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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046010/-differential-diagnosis-of-mediastinal-and-hilar-lymphadenopathy-with-focus-on-occupational-diseases
#1
H Lux, L Barreira Cavalcante, X Baur
Hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy may represent a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. This article is intended to facilitate differential diagnosis by a systematic description of relevant pathologies, notably with occupational etiology. Clinical findings of relevant diseases, i. e. of tuberculosis, chronic beryllium disease, sarcoidosis, lung cancer, malignant lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and histoplasmosis are compared.Case history, imaging and laboratory tests have important diagnostic impact...
October 18, 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037299/time-to-treatment-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
R Boyd, N Ford, P Padgen, H Cox
BACKGROUND: To reduce transmission and improve patient outcomes, rapid diagnosis and treatment of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) is required. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing time to treatment for RR-TB and variability using diagnostic testing methods and treatment delivery approach. DESIGN: Studies from 2000 to 2015 reporting time to second-line treatment initiation were selected from PubMed and published conference abstracts...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030167/turnaround-time-of-whole-genome-sequencing-for-mycobacterial-identification-and-drug-susceptibility-testing-in-routine-practice
#3
Ioana D Olaru, Hemu Patel, Katharina Kranzer, Nelun Perera
OBJECTIVES: Until recently whole genome sequencing (WGS) for mycobacteria has been restricted mostly to the research setting. However, in 2017 Public Health England has implemented WGS for routine mycobacterial identification and susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of this change on the laboratory turnaround times and availability of results. METHODS: Over the years 2016 and 2017, the period January 1(st) to April 30(th) was selected to represent before and after implementation of WGS...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019524/-budget-impact-of-the-incorporation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-from-the-perspective-of-the-brazilian-unified-national-health-system-brazil-2013-2017
#4
Márcia Ferreira Teixeira Pinto, Ricardo Steffen, Aline Entringer, Ana Carolina Carioca da Costa, Anete Trajman
The study aimed to estimate the budget impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian National Program for Tuberculosis Control, drawing on a static model using the epidemiological method, from 2013 to 2017. GeneXpert MTB/RIF was compared with two diagnostic sputum smear tests. The study used epidemiological, population, and cost data, exchange rates, and databases from the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Sensitivity analysis of scenarios was performed...
October 9, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980587/-atypical-inflammation-of-the-middle-ear
#5
E V Garov, A I Kryukov, V N Zelenkova, N G Sidorina, A S Kaloshina
The objective of the present study was to characterize the patients presenting with atypical inflammation of the middle ear and consider the currently available methods for their examination. A total of 20 patients at the age from 16 to 66 years were admitted to the Department of Ear Microsurgery during the period from 2008 and 2016 for the treatment of atypical inflammation of the middle ear. Eleven of them (18 ears) were found to have tuberculous lesions (TL) of the middle ear while the remaining 9 patients (11 ears) suffered giant cell vasculitis (GCV)...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977322/tuberculosis-in-pediatric-patients-how-has-the-diagnosis-been-made
#6
Ana Paula Ghussn Cano, Mariana Tresoldi Neves Romaneli, Ricardo Mendes Pereira, Antonia Teresinha Tresoldi
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, radiological, epidemiological, and microbiological characteristics of pediatric patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis in a period of 15 years. METHODS: Retrospective study including children and adolescents younger than 18 years diagnosed with tuberculosis in the Clinical Hospital of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas in São Paulo State, Brazil. Active tuberculosis was defined by the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture, microscopy, or histopathological examination...
April 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977057/importance-of-clinical-and-laboratory-findings-in-the-diagnosis-and-surgical-prognosis-of-patients-with-constrictive-pericarditis
#7
Fábio Fernandes, Dirceu Thiago Pessoa de Melo, Felix José Alvarez Ramires, Ricardo Ribeiro Dias, Marcio Tonini, Vinicius Dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Carlos Henrique Valente Moreira, Charles Mady
BACKGROUND: International studies have reported the value of the clinical profile and laboratory findings in the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. However, Brazilian population data are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical characteristics, sensitivity of imaging tests and factors related to the death of patients with constrictive pericarditis undergoing pericardiectomy. METHODS: Patients with constrictive pericarditis surgically confirmed were retrospectively assessed regarding their clinical and laboratory variables...
October 2, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973001/esmpe-a-combined-strategy-for-school-tuberculosis-prevention-and-control-proposed-by-dalian-china
#8
Xichen Wang, Hongbo Jiang, Xuemei Wang, Hongyu Liu, Ling Zhou, Xiwei Lu
BACKGROUND: Although China has paid more attention on the prevention and control of tuberculosis (TB) in schools, several unsolved questions in this field still threaten the progress of TB control. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a systematic and practical strategy for Chinese school TB prevention and control system. In this study, we aimed to assess the feasibility of a combined strategy named ESMPE (examination, screening, monitoring, prevention and education) that adhere to the basic principles of Chinese schools TB control strategy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972568/cfd-modeling-of-chamber-filling-in-a-micro-biosensor-for-protein-detection
#9
Meiirbek Islamov, Marzhan Sypabekova, Damira Kanayeva, Luis Rojas-Solórzano
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of human death around the globe. The mortality rate for patients infected with active TB goes beyond 50% when not diagnosed. Rapid and accurate diagnostics coupled with further prompt treatment of the disease is the cornerstone for controlling TB outbreaks. To reduce this burden, the existing gap between detection and treatment must be addressed, and dedicated diagnostic tools such as biosensors should be developed. A biosensor is a sensing micro-device that consists of a biological sensing element and a transducer part to produce signals in proportion to quantitative information about the binding event...
October 3, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969600/evaluation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-viability-in-omnigene-sputum-reagent-upon-multi-day-transport-at-ambient-temperature
#10
Elisa Tagliani, Riccardo Alagna, Silva Tafaj, Hasan Hafizi, Daniela Maria Cirillo
BACKGROUND: Maintaining the quality of clinical specimens for tuberculosis (TB) testing is a major challenge in many high TB burden-limited resources countries. Sample referral systems in low and middle income countries are often weak and the maintenance of the cold-chain challenging and very costly for TB programs. The development of transport media allowing the preservation of samples without refrigeration is critical for increasing access to TB diagnostic services and for reducing the costs related to testing...
October 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963391/hiv-associated-benign-lymphoepithelial-cysts-of-the-parotid-glands-confirmed-by-hiv-1-p24-antigen-immunostaining
#11
Yoshiyuki Sekikawa, Igen Hongo
Approximately 1%-10% of patients with HIV infection have been reported to have salivary gland enlargement. Parotid swelling in patients with HIV is often associated with salivary gland disease, including benign lymphoepithelial cysts (BLECs). The presence of BLEC can serve as an indicator of HIV infection, and the diagnosis of HIV-associated BLEC is usually based on clinical course, HIV confirmatory blood testing, such as western blot or viral detection, and imaging studies, but not on biopsies or immunostaining...
September 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957889/conventional-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-the-original-guard-who-still-has-a-role-in-mediastinal-lymph-node-sampling
#12
Ravindra M Mehta, Abhinav Singla, Arjun Lakshmana Balaji, Shantha Krishnamurthy, Rajani S Bhat, Chakravarthi Lokanath
INTRODUCTION: Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) is the originally described method for sampling mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). After the advent of endobronchial ultrasound, the practice and reports of C-TBNA have dwindled. We report a large series of C-TBNA from the Indian subcontinent, highlighting aspects such as pathological spectrum, yield and complications, and reiterating its relevance in MLN sampling. METHODS: The study population included 400 consecutive patients over 6...
October 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957391/real-time-pcr-in-detection-and-quantitation-of-leishmania-donovani-for-the-diagnosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-patients-and-the-monitoring-of-their-response-to-treatment
#13
Faria Hossain, Prakash Ghosh, Md Anik Ashfaq Khan, Malcolm S Duthie, Aarthy C Vallur, Alessandro Picone, Randall F Howard, Steven G Reed, Dinesh Mondal
Sustained elimination of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) requires the reduction and control of parasite reservoirs to minimize the transmission of Leishmania donovani infection. A simple, reproducible and definitive diagnostic procedure is therefore indispensable for the early and accurate detection of parasites in VL, Relapsed VL (RVL) and Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) patients, all of whom are potential reservoirs of Leishmania parasites. To overcome the limitations of current diagnostic approaches, a novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method based on Taqman chemistry was devised for the detection and quantification of L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946148/assessment-of-clinically-suspected-tubercular-lymphadenopathy-by-real-time-pcr-compared-to-non-molecular-methods-on-lymph-node-aspirates
#14
Vivek Gupta, Arvind Bhake
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLN) is challenging. This study assesses the role of diagnostic intervention with real-time PCR in clinically suspected tubercular lymphadenopathy in relation to cytology and microbiological methods. METHODS: The cross-sectional study involved 214 patients, and PCR, cytology, and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining was performed on aspirates. The findings were compared with culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. The overall concordance of cytology and PCR, both individually and combined, was calculated...
September 26, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942172/antigen-85-complex-as-a-powerful-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-immunogene-biology-immune-pathogenicity-applications-in-diagnosis-and-vaccine-design
#15
REVIEW
Mohsen Karbalaei Zadeh Babaki, Saman Soleimanpour, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most life-threatening mycobacterial species which is increasing the death rate due to emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Concerned health authorities worldwide are interested in developing an effective vaccine to prevent the spread of Mtb. After years of research, including successful identification of many Mtb immunogenic molecules, effective therapeutic agents or a vaccine have yet to be found. However, among the identified Mtb immunogenes, antigen 85 (Ag85) complex (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) is receiving attention from scientists as it allows bacteria to evade the host immune response by preventing formation of phagolysosomes for eradication of infection...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911357/pulmonary-tuberculosis-diagnostic-practices-among-people-living-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-lesotho
#16
D E O'Connor, K Frederix, S Saito, L B Maama, Y Hirsch-Moverman, B Pitt, E Hayes-Larson, L Lebelo, M Shale, A A Howard
SETTING: Twelve health facilities in Berea District, Lesotho, that participated in the Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study, a mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial evaluating a combination intervention package to improve early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and anti-tuberculosis treatment success among patients with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To assess TB and HIV diagnostic practices among TB-HIV patients...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904673/mutations-in-rpob-and-katg-genes-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-undetectable-using-genotyping-diagnostic-methods
#17
Faustinos Tatenda Takawira, Racheal Shamiso Dube Mandishora, Zephaniah Dhlamini, Ellen Munemo, Babill Stray-Pedersen
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains the leading causes of death worldwide with frequencies of mutations in rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates varying according to geographical location. There is limited information in Zimbabwe on specific antibiotic resistance gene mutation patterns in MTB and hence, increased rate of discordant results and mortality due to inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions. The rpoB and katG genes molecular markers are used for detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance respectively...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904186/stool-culture-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children
#18
Elisabetta Walters, Anne-Marie Demers, Marieke M van der Zalm, Andrew Whitelaw, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Heather R Draper, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
Bacteriological confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is achieved in the minority of young children with tuberculosis (TB), as specimen collection is resource-intensive and respiratory secretions are mostly paucibacillary, leading to limited sensitivity of available diagnostic tests. Although molecular tests are increasingly available globally, mycobacterial culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of drug susceptibility and is more sensitive than molecular methods for paucibacillary TB...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902596/evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-drug-susceptibility-test-for-tuberculosis
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Yingda L Xie, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Derek T Armstrong, Sandra L Hall, Laura E Via, Taeksun Song, Xing Yuan, Xiaoying Mo, Hong Zhu, Peng Xu, Qian Gao, Myungsun Lee, Jongseok Lee, Laura E Smith, Ray Y Chen, Joon Sung Joh, YoungSoo Cho, Xin Liu, Xianglin Ruan, Lili Liang, Nila Dharan, Sang-Nae Cho, Clifton E Barry, Jerrold J Ellner, Susan E Dorman, David Alland
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs are the backbone of treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and resistance to these drugs defines extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We assessed the accuracy of an automated, cartridge-based molecular assay for the detection, directly from sputum specimens, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and isoniazid. METHODS: We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study to compare the investigational assay against phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and DNA sequencing among adults in China and South Korea who had symptoms of tuberculosis...
September 14, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879159/molecular-characterisation-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-from-malawi
#20
Tarsizio Chikaonda, Irene Ketseoglou, Nelson Nguluwe, Robert Krysiak, Isaac Thengolose, Felix Nyakwawa, Nora E Rosenberg, Christopher Stanley, James Mpunga, Irving F Hoffman, Maria A Papathanasopoulos, Mina Hosseinipour, Lesley Scott, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Availability and access to the detection of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs remains a significant challenge in Malawi due to limited diagnostic services. The Xpert(®) MTB/RIF can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin in a single, rapid assay. Rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis has not been well studied in Malawi. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine mutations in the rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene of M...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
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