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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215263/sleep-disordered-breathing-systemic-adipokine-secretion-and-metabolic-dysregulation-in-overweight-and-obese-children-and-adolescents
#1
Annelies Van Eyck, Kim Van Hoorenbeeck, Benedicte Y De Winter, Luc Van Gaal, Wilfried De Backer, Stijn L Verhulst
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among overweight and obese children, and it is an independent risk factor for developing metabolic syndrome. However, the mechanisms linking OSA and metabolic syndrome are still unclear, but a role for adipose tissue dysfunction caused by intermittent hypoxia has been suggested. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between OSA and systemic adipokine concentrations in overweight and obese children. METHODS: We included 164 overweight and obese children in a tertiary center and distributed them in groups based on their obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (111 controls, 28 mild OSA, 25 moderate-to-severe OSA)...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214555/identification-of-a-fatty-acid-binding-protein4-ucp2-axis-regulating-microglial-mediated-neuroinflammation
#2
Cayla M Duffy, Hongliang Xu, Joshua P Nixon, David A Bernlohr, Tammy A Butterick
Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to metabolic dysregulation and the onset of obesity. Dietary saturated fats activate microglia via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) mediated pathway to release pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in dysfunction or death of surrounding neurons. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are lipid chaperones regulating metabolic and inflammatory pathways in response to fatty acids. Loss of FABP4 in peripheral macrophages via either molecular or pharmacologic mechanisms results in reduced obesity-induced inflammation via a UCP2-redox based mechanism...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164479/changes-in-inflammatory-markers-in-estonian-pubertal-boys-with-different-bmi-values-and-increments-a-3-year-follow-up-study
#3
Eva Mengel, Vallo Tillmann, Liina Remmel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt, Jaak Jürimäe
OBJECTIVE: Serum inflammatory markers could help to identify those boys with overweight (OWB) who gain weight more extensively during puberty. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal changes in different serum inflammatory markers through puberty in boys with different BMI values and increments. METHODS: Twenty-six OWB and 29 normal-weight boys (NWB) were followed yearly for 3 years to measure changes in BMI and serum concentrations of 12 inflammatory markers...
February 6, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144388/hepatic-structural-enhancement-and-insulin-resistance-amelioration-due-to-at1-receptor-blockade
#4
EDITORIAL
Vanessa Souza-Mello
Over the last decade, the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the development of obesity and its comorbidities has been extensively addressed. Both circulating and local RAS components are up-regulated in obesity and involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease onset. Pharmacological manipulations of RAS are viable strategies to tackle metabolic impairments caused by the excessive body fat mass. Renin inhibitors rescue insulin resistance, but do not have marked effects on hepatic steatosis. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) yield beneficial hepatic remodeling...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135975/a-diet-enriched-with-red-sorghum-flaked-biscuits-compared-to-a-diet-containing-white-wheat-flaked-biscuits-does-not-enhance-the-effectiveness-of-an-energy-restricted-meal-plan-in-overweight-and-mildly-obese-adults
#5
Anita Stefoska-Needham, Eleanor J Beck, Stuart K Johnson, Marijka J Batterham, Ross Grant, John Ashton, Linda C Tapsell
OBJECTIVES: Whole grain sorghum is a promising ingredient in foods, especially those targeting satiety and weight control. This study aimed to test weight loss effects of a whole grain red sorghum product incorporated into an energy-restricted diet. METHODS: Sixty subjects (46 females) were randomized to either a sorghum (intervention) or white wheat (control) group, receiving 45 g of flaked cereal biscuits to include daily in their prescribed diets for 12 weeks...
January 31, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119880/impact-of-long-term-high-intensity-interval-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-on-subclinical-inflammation-in-overweight-obese-adults
#6
José Gerosa-Neto, Barbara M M Antunes, Eduardo Z Campos, Jhennyfer Rodrigues, Gustavo D Ferrari, José C Rosa Neto, Carlos R Bueno, Fábio S Lira
Obesity is a risk factor able to trigger several inflammatory alterations and the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine productions. Physical exercise is an important strategy for reduction of inflammatory established process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 16 weeks of three exercise training programs in the inflammatory profile and insulin resistance in overweight/obesity. Thirty two men and women (46.4±10.1 years; 162.0±9.1 cm; 82.0±13.6 kg) were divided into three groups for training on a treadmill: continuous at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax) 5 times a week (CONT); 1×4 min (1-bout) and 4×4 min (high intensity interval training, HIIT) at 90% HRmax 3 times a week...
December 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116469/adipokines-may-mediate-the-relationship-between-resting-metabolic-rates-and-bone-mineral-densities-in-obese-women
#7
S Moradi, K Mirzaei, A A Abdurahman, S A Keshavarz
: The researchers sought to test the possible link between resting metabolic rate and bone mineral density through four adipokines. Participants with lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) per kilogram demonstrated higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total T-score, and total Z-score. Omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR/kg of body weight and bone parameters. INTRODUCTION: The previous results of studies regarding the links between obesity and bone health are controversial...
January 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086768/probiotic-mixture-improves-fatty-liver-disease-by-virtue-of-its-action-on-lipid-profiles-leptin-and-inflammatory-biomarkers
#8
Hessah Mohammed Al-Muzafar, Kamal Adel Amin
BACKGROUND: A high fat diet has an essential role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) and is associated with obesity, diabetes, and fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver. Probiotics may be useful in the treatment of steatosis. This study examined the effects of an ingested probiotic formulation on the lipid profiles, liver functions, leptin levels, and inflammatory marker levels of rats with NAFLD that had been induced via high fat and sucrose diet (HFSD)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077838/low-grade-metabolically-induced-inflammation-mediators-interleukin-6-adiponectin-and-tnf-%C3%AE-serum-levels-in-obese-pregnant-patients-in-the-perinatal-period
#9
Malgorzata Zembala-Szczerba, Andrzej Jaworowski, Hubert Huras, Dorota Babczyk, Robert Jach
BACKGROUND Obesity is a major clinical problem. The number of obese pregnant women is rising rapidly. The consequences of obesity are significant and affect every aspect of perinatal care for both the mother and the developing fetus. Adipose tissue may be responsible for chronic subclinical inflammation in obesity, being a source of inflammatory mediators. The study was designed to evaluate the analysis of the serum concentration of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and adiponectin, in obese pregnant women at full-term pregnancies...
January 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068281/pathophysiological-role-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-the-process-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Daniela Iv Koleva, Maria M Orbetzova, Julia G Nikolova, Tanya I Deneva
Adipose tissue is recognized as a rich source of proinflammatory mediators that may directly contribute to vascular injury, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis. Many studies have shown that adiponectin has antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin acts not only as a factor increasing insulin sensitivity, and the protective effect may result from its ability to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines. It negatively regulates the expression of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue; reduces expression of vascular and intracellular adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1), E-selectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065384/the-effects-of-fat-induced-obesity-on-bone-metabolism-in-rats
#11
Wei Li, Peng Xu, Cuizhe Wang, Xiaodan Ha, Yajuan Gu, Yan Wang, Jun Zhang, Jianxin Xie
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of obesity, induced via a high-fat diet, on bone metabolism in rats. METHODS: Two hundred healthy Wistar male rats aged 4 weeks were fed a standard diet and a high-fat diet. At specific time points (week 0, 4, 6, 8, and 10), plasma was collected to determine the levels of glucose and lipid metabolism. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunoassays were performed to determine the plasma levels of adipocyte and bone metabolism factors...
January 3, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056748/pro-inflammation-cytokines-new-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-obesity-related-bone-disorders
#12
Tian Tian Wang, Chenglin Qi He, Xi Jie Yu
Obesity was traditionally thought as a positive regulator on the strength of bone. With the in-depth study, obesity is considered as a major risk factor for osteoporosis. Some pro-inflammation cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are the factors that fat uses to negatively regulate bone metabolism. Obese people and animals show a higher level of serum TNF-α and IL-6, which are produced by macrophages derived from adipose tissue. These pro-inflammation cytokines regulate the proliferation and apoptosis of adipocyte, promote lipolysis, inhibit lipid synthesis and decrease blood lipids through autocrine and paracrine way...
January 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036103/elevated-tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-was-associated-with-intima-thickening-in-obese-children
#13
Luo Bo, Yang Yi-Can, Zhou Qing, Wu Xiao-Hui, Huang Ke, Zou Chao-Chun
AIM: This study investigated the relationship between intima-media thickness (IMT) and immune parameters in obese children from five to 16 years of age. METHODS: We enrolled 185 obese children with a mean age of 10.65 ± 2.10 years and 211 controls with a mean age of 10.32 ± 1.81 years. Glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, sex hormones, immune indices and carotid IMT were measured. RESULTS: Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, white blood cells and common and internal carotid artery IMTs in the obese group were higher than those in the control group (p < 0...
December 30, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025429/the-levels-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-derived-serpin-omentin-1-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-in-the-gingival-crevicular-fluid-of-obese-patients-following-periodontal-therapy
#14
Umut Balli, Seyma Bozkurt Dogan, Figen Ongoz Dede, Erdim Sertoglu, Gonca Cayır Keles
The aim of this clinical study was to determine levels of visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin), omentin-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of obese and non-obese periodontitis patients following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Seventy-six subjects were separated into four groups according to periodontal and anthropometric measurements: a periodontal-healthy group, a chronic periodontitis (CP) group, a periodontal-healthy with obesity group, and a CP with obesity group...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018292/obesity-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Indrani Ray, Sushil K Mahata, Rajat K De
Obesity, characterized by chronic activation of inflammatory pathways, is a critical factor contributing to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Free fatty acids (FFAs) are increased in obesity and are implicated as proximate causes of IR and induction of inflammatory signaling in adipose, liver, muscle, and pancreas. Cells of the innate immune system produce cytokines, and other factors that affect insulin signaling and result in the development of IR. In the lean state, adipose tissue is populated by adipose tissue macrophage of the anti-inflammatory M2 type (ATM2) and natural killer (NK) cells; this maintains the insulin-sensitive phenotype because ATM2 cells secrete IL10...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997218/inhibition-of-the-gut-enzyme-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-may-explain-how-aspartame-promotes-glucose-intolerance-and-obesity-in-mice
#16
Sarah S Gul, A Rebecca L Hamilton, Alexander R Munoz, Tanit Phupitakphol, Wei Liu, Sanjiv K Hyoju, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Sara Morrison, Dong Hu, Weifeng Zhang, Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Haizhong Huo, Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Richard A Hodin
Diet soda consumption has not been associated with tangible weight loss. Aspartame (ASP) commonly substitutes sugar and one of its breakdown products is phenylalanine (PHE), a known inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut enzyme shown to prevent metabolic syndrome in mice. We hypothesized that ASP consumption might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome based on PHE's inhibition of endogenous IAP. The design of the study was such that for the in vitro model, IAP was added to diet and regular soda, and IAP activity was measured...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983705/riboflavin-reduces-pro-inflammatory-activation-of-adipocyte-macrophage-co-culture-potential-application-of-vitamin-b2-enrichment-for-attenuation-of-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-development
#17
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Ewa Pocheć
Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4-1000 nM) affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264...
December 15, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977529/physical-activity-and-adiposity-related-inflammation-the-mesa
#18
Chantal A Vella, Matthew A Allison, Mary Cushman, Nancy S Jenny, Mary P Miles, Britta Larsen, Susan G Lakoski, Erin D Michos, Michael J Blaha
PURPOSE: Physical activity is associated with decreased adiposity-related inflammation in adults. Whether this association is independent of central obesity is unknown but important for understanding the mechanisms associated with reducing cardiometabolic disease risk through physical activity. This study examined whether associations of physical activity and obesity-related inflammatory markers were independent of central adiposity. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2005, 1970 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis completed detailed health history and physical activity questionnaires, underwent physical measurements including computed tomography to quantify abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, and measurements of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and resistin...
December 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974911/the-etiopathogenesis-of-uterine-fibromatosis
#19
EDITORIAL
L Manta, N Suciu, O Toader, R M Purcărea, A Constantin, F Popa
Uterine fibroids or uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the uterus among women of fertile age, while the etiology is still incompletely elucidated. The occurrence and development of the fibromatosis may be related to certain risk factors and genic mechanisms, although the exact causes are not yet fully known. The development of uterine fibroids is correlated not only with the metabolism and with the level of female sexual hormones, estrogen, and progesterone, but also with the number of these hormone receptors expressed on the surface of the myometrium...
January 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936460/b-cells-present-skewed-profile-and-lose-the-function-of-supporting-t-cell-inflammation-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#20
Xiaojiang Dai, Weiguo Zhao, Junfang Zhan, Songhua Zeng, Dongzhi Ran, Hongbin Zhang, Zhigao Song, Ken H Song, Liangping Wu
Bariatric surgeries, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are currently the best treatment for obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism of bariatric surgeries is not entirely understood. Further investigations are needed to improve the success rate and achieve sustained health benefits. Given that B cell dysregulation is a critical component of etiology in inflammatory diseases, whereas obesity and type 2 diabetes represent two major inflammatory disorders, we investigated the effect of RYGB on B cell inflammation...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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