment sought to unify perceptual and motoric accounts of tool embodiment using a modified Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) that also addressed the skill and practice aspects of the tool use literature. In Experiment 1, synchronous multisensory stimulation induced perceptual embodiment of a tool, chopsticks...
July 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719548/forearm-pronation-osteotomy-for-supination-contracture-secondary-to-obstetrical-brachial-plexus-palsy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Aharon Z Gladstein, Brant Sachleben, Emily S Ho, Alison Anthony, Howard M Clarke, Sevan Hopyan
BACKGROUND: Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy can lead to fixed forearm supination contracture. Fixed supination may lead to functional deficits as the affected hand cannot be positioned optimally for activities on a desk such as writing and typing, or for using tools including utensils, which require a neutral or pronated forearm. Forearm pronation osteotomy has been used to address this problem, although the functional benefit over nonoperative management has not been clearly defined...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718362/adaptive-behaviour-and-motor-skills-in-children-with-upper-limb-deficiency
#20
Hiroshi Mano, Sayaka Fujiwara, Nobuhiko Haga
BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of individuals with upper limb deficiencies affects their daily lives and social participation. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the adaptive behaviours and motor skills of children with upper limb deficiencies. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The subjects were 10 children ranging from 1 to 6 years of age with unilateral upper limb deficiencies at the level distal to the elbow who were using only cosmetic or passive prostheses or none at all...
July 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
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