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"Precision medicine" disparities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218899/precision-medicine-from-diplotypes-to-disparities-towards-improved-health-and-therapies
#1
Dana C Crawford, Alexander A Morgan, Joshua C Denny, Bruce J Aronow, Steven E Brenner
Precision medicine research efforts both in basic science discovery and clinical implementation are well underway and promise to provide individualized preventions and treatments, improving overall health care delivery. To achieve these goals, advances in data capture and analysis are needed spanning different types of 'omic and clinical data. The efforts to enhance precise treatments for all may accentuate healthcare disparities unless specific challenges are identified and addressed. This session of the 2018 Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing presents the latest developments in this transdisciplinary research space of genomics, medicine, and population health...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208398/future-cancer-research-priorities-in-the-usa-a-lancet-oncology-commission
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth M Jaffee, Chi Van Dang, David B Agus, Brian M Alexander, Kenneth C Anderson, Alan Ashworth, Anna D Barker, Roshan Bastani, Sangeeta Bhatia, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Otis Brawley, Atul J Butte, Daniel G Coit, Nancy E Davidson, Mark Davis, Ronald A DePinho, Robert B Diasio, Giulio Draetta, A Lindsay Frazier, Andrew Futreal, Sam S Gambhir, Patricia A Ganz, Levi Garraway, Stanton Gerson, Sumit Gupta, James Heath, Ruth I Hoffman, Cliff Hudis, Chanita Hughes-Halbert, Ramy Ibrahim, Hossein Jadvar, Brian Kavanagh, Rick Kittles, Quynh-Thu Le, Scott M Lippman, David Mankoff, Elaine R Mardis, Deborah K Mayer, Kelly McMasters, Neal J Meropol, Beverly Mitchell, Peter Naredi, Dean Ornish, Timothy M Pawlik, Jeffrey Peppercorn, Martin G Pomper, Derek Raghavan, Christine Ritchie, Sally W Schwarz, Richard Sullivan, Richard Wahl, Jedd D Wolchok, Sandra L Wong, Alfred Yung
We are in the midst of a technological revolution that is providing new insights into human biology and cancer. In this era of big data, we are amassing large amounts of information that is transforming how we approach cancer treatment and prevention. Enactment of the Cancer Moonshot within the 21st Century Cures Act in the USA arrived at a propitious moment in the advancement of knowledge, providing nearly US$2 billion of funding for cancer research and precision medicine. In 2016, the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) set out a roadmap of recommendations designed to exploit new advances in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment...
November 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158373/revisiting-expectations-in-an-era-of-precision-oncology
#3
Emily J Marchiano, Andrew C Birkeland, Paul L Swiecicki, Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Andrew G Shuman
As we enter an era of precision medicine and targeted therapies in the treatment of metastatic cancer, we face new challenges for patients and providers alike as we establish clear guidelines, regulations, and strategies for implementation. At the crux of this challenge is the fact that patients with advanced cancer may have disproportionate expectations of personal benefit when participating in clinical trials designed to generate generalizable knowledge. Patient and physician goals of treatment may not align, and reconciliation of their disparate perceptions must be addressed...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147853/biospecimen-donation-among-black-and-white-breast-cancer-survivors-opportunities-to-promote-precision-medicine
#4
Vanessa B Sheppard, Alejandra Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Yun-Ling Zheng, Ying Wang, Kristi D Graves, Tania Lobo, Hanfei Xu, Yvonne Jennings, Dennis Tolsma, Martha Trout, Brandi E Robinson, Brittany McKinnon, Mahlet Tadesse
PURPOSE: Advances in precision medicine (PM) have potential to reduce and/or eliminate breast cancer disparities in both treatment and survivorship. However, compared to white Americans, black Americans are often underrepresented in genetic research. This report assessed factors that influence receipt of buccal cells via saliva kits. METHODS: This prospective study recruited women with confirmed hormonal-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC). A standardized telephone survey collected sociodemographic, socio-cultural (e...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140597/improving-omics-based-research-and-precision-health-in-minority-populations-recommendations-for-nurse-scientists
#5
Jacquelyn Y Taylor, Veronica Barcelona de Mendoza
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the role of nurse scientists in -omics-based research and to promote discussion around the conduct of -omics-based nursing research in minority communities. Nurses are advocates, educators, practitioners, scientists, and researchers, and are crucial to the design and successful implementation of -omics studies, particularly including minority communities. The contribution of nursing in this area of research is crucial to reducing health disparities...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110760/apolipoprotein-l1-gene-effects-on-kidney-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Barry I Freedman, Jayme E Locke, Amber M Reeves-Daniel, Bruce A Julian
The pathogenesis of many common etiologies of nephropathy has been informed by recent molecular genetic breakthroughs. It now is apparent that the ethnic disparity in the risk for nondiabetic chronic kidney disease between African Americans and European Americans is explained largely by variation in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1). The presence of two APOL1 renal risk variants markedly increases an individual's risk for kidney disease. In transplantation, kidneys from deceased African Americans with two APOL1 renal risk variants have shorter survival intervals after engraftment, regardless of the ethnicity of the recipient...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064337/david-bowie-and-the-art-of-slow-innovation-a-fast-second-winner-strategy-for-biotechnology-and-precision-medicine-global-development
#7
Vural Özdemir, George P Patrinos
Original ideas and innovation cannot always be ordered like a courier service and delivered fresh to our desk at 9 am. Yet, most creativity-based organizations, careers, and professions, science and biotechnology innovation included, emphasize the speed as the prevailing ideology. But a narrow focus on speed has several and overlooked shortcomings. For example, it does not offer the opportunity to draw from, and stitch together disparate concepts and practices for truly disruptive innovation. Preventing false starts, learning from others' or our own mistakes, and customizing innovations for local community needs are difficult in a speed-hungry innovation ecosystem...
November 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852561/barred-from-better-medicine-reexamining-regulatory-barriers-to-the-inclusion-of-prisoners-in-research
#8
Elaine Huang, Jacqueline Cauley, Jennifer K Wagner
In 2015, President Obama announced plans for the Precision Medicine Initiative(®) (PMI), an ambitious longitudinal project aimed at revolutionizing medicine. Integral to this Initiative is the recruitment of over one million Americans into a volunteer research cohort, the All of Us(SM) Research Program. The announcement has generated much excitement but absent is a discussion of how the All of Us Research Program-to be implemented within the context of social realities of mass incarcerations and racial disparities in criminal justice and healthcare-might excaberate health disparities...
April 2017: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815129/sdt-a-tree-method-for-detecting-patient-subgroups-with-personalized-risk-factors
#9
Xiangrui Li, Dongxiao Zhu, Ming Dong, Milad Zafar Nezhad, Alexander Janke, Phillip D Levy
Eradicating health disparity is a new focus for precision medicine research. Identifying patient subgroups is an effective approach to customized treatments for maximizing efficiency in precision medicine. Some features may be important risk factors for specific patient subgroups but not necessarily for others, resulting in a potential divergence in treatments designed for a given population. In this paper, we propose a tree-based method, called Subgroup Detection Tree (SDT), to detect patient subgroups with personalized risk factors...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#10
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in more than 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for >40% of that burden; there will be more than 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to the incidence and mortality of these cancers exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in non-Hispanic whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among blacks...
October 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771252/precision-medicine-health-disparities-and-ethics-the-case-for-disability-inclusion
#11
Maya Sabatello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757202/leveraging-multi-ethnic-evidence-for-risk-assessment-of-quantitative-traits-in-minority-populations
#12
Marc A Coram, Huaying Fang, Sophie I Candille, Themistocles L Assimes, Hua Tang
An essential component of precision medicine is the ability to predict an individual's risk of disease based on genetic and non-genetic factors. For complex traits and diseases, assessing the risk due to genetic factors is challenging because it requires knowledge of both the identity of variants that influence the trait and their corresponding allelic effects. Although the set of risk variants and their allelic effects may vary between populations, a large proportion of these variants were identified based on studies in populations of European descent...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745447/commentary-perspectives-on-alcohol-related-gene-and-environment-interplay-in-diverse-populations
#13
Marcia S Scott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic groups comprise more than 20% of the U.S. population, but many experience disproportionately high risk for alcohol misuse, often resulting in higher rates of alcohol-associated consequences. Completion of mapping the human genome has launched rapidly evolving research methods aimed at improved understanding of genetic contribution to disease. Despite decades of research on the influence of genetic and environmental risks on alcohol use disorders and outcomes, few studies have included racial/ethnic subpopulations in sufficient numbers to allow for proper statistical analysis...
August 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592923/omics-based-molecular-techniques-in-oral-pathology-centred-cancer-prospect-and-challenges-in-africa
#14
REVIEW
Henry A Adeola, Olujide O Soyele, Anthonio O Adefuye, Sikiru A Jimoh, Azeez Butali
BACKGROUND: The completion of the human genome project and the accomplished milestones in the human proteome project; as well as the progress made so far in computational bioinformatics and "big data" processing have contributed immensely to individualized/personalized medicine in the developed world. MAIN BODY: At the dawn of precision medicine, various omics-based therapies and bioengineering can now be applied accurately for the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and risk stratification of cancer in a manner that was hitherto not thought possible...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493816/sample-types-applied-for-molecular-diagnosis-of-therapeutic-management-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-precision-medicine
#15
Yanxi Han, Jinming Li
In this era of precision medicine, molecular biology is becoming increasingly significant for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of non-small cell lung cancer. The specimen as the primary element of the whole testing flow is particularly important for maintaining the accuracy of gene alteration testing. Presently, the main sample types applied in routine diagnosis are tissue and cytology biopsies. Liquid biopsies are considered as the most promising alternatives when tissue and cytology samples are not available...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441061/precisely-where-are-we-going-charting-the-new-terrain-of-precision-prevention
#16
REVIEW
Karen M Meagher, Michelle L McGowan, Richard A Settersten, Jennifer R Fishman, Eric T Juengst
In addition to genetic data, precision medicine research gathers information about three factors that modulate gene expression: lifestyles, environments, and communities. The relevant research tools-epidemiology, environmental assessment, and socioeconomic analysis-are those of public health sciences rather than molecular biology. Because these methods are designed to support inferences and interventions addressing population health, the aspirations of this research are expanding from individualized treatment toward precision prevention in public health...
August 31, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355428/health-disparities-and-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-african-american-women-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Lisa A Newman, Linda M Kaljee
Importance: Variation in cancer incidence and outcome has well-documented correlations with racial/ethnic identity. In the United States, the possible genetic and ancestral hereditary explanations for these associations are confounded by socioeconomic, cultural, and lifestyle patterns. Differences in the breast cancer burden of African American compared with European/white American women represent one of the most notable examples of disparities in oncology related to racial/ethnic identity...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255928/a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials-to-assess-outcomes-of-genetic-counseling
#18
REVIEW
Barbara A Athens, Samantha L Caldwell, Kendall L Umstead, Philip D Connors, Ethan Brenna, Barbara B Biesecker
With the advancements in precision medicine and health care reform, it is critical that genetic counseling practice respond to emerging evidence to maximize client benefit. The objective of this review was to synthesize evidence on outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of genetic counseling to inform clinical practice. Seven databases were searched in conducting this review. Studies were selected for inclusion if they were: (a) RCTs published from 1990 to 2015, and (b) assessed a direct outcome of genetic counseling...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167869/bearings-in-hip-arthroplasty-joint-registries-vs-precision-medicine-review-article
#19
REVIEW
Mark J Pearson, Liam M Grover, Janet M Lord, Simon W Jones, Edward T Davis
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine has been adopted in a range of clinical settings where omics data have led to greater characterisation of disease and stratification of patients into subcategories of phenotypes and pathologies. However, in orthopaedics, precision medicine lags behind other disciplines such as cancer. Joint registries have now amassed a huge body of data pertaining to implant performance which can be broken down into performance statistics for different material types in different cohorts of patients...
February 2017: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127673/opportunities-and-challenges-in-precision-medicine-improving-cancer-prevention-and-treatment-for-asian-americans
#20
Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Rachel Sacks, Jiyoung Ahn, Stella S Yi
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, and cancer cases among Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans are expected to rise by 132% by 2050. Yet, little is known about biologic and environmental factors that contribute to these higher rates of disease in this population. Precision medicine has the potential to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of morbidity and mortality trends among Asian American subgroups and to reduce cancer-related health disparities by recognizing patients as individuals with unique genetic, environmental, and lifestyle characteristics; identifying ways in which these differences impact cancer expression; and developing tailored disease prevention and clinical treatment strategies to address them...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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